Published on May 5, 2017
slide 1: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 59 Quantitative Study of Hydration of PPC-FA Based using Powder X-Ray Diffraction Diptendu Roy 1 Susanta Kr. Sethy 2 1 Student M.Tech/Structural Engineering Department of Civil Engineering UPES Bidholi Dehradun 248001 India 2 Professor M.Tech/Structural Engineering Department of Civil Engineering UPES Bidholi Dehradun 248001 India. Abstract — Pozzolana is the most commonly used mineral in cement industry. Pozzolana doesn’t possess cementitious property on its own but derives its strength by reacting in the presence of moisture with calcium hydroxide formed as a result of hydration. The pozzolanic reaction is slow and required high pH and calcium ion content. This paper deals with study the PPC-FA based cement conforming to IS 1489 Part 1:2015. The LSM AR SR Degree of sulphurization Burnability Index Burnability Factor and Percentage Liquid is obtained for the cement using X-Ray diffraction analysis. The hydration of the cement is also studied for 1 day3 days7 days14 days21 days28 days and 56 days of curing. The samples for initial setting and final setting of cement obtained as per IS 4031 Part 5:1988 were also analysed for X-Ray diffraction analysis. The paper presents a procedure for sample preparation X-Ray analysis of cement and cement slurries identification of phases in cement identification of silicate hydrates AFm and AFt phases percentage variation of these phases and rate of change. The changes in the phases occurring are checked by performing physical tests on cement and cement mortar cubes. Keywords — pH LSM AR SR AFm Aft X-Ray diffraction. I. INTRODUCTION The most commonly used mineral mixture cement industry is pozzolans. The pozzolans are defined as the siliceous and aluminous materials which by themselves possess very little or no cementitious property but in finely divided form in the presence of moisture they react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperatures to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. Chemically speaking the pozzolanic reaction occurs between calcium hydroxide CH also known as portlandite and silicic acid H 4 SiO 4 or SiOH 4 their crystal structure details are given in Table 1. CaOH 2 + H 4 SiO4 CaH 2 SiO 4 .2H 2 O Many pozzolans also contain Aluminate AlOH - 4 that will react with calcium hydroxide and water to form hydrates such as C 4 AH 13 C 3 H 6 or hydrogarnet or in combination of silica forming stratlingite C 2 ASH 6 given in Table1.In the presence of anionic group such as sulphates carbonates or chlorides Afm phases and Aft phases or ettringite phases can form. The process is a long term process sufficient amount of free calcium ion and pH of 12 and above is necessary for the solubility silicon and calcium ions and to support pozzolanic reaction.The pozzolans are classified into natural and man-made. Natural pozzolans include trass certain pumicites and perlite which are generally of volcanic origin. The man made pozzolans include flyash blast furnace slag and silica flume. Flyash is the most frequently used man-made pozzolan in concrete. The name flyash came from being finely divided residue that results from the combustion of ground or powdered coal. 1.1 Cement Minerals Alite C 3 S-tricalcium Silicate it forms the major part in cement composition about 50.Alite has polymorphs belonging to three different families viz. Triclinic T 1 T 2 T 3 Monoclinic M 1 M 2 M 3 and Rhombohedral R depending upon the temperature . Alite hydrated rapidly and hardens the cement slurry and provides high initial 1-3 days and final mechanical strengths . Monoclinic M 3 alite is similar to the mineral named Hatrurite.Belite C 2 S-dicalcium silicate