Published on December 7, 2007
Injury Prevention in Restaurants and Kitchens: Injury Prevention in Restaurants and Kitchens This overview will:: This overview will: Identify the most common injuries in restaurants and kitchens Identify the hazards most likely to cause injuries Provide ideas for reducing the hazards and preventing injuries Discuss a special population of worker – Teens Provide additional resources so that you can obtain more information Restaurants in Washington : Restaurants in Washington 11,000 Restaurants are listed with L&I 1000 more with the Department of Revenue 36% are considered Quick-service restaurants The major occupations in restaurants are: Cooks, kitchen workers, other food prep workers Waiters, waitresses, and their assistants Managers, supervisors, owners Other occupations are Food counter and fountain workers Janitors and cleaners Drivers, cashiers, and bartenders Injuries in Eating and Drinking Places (2003): Injuries in Eating and Drinking Places (2003) This overview will focus on prevention of: Strains, Sprains, Bruises, and Fractures Cuts, Lacerations, and Punctures Burns and Scalds Strains, Sprains, Bruises, and Fractures: Strains, Sprains, Bruises, and Fractures Result primarily from: Slips, trips, and loss of balance Falls to floors, walkways, and other surfaces Overexertion in lifting Bending Climbing Crawling Reaching Twisting Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls:: Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls: Slippery surfaces are a major cause of accidents in restaurants and kitchens. To reduce the risk of this type of accident: Use non-slip footwear Keep floors free from water or grease Clean floors regularly Clean up spills immediately Put up warning signs around spills or wet floors Consider installing non-slip tiling or other non-slip floor products Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls:: Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls: Use rubber mats in areas where the floors are constantly wet Use slip-resistant waxes on floors Keep floors and stairs free of debris and obstructions Make sure mats and carpet are free of holes and bumps Report poor lighting and replace burned out bulbs as soon as possible Do not leave oven, dishwasher, or cupboard doors open Report or fix hazards immediately Sample Shoe Policy: Sample Shoe Policy To prevent slips and falls use shoes with: Slip-resistant soles and a good tread Tightly tied laces No leather or smooth soles No open-toes No platform or high heels No porous fabric such as canvas Preventing Falls: Preventing Falls To reduce the risk of falls from ladders: Use ladders with slip-resistant feet Do not use defective ladders Do not use chairs, boxes, or tables as a substitute for a ladder Set ladder on a flat, firm surface Face the ladder when standing on it and when climbing up or down Keep the center of your body between the side rails of the ladder Don’t work from the top two steps of a ladder Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff Manual handling, especially in storage areas, can lead to injuries. Design and organize the workplace to make manual handling easier: Keep loads off the floor Heavier objects should be stored between chest and knuckle height Lighter objects can be stored above chest height Medium weight objects can be stored below knuckle height Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff Provide dollies and other lifting and handling equipment Provide training in manual handling skills Reduce the weight of the load Share the load between two or more persons Split the load into two or more smaller boxes, Make more than one trip Keep the work area free of clutter. Cluttered workspaces can cause awkward postures that make handling tasks more difficult Remove trip hazards from the area, and Eliminate obstacles that workers must reach over Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff Choose utensils designed to reduce force and awkward posture: tools with large rounded grips so you can use your whole hand rather than just fingers knives that are sharp and designed for the task Store frequently used utensils, dishes, and food between shoulder and hip height, close to where they are needed Tilt bins toward you Use a work surface near waist height for forceful tasks such as chopping Use work surface near elbow height for finely detailed work such as pastries and candies Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Kitchen Staff Stand as near the work surface as possible Reduce your reach by using the near part of the work surface, grill, or stove Place one foot on a step or rail to reduce stress on back and legs. Alternate which foot is on the rail from time to time Use anti-fatigue matting Wear shoes with cushioning Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Servers and Bus People : Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Servers and Bus People Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Servers and Bus People : Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Servers and Bus People Use additional wait staff to serve parties of three or more Move around the