Published on March 19, 2013
RULES OF THUMB FOR PRONOUN CASE and CONSISTENCY : RULES OF THUMB FOR PRONOUN CASE and CONSISTENCY Cases of Pronouns: Cases of Pronouns Subject Pronouns Singular Plural I we you you he, she, it they Object Pronouns Singular Plural me us you you him, her, it them PowerPoint Presentation: Pronouns as Subjects A pronoun used alone as a subject usually doesn't cause problems. Subject pronoun: We gave to charity. You wouldn't say " Us gave to charity. PowerPoint Presentation: " But an error often occurs when a sentence has a compound subject and one or more of the subjects is a pronoun. In a compound subject, two or more nouns and pronouns are joined by a coordinating conjunction. Not: The boys and us played ball. Correct: The boys and we played ball. A pronoun and other people: A pronoun and other people Ignore/delete and and the other people: (You and) I figured out the answer. The professor asked (you and) me to read the text. Everyone except (Shequita and) me attended the meeting. PowerPoint Presentation: The object pronoun error usually occurs with compound objects. In a compound object, two or more nouns and pronouns are joined by a coordinating conjunction. Not: She gave Alisha and I some candy. Correct: She gave Alisha and me some candy. Who versusWhom: Who versus Whom Use who or whoever when you can replace the word with he: He is the candidate who should win. ( He should win.) Give the money to whoever wins. ( He wins.) Use whom or whomever when you can replace the word with him : He is a candidate whom we can trust. (We can trust him .) Give the money to whomever the team chooses. (The team chooses him .) Pronouns with between: Pronouns with between Remember that between is a preposition, so you always need the object pronouns. Object pronouns are me , him , her , us , them , whom , and whomever . The debate was between he r and me OR between him and his professor. Pronouns with another noun: Pronouns with another noun Ignore/delete the noun: We (women) must stick together. The instructor told us (students) to sit down. Possessive Pronouns with Gerunds: Possessive Pronouns with Gerunds Use a possessive pronoun preceding a gerund: I am happy about your winning the lottery . Some possessive pronouns are my, his, her, your, their, and our. Pronouns after than or as: Pronouns after than or as Insert the elliptical/omitted words: My classmates are much older than I [am]. Janice is taller than I [am]. Linking Verbs: Linking Verbs Use subject pronouns after linking verbs: The winner of the contest is she . The subject pronouns are I , she , he , we , they , who , and whoever . Some linking verbs are am , is , are , was , and were . PowerPoint Presentation: Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns show ownership ( my boat, his bed, our horse ). An apostrophe is used with nouns to show ownership ( Jack's cat, the worker's tools, the committee's vote) PowerPoint Presentation: ). But an apostrophe is never used with possessive pronouns. Not: The cat licked its' paws. Correct: The cat licked its paws. Not: The apple on the counter is your's . Correct: The apple on the counter is yours. PowerPoint Presentation: There are four demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those. Demonstrative pronouns point to specific people or objects. Use this and these to refer to items that are near, and that and those to refer to items farther away. Look at the following examples.. PowerPoint Presentation: Demonstrative (near): This is my new laptop that I am holding. Demonstrative (near): These are library books in my book bag. Demonstrative (farther): That is the bank across the street. Demonstrative (farther): Those are the picture frames that arrived yesterday. Let’s Practice!!!: Let’s Practice!!! Alcohol and tobacco are harmful to (whoever, whomever) consumes them. WHOEVER If I should decide to buy a hunting license, (who, whom) should I see? WHOM Dr. Evans asked Suzanne and (I, me) to explain the recent studies in literary criticism. ME Just between you and (I, me), I think Lance Armstrong is the best cyclist in the world. ME Let’s Finish Up With a Few More.: Let’s Finish Up With a Few More. (We, Us) students are worried about the rising cost of textbooks. WE STUDENTS… I was happy to hear about you getting married. …YOUR GETTING MARRIED. That man thinks he is smarter than me! …THAN I! I am certain that the woman wearing the red velvet jacket is her. …IS SHE. Pronoun Consistency: Pronoun Consistency Pronoun Consistency: Pronoun Consistency Remember that pronouns must stay consistent in person. Incorrect: I wanted to ride the roller coaster, but the attendant said you had to be at least 6-feet tall. Correct: I wanted to ride the roller coaster, but the attendant said I had to be at least 6-feet tall. Incorrect: Many college students have access to a writing center where you can get tutoring. Correct: Many college students have access to a writing center where they can get tutoring. Pronoun Reference: Pronoun Reference Your pronoun must refer clearly to an antecedent. There are 2 potential reference problems: Vague pronoun reference Repetitious pronoun reference Vague Pronoun Reference: Vague Pronoun Reference Vague pronoun reference occurs when the pronoun could refer to more than one noun OR when the pronoun does not refer clearly to any particular person, place, or thing. Vague Pronoun Reference: Vague Pronoun Reference Michael told Jim he needed a better resume’. Who does the he refer to, Michael or Jim? I put the glass on the shelf, even though it was dirty. What is dirty, the glass or the shelf? When Tom got to the clinic, they told him it was closed. Who are they ? In the newspaper, it said that the crime rate dropped. Who or what is it ?