exhibits three to four polymorphs and it reacts with water and forms hydrated dicalciumsilicate . It hydrates slowly and is responsible for the strength of cement after 7 days and is responsible for providing ultimate strength of the cement. Larnite is the naturally occurring mineral similar to belite. Aluminate C 3 A-tricalcium aluminate is the least abundant phase in a Portland cement. This phases reacts the fastest with water exothermally releasing maximum heat about 207 cal/g. If not controlled it on immediate hydration with water is responsible for flash set and thereby making the cement paste unworkable. So retarder such as gypsum is used.C 3 A can incorporate Na + by substitution of Ca 2+ ion in an otherwise vacant site thus giving solid solutions ofgeneral formula Na 2x Ca 3-x Al 2 O 3 .Its crystal structure is cubicx0 but monoclinicx0.4375 and orthorhombicx0.75 aluminate also exist. Ferrite C 4 AF-tetracalcium-aluminoferrite phase is very similar to aluminate phase with orthorhombic crystal structure. Like Aluminates this phase is formed from the melt during cooling. At clinkering temp it facilitates the formation of silicates by increasing the ion mobility. At ordinary pressures in the absence of oxide components other than CaO AI 2 O 3 and Fe 2 CO 3 slide 2: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 60 the ferrite phase can be prepared with any composition in the solid solution series Ca 2 Al x Fe 1-x 2 O 5 Where 0x0.7. The mineral similar in composition to ferrite is called Brownmillerite. Other minor phases present in cement include oxides such as Na 2 O K 2 O SO 3 MgO loss on ignitioninsoluble residueetc. These oxides are not present in cement in their pure form but exist in combined forms . The minerals resembling these combined phases include aphthitalite langbeinite arcanite thenardite periclase syngeniteresponsible for lumps formation in storedcement calcite anhydrite and lime free lime. 1.2 Hydrated Products C-S-H gel calcium silicate hydrate is not only the most abundant about 50 of the hydration product but is also responsible for the most of the engineering properties of the cement. Generally two different types of C-S-H gel structures has been observed found in researches done by Viehland et al1 Slegers et al 2Jenning et al 3 and other chemists. These two forms are in close resemblance with 1.4nm tobermorite and Jennite. A gelatinous calcium silicate hydrate called plombierite occurs in nature. Calcium Hydroxide CH is also know by mineral name portlandite. It forms form C3S and to a lesser extent form C2S. It occupies around 15-20 of the volume of the hydrated cement paste. It forms as a crystal with wide range of shapes and sizes depending upon the space available for growth.AFm are shorthand for a family of hydrated calcium aluminate phases structurally related to hydrocalumite and occurring mainly in hydrated cement paste. A representative formula is Ca 2 AlFeOH 6 ·X · xH 2 O where X equals an exchangeable singly charged e.g. chloride or half of a doubly charged anion e.g. sulfate carbonate and aluminosilicate . Some FeIII may also substitute for aluminium. The term mono relates to the single formula unit of CaX 2 in another way of writing the formula viz. C 3 AF.CaX 2 .yH 2 O or C 4 AFX 2 .yH2O where y 2 x + 3. Many different anions can serve as X of which the most important for Portland cement hydration are OH - SO 4 2- and CO 3 2- . The AFm phases consists of hydroy –Afm hemi-carboaluminates mono-carbo aluminate mono-sulpho aluminate stratlingite v er t u m n i t e k u ze lite a n d Frie d el ’ s s alt f o u n d i n ce m e n t co n cr ete e x p o s ed to chlorine. AFt Al 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 -tri phases