table when serving guests Wait staff can assist one another in delivery and clearing of tables – “Full hands into the kitchen, full hands out of the kitchen” When pouring, move the glass or cup close to you so that you don’t have to reach as far When lifting and carrying, keep the load close to your body Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Servers and Bus People: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Servers and Bus People Make sure trays are clean and dry Control tray weights Keep plates flat on the tray surface, balance the load and place heavy items in the middle When carrying large trays Carry most of load over your shoulder to support it Use both hands to support and balance the tray Keep wrists in a neutral position by grasping the outside edge of the tray When carry small trays Carry the tray with your shoulder, arm, and hand in neutral positions Carry the tray as close to your body as possible, balanced on both your arm and hand Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Bar Staff: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Bar Staff Use a step stool to reach high shelves or cupboards Store frequently used glasses and liquors between shoulder and hip height, close to where they are needed When lifting, keep the load close to the body Turn your feet to point at your work to prevent twisting your back Keep your elbows close to your body when dispensing drinks Place one foot on a step or rail to reduce stress on back and legs. Alternate which foot is on the rail from time to time Use anti-fatigue matting Wear shoes with cushioning Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Dishwashers: Preventing Sprains, Strains, and Overexertion in Dishwashers Stand as close to the work surface as possible When placing glasses into racks, fill the near rows first, then rotate the rack to bring the back rows to the front Turn your feet to point at your work to prevent twisting your back Lower your rinse nozzle to rest at mid-body height to reduce your reach Don’t overload dish racks so that weight is lower Rack heavier items, such as plates, closest to you Choose cleaning tools with good grips when heavy duty cleaning is needed Place one foot on a step or rail to reduce stress on back and legs. Alternate which foot is on the rail from time to time Use anti-fatigue matting Wear shoes with cushioning Cuts, Lacerations, and Punctures: Cuts, Lacerations, and Punctures Result primarily from: Peeling, Dicing, Mincing, or Slicing with: Nonpowered cutting tools – mostly knives Food slicers Meat grinders Mixers, blender, and whippers A smaller number resulted from broken dishes, cups, and glasses. Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures: Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures Blade safety tips: Cut AWAY from, not toward, your body Use a stabilizing tool and not your fingers to steady the food Use a cutting board. Never hold items in your hands while cutting or slicing Use the correct knife for the job. For example: Carving knives for large jobs Boning knifes to remove meat from the bone Paring knives for slicing small jobs Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures: Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures Blade safety tips: Wear appropriate gloves for your job Use cut resistant gloves for high production jobs. However, remember they are cut resistant, not cut proof- injuries can still occur. Make sure gloves fit properly Keep knives and blades sharp Dull blades slip Sharp blades improve accuracy and performance Sharp blades decrease strain and fatigue Tighten or replace loose handles Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures: Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures Make sure all guards and safety devices are in place on slicers and other machinery such as mixers, blenders, electrical tools and maintenance equipment Use food pushers to advance food in machines Never put your fingers near moving parts or blades Don’t try to cut anything too thin in a slicer. Use a knife. Don’t try to catch falling items, especially knives. Discard broken or chipped dishes and glassware Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures: Preventing Cuts, Lacerations & Punctures Lockout Equipment that starts up unexpectedly, especially during cleanup or maintenance, can cause many serious injuries To reduce the risk of injury, unplug equipment before doing clean-up, maintenance, or repairs. If the equipment is hardwired, follow the specific lockout procedure for that equipment Burns and Scalds : Burns and Scalds Result primarily from: Spilling and splashing of hot fats, oils, and food products Hot beverages Contact with hot surfaces such as stove tops, ovens, grills, pots, pans, and trays Steam To Reduce the Risk of Burns and Scalds: : To Reduce the Risk of Burns and Scalds: Turn off stoves when not in use Assume all pots and metal handles are hot. Touch only when you are sure they are not hot or when wearing proper gloves/mitts Organize your work area to prevent contact with hot objects and flames Keep pot handles away from hot burners Make sure handles of