ProvenceArchitecture

Information about ProvenceArchitecture

Published on November 5, 2007

Author: Barbara

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Roman architecture in Provence:  Roman architecture in Provence Outline:  Outline Introduction Part I. Presentation of Provence Part II. 10 great Provencal landmarks Conclusion References Introduction:  Introduction The term “Gallo-Roman” describes the Romanized culture of Gaul (France) under the rule of the Roman Empire, particularly the areas of Gallia Narbonensis Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province (121 BC) located in what is now Languedoc and Provence The Romans called it Provincia Nostra ("our province") or simply Provincia ("the province"), a name which has survived in the modern name of the region, Provence Roman culture continued to have a profound influence on Provence after the fall of Rome (476 AD) Part I. Presentation of Provence:  Part I. Presentation of Provence General presentation Provence was the oldest of the Roman possessions beyond the Alps; it took its name from Provincia, meaning province It is now one of the most visited places in the world, notably because of its great climate, its beautiful landscapes and its rich past There are many old towns and historic remains, most of them dating from Antiquity Marseilles is now the capital of Provence, but Aix-en-Provence used to be the historic capital Part I. Presentation of Provence:  Part I. Presentation of Provence Brief history The coastal strip of Provence was settled by the Greeks around 600 BC (foundation of Marseille) It was progressively settled by the Romans from the 2nd century BC Provence (Provincia Romana in Latin) one of the first and most romanized provinces of the Roman Empire Provence suffered many invasions after the fall of Rome (476 AD) Visigoths in the 5th century, Franks in the 6th century and Arabs in the 8th century Part I. Presentation of Provence:  Part I. Presentation of Provence 1032-1246 part of the Holy Roman Empire; became part of the French Crown in 1246 The Comtat Venaissin, centred on Avignon, was under Papal rule until 1791; and Nice and Menton were not added to Provence until 1860 Provence is now part of the administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur It also includes parts of the département of the Gard, Ardèche and Drôme Part II. 10 great Provencal landmarks:  Part II. 10 great Provencal landmarks Here is a presentation of 10 great cities and landmarks of Provence Among these landmarks, all influenced by Rome, are arenas, fountains, abbeys, theaters and bridges 1. Aix-en-Provence:  1. Aix-en-Provence Aix (Aquae Sextiae) was founded in 123 BC by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs (aqua: water) Aix has thermal springs, remarkable for their heat and containing lime and carbonic acid. The bathing establishment was built in 1705 near the site of the ancient baths of Sextius, of which vestiges remain From the 12th century until the Revolution, Aix was the capital of Provence The university was founded in 1409; recently combined with one at Marseille 2. Roman Arles:  2. Roman Arles Arles, city in the département of Bouches-du-Rhône Roman monuments, of which the earliest – the arena, the Roman theatre and the cryptoporticus (subterranean galleries) – from the 1st century B.C. During the 4th century, the baths of Constantine and the necropolis of Alyscamps Among its attractions is a Roman arena (2d cent. A.D.), seating 26,000 and now used for bullfights Arles became the capital of Provence (879) and of the kingdom of Arles (933) 3. Pont du Gard:  3. Pont du Gard Département of Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon Region The Pont du Gard was built shortly before the Christian era to allow the aqueduct of Nîmes (which is almost 50 km long) to cross the Gard river The bridge, which stands almost 50 m high and is on three levels – the longest measuring 275 m – created a technical as well as an artistic masterpiece. "Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct)" was added to Unesco's World Heritage List in 1985 It attracts a million tourists each year; the 2nd most visited provincial monument after Mont-Saint-Michel Pont du Gard:  Pont du Gard 4. Roman Theatre in Orange:  4. Roman Theatre in Orange Orange was built around A.D. 35; city of the Roman Empire; now in the département of Vacluse The town is renowned for its Roman architecture; it possesses the best preserved Roman theatre in Europe, as well as a particularly fine triumphal arch, both