have the general constitutional formula Ca 3 Al FeOH 6 • 1 2 H 2 O 2 • X 3 • x H 2 O where x is normally at least 2and X represents one formula unit of a doubly charged or with reservations two formula units of a singly charged anion. The term Aft refers to the three units of CX in an alternative way of writing the formula C3A F. 3CX.yH 2 O or C 6 AFX 3 .yH 2 O where y x+30. The most important Aft phase is ettringite Ca 3 AlOH 6 .12H 2 O2-SO 4 3-2H 2 O or C 3 A• 3 C aSO 4 • 3 2 H 2 O a phase of or near this composition is formed during the early hydration of most Portland cement. Ettringite is trigonal with a1.123nm c 2150nm Z 2 D x 1775kgm -3 the space group is P31c. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Tomislav Matusinovic et al4 paper deals with the environmental degradation of the concrete infrastructure.Concrete from a hydro- elec tr ic p o w er p lan t ’ s p ip elin e 3 0 y ea r s o ld w as characterised with X-ray diffraction XRD and thermogravimetric analysis TGA/DTA. The study highlights the capabilities of the methods for the analysis of concrete towards the determination of hardened cement paste degradation. XRD results showed small quantity of ettringite calcium carbo- alu m in a te h y d r ate a n d Frie d el’ s s al t a n d a co m p le te leach of portlandite while TGA results indicated small quantities of hydrates. Samples taken from flawless inside of concrete layer showed expected quantities of hydrates for the concrete. F.Guirado et al5 paper present the quantitative Rietveld analyses of twenty samples of CAC from four different manufacturers over the world one synthetic mixture and a NIST standard were performed using synchrotron radiation. As compared with conventional XRD synchrotron powder diffraction permitted to find new minor phases improve the characterization of solid solutions of iron rich CAC phases and reduce preferential orientation and micro absorption effects Jumate Elena et al6 paper presents a study performed on type I Portland cement with respect to the cement hydration processes performed at various time intervals. The methods used concern X-ray diffraction and electronic microscopy applied to define materials and to understand the changes occurring in mineral compounds alite belite celite and brownmillerite during their modification into hydrated mineral compounds tobermorite portlandite and ettringite. T. Matschei B. Lothenbach and F.P. Glasser et al 7 studied the solubility and stability of AFm phases in Portland cement. The paper also gives an idea of the thermodynamic stability of the mono sulphate phases and the amount of substitution. The paper helped my research immensely in choosing the AFm phases for the study of hydration of ordinary Portland cement. III. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 3.1 X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray d i f f r ac tio n a n al y s is w as d o n e w it h B r u k er ’ s D 8 A d v a n ce d i f f r ac to m eter . T h e C u K α r ad iatio n o f w av ele n g t h 1.5418740 Åtheta range of 10-90 degrees 25kV voltage and Bragg-Brentano arrangement was employed in the study. The phase quantification was done using Match software with maximum of 20 entries. slide 3: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 61 3.2 Sample Preparation A o u t 10 g o f ce m e n t w as tak en o u t o f th e ag s iev ed u s i n g m icr o n s S s iev e th e a m o u n t p ass in g w er e o v e n d r ied at C for 10 minutes to remove any absorbed moisture. The cement is then enclosed and sent to the laboratory for XRD testing. 