pots and pans do not stick out from counter or stove Use oven mitts that are provided and long gloves for deep ovens Use only recommended temperature settings for each type of cooking Follow manufacturer’s operating instructions. Manuals are available through your supervisor To Reduce the Risk of Burns and Scalds: : To Reduce the Risk of Burns and Scalds: Open hot water and hot liquid faucet slowly to avoid splashes Open lids away from you to allow steam to escape Wear long-sleeved cotton shirts and cotton pants Report any faulty equipment to your supervisor Do not overfill pots, pans, or fryers Do not leave metal spoons in pots while cooking Do not overstretch to reach an uncomfortable distance Do not open cookers and steamers while they are under pressure Do not lean over pots of boiling liquids Remember that foods removed from the microwave continue to cook To Reduce the Risk of Burns and Scalds: : To Reduce the Risk of Burns and Scalds: Dry items thoroughly before using with hot oil Food items for frying should be placed in the basket first, then lowered into hot oil, rather than dropping food directly into the oil. Lower basket slowly into oil Use rollers for moving large vats Allow grease to cool before transporting, filtering, or disposing Two people are to be used for changing and disposing of grease, due to heavy lifting Do not stand on hot fryer to clean ventilation components or filters. Use a ladder or stepstool. Examples of Commonly Used Hand, Foot, & Eye Protection in the Restaurants and Kitchens: Examples of Commonly Used Hand, Foot, & Eye Protection in the Restaurants and Kitchens Gloves: Chemical-resistant gloves when cleaning with or handling chemicals (check MSDS for specific type of glove required) Work gloves when handling garbage or working in storage areas Cut-resistant gloves for some cutting and equipment cleaning operations Footwear: Non-slip footwear Safety glasses, goggles, and face shields: Safety glasses when general eye protection is required Safety goggles and face shields when there is a great danger of chemical splashes Important Consideration in Restaurants: Teen Workers: Important Consideration in Restaurants: Teen Workers 67% of restaurants in Washington are likely to employ minors (where no alcohol is served) Teen workers bring many positive attributes to the workplace: High energy, enthusiastic, willing to learn, eager to please Important Consideration in Restaurants : Teen Workers: Important Consideration in Restaurants : Teen Workers There are additional issues to consider for minors: Are not just small adults Different patterns of work Minimal work experience Differences in size, development, maturity, and judgment Exploring, experimenting, learning Lack a sense of vulnerability Laws protecting them are sometimes more stringent Resources for Employing Teen Workers: Resources for Employing Teen Workers Laws for employing teens http://www.lni.wa.gov/WorkplaceRights/TeenWorkers/default.asp Keeping teen workers safe in restaurants http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/youth/restaurant/index.html http://www.lni.wa.gov/WorkplaceRights/TeenWorkers/JobSafety/RestaurantProgram/ http://wisha-training.lni.wa.gov/training/presentations/teensafety.ppt References Used: Special thanks to the Workers’ Compensation Board of British Columbia for the use of photos and text from: Health and Safety for Hospitality Small Business. http://tourism.healthandsafetycentre.org/s/Booklet.asp Ergonomic Tips for the Hospitality Industry http://tourism.healthandsafetycentre.org/s/WCBInitiatives.asp?ReportID=29179 References Used Other References Used: Sample Restaurant Accident Prevention Program (APP) http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Basics/Programs/Accident/Samples/RestaurantAPPSample.doc Blade Safety Tip Sheet for Food Processing http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Research/HealthyWorkplaces/files/CutPrevention.pdf Other References Used Additional Resources : Additional Resources WISHA Core Safety Rules (WAC 296-800) http://www.lni.wa.gov/wisha/rules/corerules/default.htm (Basic safety and health rules needed by most employers in Washington State) Workplace Safety and Health http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/default.asp Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology http://www.croetweb.com/links.cfm?topicID=34 WorkSafe BC Health and Safety Centre http://tourism.healthandsafetycentre.org/s/Prevention-FoodBeverage.asp OSHA Dietary eTool http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/dietary/dietary.html WISHA Consultation Services : WISHA Consultation Services Safety & Health program review and worksite evaluation By employer invitation only Free Confidential No citations or penalties Letter explains findings Follow-up all serious hazards For additional assistance, you can call one of our consultants. Click below for local L&I office locations: http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Basics/Assistance/Consultation/consultants.asp Slide36: Thank you for taking the time to learn about safety and health and how to prevent injuries and illnesses.