built during the reign of Augustus In 1869 the Roman theatre restored and has played host ever since to a music festival, the Chorégies (tax imposed on Romans to pay for theatrical productions). The arch, theatre and surroundings were listed in 1981 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site 5. Medieval Arles:  5. Medieval Arles The Church of St. Trophime (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture The representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister "Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles" was added to Unesco's World Heritage List in 1981 Portal of Cathedral of St. Trophime in Arles, representing the Last Judgment :  Portal of Cathedral of St. Trophime in Arles, representing the Last Judgment 6. Palais des Papes in Avignon:  6. Palais des Papes in Avignon In the 14th century, this city in the South of France was the seat of the papacy The Palais des Papes, an austere-looking fortress lavishly decorated by Simone Martini and Matteo Giovanetti, dominates the city, the surrounding ramparts and the remains of a 12th-century bridge The palace (Gothic architecture), the Petit Palais and the Romanesque Cathedral of Notre-Dame-des-Doms testify to the leading role played by Avignon in 14th-century Christian Europe "Historic Centre of Avignon" was added to Unesco's World Heritage List in 1995 Palais des Papes and pont d’Avignon:  Palais des Papes and pont d’Avignon 7. Nîmes :  7. Nîmes The city derives its name from Nemausus “From The Nile”; it is a reference to the colony of Roman legions veterans in Caesar's Nile campaigns Nîmes is famous for its remarkable collection of Roman relics: the Maison Carée [square house], a Roman temple (1st or 2d cent. A.D.), the temple of Diana (2d cent. A.D.), and a watchtower The magnificent Roman arena (1st cent. A.D.), seating up to 24,000, is still in use now as a bull fighting and concert arena This elliptical Roman amphitheatre is the best-preserved Roman arena in France 8. Maison Carrée in Nîmes :  8. Maison Carrée in Nîmes The Maison Carrée at Nimes is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire Built around 19 BC by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, who was the original patron of the Pantheon in Rome The temple owes its preservation to the fact that it was rededicated as a Christian church (4th century) It became a meeting hall for the city's consuls, a canon's house, a stable during the French Revolution and a storehouse for the city archives. It became a museum after 1823 9. Sénanque:  9. Sénanque Cistercian abbey near the village of Gordes in the département of the Vaucluse; founded in 1148 Romanesque architecture of the main structures: abbey church, cloister, dormitory, chapterhouse and the small calefactory (where the monks write) The monks who live at Sénanque grow lavender and tend honey bees for their livelihood Two other Cistercian abbeys in Provence are the Abbey of Silvacane and the Abbey of Le Thoronet; with Sénanque, they are called “the Three Sisters” 10. The ancient town of Glanum :  10. The ancient town of Glanum Glanum was a Roman city in Provence; situated now to the south of Saint Remy de Provence Romanized settlement in the 1st century BC; city named after the Celtic god Glanis The Augustan age saw the city elevated to the status of colony, and many monumental buildings were erected, including an enlarged forum, baths, a triumphal arch, and various temples Glanum possesses an impressive triumphal arch, erected between 10 and 25 AD, making it the oldest to be found in Gaul Conclusion:  Conclusion Provence has a great number of monuments built or influenced by Italy Many cities were founded by the Romans; Marseille, founded by the Greeks (600BC), is the oldest city in France; known as Massilia, it became an ally of Rome, which annexed it (49 B.C.) after it supported Pompey against Caesar Excavations in 1966–67 uncovered what are believed to be vestiges of the ramparts of ancient Massilia Marseille, capital of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur References:  References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange%2C_France http://france-for-visitors.com/photo-gallery/aix-en-provence/index.html http://www.aixenprovencetourism.com/aix-photos-1.htm http://www.aixenprovencetourism.com/uk/aix-vieilleville.htm http://www.senanque.fr/visita.htm http://www.bartleby.com/65/pr/Provence.html http://www.answers.com/Gallo-Roman%20culture http://www.answers.com/nimes

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