3 samples of the cement were analysed. ASTM C1365-068 was also referred. For the hardened cement slurries the cement cubes were made by adding water required for standard consistence calculated as per IS:4031 Part 4-19889 placing in a mould unmoulded after 24 hours and placing it in the curing tank. The cubes are then taken out of curing tank at their respective ages of curing surface water was removed by sun drying for about 15 minutes and then the samples were crushed to smaller bits using ball mill. Samples obtained for ball mill were further crushed and sieved using 75 micron IS sieve. The fine particles passing through 75 micron sieve were further grounded using a mortar and pestle. The ground samples are then enclosed and sent to lab for testing. The samples for initial and final setting times as per IS 4031Part 5-198810 w er e p r ep ar ed in a s lig h tl y d if f er en t m a n n er . T h e s am p le s w er e p last ic an d th u s h ad to e o v en d r ied at 1 1 0 C for 15 mins. Rest of the procedure is same only ball mill is not required in this case. The figure below shows an enclosed sample prior to testing. The sampling for compressive test on cement mortar was done as per IS:3535-1986. Phase selected for analysis of cement and hydrated cement pastes are given in Table 1 below. The table also gives the mineral names of the phases. The phase given in the table is chosen carefully and fully represents the various types of cement compounds formed. TABLE 1 PHASES SELECTED FOR ANALYSIS PHASE TYPE PHASE MINERAL NAME CHEMICAL FORMULAE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE MAJOR CEMENT PHASES ALITE HatruriteM3 3CaO.SiO 2 Monoclinic T1-C3s 3CaO.SiO 2 Triclinic BELITE Β-C2S/LARNITE 2CaO.SiO 2 Monoclinic ϒ-C2S/Calcio Olivine 2CaO.SiO 2 Orthorhombic ALUMINATE Cubic-Aluminate 3CaO.Al 2 O 3 Cubic Orthorhombic-A Al 5.175 Ca 8.393 Fe 0.45 Na0 .875 O 18 Si 0.375 Orthorhombic Monoclinic-B Al 6 Ca 8.25 Na 1.5 O 18 Monoclinic FERRITE Brownmillerite-A Al 0.909 Ca 2 Fe 1.091 O 5 Orthorhombic Brownmillerite-B Al 1.346 Ca 2 Fe 0.654 O 5 Orthorhombic Brownmillerite-C AlCa 2 FeO 5 Orthorhombic MINOR CEMENT PHASES APHTHITALITE K 3 NaO 8 S 2 Trigonal LANGBEINITE Ca 2 K 2 O 12 S 3 Cubic THENARDITE Na 2 O 4 S Orthorhombic ARCANITE K 2 O 4 S Orthorhombic GYPSUM CaSO 4 .2H 2 O Monoclinic LIME CaO Cubic ANHYDRITE CaSO 4 Orthorhombic PREICLASE MgO Cubic CALCITE CaCO 3 Trigonal SYNGENITE CaH 2 K 2 O 9 S 2 Monoclinic HYDRATED PRODUCTS C-S-H GEL Tobermorite Ca 2 H 3 O 11 Si 3 Trigonal Jennite Ca 9 H 22 O 32 Si 6 Triclinic Plombeirite Ca 2.5 H 11 O 12.5 Si 3 Monoclinic AFt Ettringite Al 2 Ca 6 H 64 O5 0 S 3 Trigonal Thaumasite CH 30 Ca 3 O 25 SSi Hexagonal CH Portlandite CaH 2 O 2 Trigonal Afm Hemi Carbo Aluminate C 0.25 AlCa 2 O 9.5 Trigonal Mono Carbo Aluminate CH 22 Al 2 Ca 4 O 20 Triclinic Stratlingite Al 2.11 Ca2H 18 O 16.25 Si 1.11 Trigonal Vertumnite Al 2.126 Ca2H 22 O 15.72Si1.434 Hexagonal slide 4: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 62 3.3 Phase Analysis of PPC-FA Based and PPC-FA Based Paste The raw xrd patterns are obtained from the D8 advance spectrometer and these raw data is analysed using the Match Software. The software gives output in terms of mass percentages of the selected phases. The results obtained from the software are represented up to two decimal places. The minor phases were also identified and the results are presented in Table 2. The oxide composition of the cement was found out calculated based on the chemical formulae of the selected phases. The chemical requirements for PPC-FA based cement are given in IS 1489-Part 1:201511. Cement parameters like Lime Saturation Factor LSF Alumina Ratio AR Silica Ratio SR Alkali content expressed as Na 2 O equivalent SO 3 content were obtained. The values of these parameters are given in Table 3.In addition to the above parameters Percentage liquid Burnability Index and Burnability Factor is obtained. The LSF controls the ratio of alite to belite in the clinker. A clinker with a higher LSF will have a higher proportion of alite to belite than will a clinker with a low LSF. This determines the potential relative proportions of aluminate and ferrite phases in the clinker. In ordinary Portland cement clinker the AR is usually between 1 and 4. A high silica ratio means that more calcium silicates are present in the clinker and less aluminate and ferrite. SR is typically between 2.0 and 3.0. The degree of sulphurization for a cement as the ratio between C3A cubic /C3A orthorhombic .The degree of sulphurization depends on the percentage of alkali percent in the cement. The water consumption is greater by orthorhombic C3A and thus its rate of hydration is high. The phase composition of hydrated cement paste was done for initial setting final setting1 day3 days7 days14 days21 days28 days and 56 days of curing. The initial and final setting time of the cement was found out to be 55 minutes and 235 minutes obtained as per IS 4031-Part 5-1988.The composition in percentage by mass is given in Table 3 with varying ages of curing .The raw XRD data of samples taken at various ages of curing were analysed using Match software . The gamma-belite is similar to olivine group which does not participate in hydration and are mostly absent in cement. For the purpose of study it is included as one of the phases similarly monoclinic and orthorhombic aluminate are rare in cement. The background radiation for different output diffraction peaks and unidentified peak area is also given below IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS FIGURE 1- PHASE COMPOSITION OF CEMENT slide 5: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 63 TABLE 2 PHASE COMPOSITION OF CEMENT ALONG WITH CEMENT PARAMETERS PHASES PERCENTAGE BY MASS CEMENT PARAMETERS VALUES CODAL PROVISION AliteM 3 +T 1 40.06 Lime Saturation FactorLSM 1.1 Belite β + γ 16.5 Aluminate cubic+ortho+mono 8.7 Alumina RatioAR 2.48 Ferrite 11.27 Silica RatioSR 3.08 Aphthitalite 0.2 Magnesia 1.37 6 Langbeinite 9.27 SO3 8.89 3 Thenardite 1.1 Alkali Content 4.38 Arcanite 2.23 Percent Liquid 28.59 Gypsum 0.2 Lime 0.2 Burnability Index 2.25 Anhydrite 0.4 Periclase 1.37 Burnability Factor 14.63 Calcite 1.47 Degree of Sulphurization 0.622 Syngenite 6.23 NOTE: M3 stands for monoclinic alite and T1 stands for triclinic alite. β-C2S stands is also called as larnite and γ- C 2 S is s i m ilar to o liv in e g r o u p an d it d o esn ’ t p ar ticip ate in h y d r atio n an d is rarely present in cement. Cubic aluminate is similar to Cyclohexa-aluminate ortho is shorthand for orthorhombic aluminate and mono stands for monoclinic aluminate. Both monoclinic as well as orthorhombic forms are Na + doped aluminates. The Lime Saturation Factor LSM was found out to be 1.1. The LSM limits are not given in IS:1489 Part 1 2015.The Alumina Ratio AR is 4.8Silica Ratio SR 3.08 Magnesia is 1.37 which is with the limiting value 6 as per standards SO 3 is 8.89 which much greater than that mentioned in the code and the alkali content is 4.38. TABLE 3 OXIDE COMPOSITION OF CEMENT OXIDES MASS PERCENT CaO 60.036 SiO 2 15.552 Al 2 O 3 3.604 Fe 2 O 3 1.45 Na 2 O 0.739 K 2 O 5.529 SO 3 8.892 MgO 1.37 H 2 O 1.379 T h e m as s p er ce n t o f M3 ali te is 3 9 . 2 w h ile f o r T 1 alite it is 0 . 8 3 . T h e β - C 2 S i s 8 . 8 3 an d γ -C2S is 7.67. The mass percent of cubic aluminate is 1.2 ortho-aluminate is 1.93 and mono-aluminate is 7.67.The degree of sulphurization which is the ratio between cubic-C3A to orthorhombic-C3A is 0.622.The smaller the ratio more is the water consumption by aluminates. slide 6: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 64 TABLE 4 PHASE DATAS IN MASS PERCENTAGE WITH AGE OF CURING PHASES MINERAL NAME AGE OF CURING HOURS 0 1 0.916 2 3.916 3 24 72 168 336 504 672 1344 Alite M 3 -Alite/ Hatrurite 39.2 7.2 7.33 9.5 7.87 3.17 5.27 2.93 3.7 1.3 T 1 -Alite 0.83 18.2 10.03 5.23 6.73 5.1 5.63 9.9 9.53 6.67 Belite β-C 2 S o/Larnite 8.83 1.3 1.87 1.83 0.13 5.33 3.83 3.8 0.17 0.87 γ-C 2 S /Olivine 7.67 2.07 5.43 1.63 3.47 5.5 0.9 2.53 3.1 3.63 Aluminate Cubic-a 1.2 0 0 0 1.4 1.2 0.27 0 0.33 0.33 Ortho-b 1.93 13.83 8.97 17.6 7.43 7.63 8.07 7.47 10.4 7.33 Mono-c 5.57 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Ferrite Brownmillerite 11.3 5.07 6.03 5.77 6.57 7.23 6.23 5.97 5.33 3.8 C-S-H GEL Tobermorite 0 6.33 4.57 5.8 9.57 8.3 9.5 5.8 7.97 8.03 Jennite 0 19.2 23.03 21.7 21.9 19.53 24.4 21.9 18.8 24.43 Plombeirite 0 5.17 8.57 5.57 10.7 8.37 9.77 10.2 9.03 4.7 Aft Ettringite 0 6.57 5.5 6.73 7.73 6.33 4.87 6.93 5.93 8.13 Thaumasite 0 0.23 0.4 0.3 0.37 0.37 0.33 0.3 0.33 4 CH Portlandite 0 0.23 0.23 2.3 0.43 3.97 5.13 6.9 6.13 3.77 Afm Hemicarbo- Aluminate 0 0.17 0.13 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.23 1.23 MonoCarbo- aluminate 0 2.7 2.77 3 3.57 3.67 4.13 3.27 4.43 2.5 Stratlingite 0 5.07 3.8 5.8 3.93 9.03 2.27 7.63 6.83 8.07 Vertumnite 0 6.63 11.33 7.13 7.47 5.1 8.7 3.7 7.8 9.23 Diffraction Peak 98.083 96.33 96.333 96.3 96.3 96.11 96.12 94.8 95.1 96.035 Background Radiation 1.917 3.67 3.667 3.67 3.66 3.887 3.88 5.17 4.85 3.965 Unidentified Peak Area 20.823 13.54 29.923 13.4 30.1 31.22 30.59 28.5 30.2 31.005 Note:1.Composition of cement2.Composition for initial set3.Composition of Final set The Jennite phase has maximum percentage by mass in the C-S-H group the ettringitic is the dominant phase in Aft group and the Stantlingitic and Vertumnite phases comprised almost 85 of the Afm phase for most of the ages of curing. FIGURE 2- VARIATION OF PHASES WITH AGE OF CURING slide 7: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 65 The maximum value of C-S-H was obtained on 14 days of curing about 13.67 Tobermorite 8.03 Jennite 24.43 and Plombierite 47 by mass. The maximum value of Aft is 12.13 Ettringite 8.13 and Thaumasite 4 by mass on 56 days of curing. Calcium Hydroxide CH is maximum on 21 days of curing which is 6.9 by mass and Afm phase was maximum on 56 days of curing and its value is 21.03 Hemicarbo aluminate 1.23 Monocarbo aluminate 2.5 Stratlingite 8.07 and Vertumnite 9.28 by mass. TABLE 5 HYDRATION INDEX VARIATION WITH INTERVALS OF 7 DAYS. HI Hydration Index 1st 7 days 2nd 7 days 3rd 7 days 4th 7 days C-S-H 0.215 0.044 -0.035 -0.013 Aft 0.04 -0.009 0.012 -0.006 CH 0.024 0.007 0.011 -0.005 Afm 0.107 -0.015 -0.004 0.027 Hydrated Products 0.386 0.027 -0.016 0.003 The Hydration Index HI is a parameter used in tis paper to define the rate of increase of phase percentages divided by the duration of 168 hours or 7 days. The HI has units by mass/hr .HI also denotes the slope of curve drawn between mass percent of phases with age of curing at 168 hours of intervals. This parameter gives the slope of plot between mass percentages of phases with age of curing in hours. The Hydration IndexHI is the most for 1 st 7 days which is around 0.386 and the second most is during the 2 nd 7 days of 0027 .In the 3 rd 7 days the HI is -0.016 which can be attributed due to fall in HI of C-S-H by -0.035 and fall in HI of Afm by –0.004.During the 4 th 7 days there is a marginal increase of 0.003 in the HI of the hydration products. This is due to decrease in HI of C-S-H by -0.013Aft by -0.006CH by -0.005 and increase of HI by Afm by 0.027. FIGURE 3-VARIARTION OF MAJOR PHASES WITH AGE OF CURING The Figure 3 shows the variation of four major phases with the age of curing as the hydration progresses. The curves for Alite Belite and Aluminate shows a zig-zag pattern which the Ferrite phase shows a very little variation minimum being - 0.26 and maximum being -6.2 during initial setting. FIGURE 4- VARIATION OF HYDRATED PRODUCTS WITH AGE OF CURING slide 8: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 66 In the Figure 4 the hydration products vary rather randomly with age of curing. The most of the calcium hydroxide in lost by leaching of the sample when in water. The C-S-H gel at the end of 56 days of curing comprises of 37 of the products while there has been a jump in Aft percentage during this phase of 5.87 which is nearly its double. Afm value saw a marginal rise of 1.27 but its composition in quite high as compared to Aft. After 21 days of hydration the plot of Afm and Aft is more like a mirror image upto 56 days of curing with Afm increasing at a HI 0.027 while Aft decreasing an HI of -0.006 from 21days to 28 days. FIGURE 5- TOTAL HYDRATION PRODUCTS FORMED WITH AGE OF CURING There is a decrease in hydration products on day 1 by 3.033 C-S-H-8.65 Afm-10.54 Aft 19.15 and CH900 on day 7 by 1.608 C-S-H-14.28 Aft-17.28 CH 823.26 and Afm 18.66 and on day 21 by -3.746C-S-H -13.28 Aft39.04 CH 34.5 and Afm -3.9 . The variation of the total mass percent of hydration products in given in Figure 5 .The most of the products are formed during initial setting as this is the phase of maximum heat release. The percentage increase in hydration products form initial set to final set which is about 18.527. The percentages are obtained taking products formed during the initial set as reference. The 2 nd most and 3 rd most increase was observed during period of 1 day to 3 days of 12.701 and 9.844 during 28 to 56 days. At the end of 56 days of curing the total amount of hydration products formed is 74.09 which comprises of 37.16 C-S-H 12.13 Aft 5.77 CH and 21.03 Aft. At the time of initial setting the total amount of hydration products were 50.9. FIGURE 6- STRENGTH INCREASE FOR PPC-FA BASED A parameter called Strength Index SI was used which gives the rate of increase in strength of the cement during the period of 168 hours or 7 days. Thus the strength index is calculated by considering the compressive strengths obtained during the course of 1-7 days 7-14 days 14-21 days and 21-28 days dividing by 168 hrs. The unit being MPa/hr. The SI for the 1 st 7 days is 0.123 2 nd 7 days is 0.022 3 rd 7 days is 0.015 and for the 4 th 7 days is 0.01756. slide 9: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 67 TABLE 5 SI VARIATION WITH INTERVALS IN 168 HRS. The maximum increase in strength was obtained during the period 1 day to 3 days of about 312.92 followed by 40.41 during the period 3 days to 7 days and 37.39 during 7 days to 14 days. FIGURE 7- PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN STRENGTH WITH AGE OF CURING FIGURE 8- COMPARISON BETWEEN SI AND HI FOR PPC- FA BASED. The unhydrated products percentages include Alite7.97 Belite 4.5 Aluminate 10.66 the cubic aluminate is around 0.33 which the orthorhombic aluminate is 7.33 and monoclinic aluminate is 3.The Figure: shows the plot between values for HI and SI with the interval of 168 hrs. The curves meet somewhere in between 7 and 14 days. V. CONCLUSION The Lime Saturation Factor LSM was found out to be 1.1. The Alumina Ratio AR is 4.8 Silica Ratio SR 3.08 Magnesia is 1.37 which is with the limiting value 6 as per standards SO 3 is 8.89 which much greater than that mentioned in the code and the alkali content is 4.38. The degree of sulphurization is about 0.62 at MgO content of 1.37. The HI is the most for 1 st 7 days which is around 0.386 and the second most is during the 2 nd 7 days. In the 3 rd 7 days the HI is -0.16 which can be attributed due to fall in HI of C-S-H by -0.035 and fall in HI of Afm by –0.004. During the 4 th 7 days there is a marginal increase of 0.003 in the HI of the hydration products. This is due to decrease in HI of C-S-H by -0.013Aft by -0.006CH by -0.005 and increase of HI by Afm by 0.027. There is a decrease in hydration products on day 1 by 3.033 on day 7 by 1.608 and on day 21 by -3.746. The most of the products are formed during initial setting as this is the phase of maximum heat release. The percentage increase in hydration products form initial set to final set which is about 18.527. SI Strength IndexMPa/hr 1st 7 days 2nd 7 days 3rd 7 days 4th 7 days PPC-FA Paste 0.1228 0.0463 0.0153 0.0076 slide 10: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-3 Issue-4 April- 2017 Page | 68 There is increase in compressive strength of the cement with age of curing. The chage being drastic during the initial stages which smoothes with passage of time. The maximum increase in strength was obtained during the period 1 day to 3 days of about 312.92 followed by 40.41 during the period 3 days to 7 days and 37.39 during 7 days to 14 days. The SI for the 1 st 7 days is 0.123 2 nd 7 days is 0.022 3 rd 7 days is 0.015 and for the 4 th 7 days is 0.01756. At the end of 56 days of curing the total amount of hydration products formed is 74.09.At the time of initial setting the total amount of hydration products was 50.9.The unhydrated products percentages include Alite 7.97 Belite 4.5 Aluminate 10.66 the cubic aluminate is around 0.33 which the orthorhombic aluminate is 7.33 and monoclinic aluminate is 3. REFERENCES Book Chapters 1 H.F . W T a y lo r ” Ce m e n t c h e m istr y ” 2 nd Edition Chapter 3.1.3Page 57-60. 2 H.F . W T a y lo r ” Ce m e n t c h e m istr y ” 2 nd Edition Chapter 3.1.3Page 57-60. 3 H.F . W T a y lo r ” Ce m e n t c h e m istr y ” 2 nd Edition Chapter 5.3.5Page 128. Journal Articles 4 Ne v e n U k ra in c z y k M a rk o U k ra in c z y k Ju ra j Š ip u šić T o m isl a v M a tu sin o v ić “ X RD a n d T GA in v e stig a ti o n o f Ha rd e n e d Ce m e n t P a ste De g ra d a ti o n ” Conference on Materials Processes Friction and Wear MATRI B’0 6 V e la L u k a 2 2 -24.06.2006. 5 F . G u irad o S . G a lí ” Qu a n ti tativ e Rietv e ld a n a ly sis o f C A C c li n k e r p h a se s u sin g sy n c h ro tro n ra d i a ti o n ” E lse v ier Jo u rn a ls Ce ment and Concrete Research 36 2006 2021-2032 6 Ju m a te El e n a M a n e a Da n iela L u c ia “ A p p li c a ti o n o f X -Ray Diffraction XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM methods to t h e P o rt lan d Ce m e n t H y d ra ti o n p ro c e ss e s” Jo u rn a l o f A p p li e d E n g in e e rin g S c ien c e sVo lu m e 2 1 ss u e 1 / 2 0 1 2 P P 3 -42. 7 T . M a tsc h e i B. L o th e n a c h F . P . G las se r ” A F m p h a se s is P o rtl a n d Ce m e n t ” El se v ier Jo rn a ls Ce m e n t a n d Co n c re te Re se a rc h 372007118-130. Standards 8 ASTM C 1365- 0 6 “ De ter m in a ti o n o f th e p ro p o r ti o n o f p h a se s in P o rtl a n d Ce m e n t a n d P o rtl a n d Ce m e n t Cli n k e r u si n g X -Ray powder diffraction Analysis. 9 IS 403 1 P a rt 4 : 1 9 8 8 “ Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement - Part 4 Determination of Consistency of standard cement paste. 10 S 4 0 3 1 P a rt : 1 9 8 8 “ Methods of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement Part 5 Determination of Initial and Final Setting ti m e s” . 11 IS 1489Part 1- 2 0 1 ” P P C - F A s p e c if ica ti o n s” . 12 S 4 0 3 1 P a rt 6 : 1 9 8 8 ” Methods Of Physical Tests For Hydraulic Cement Part 6 Determination of compressive strength of hydraulic cement other than masonry cement.