Published on December 19, 2009
Restraining and Casting of Equines : Restraining and Casting of Equines Group # 1 Introduction : Introduction To handle the animal while examination in such a way to Divert the attention of animal Avoid the injury to examiner Avoid injury to animal Help in easy conduction of procedure Types of Restraining : Types of Restraining There are 3 basic type of restraining Behavioral restraining Chemical restraining Physical restraining Approaching the Equines : Approaching the Equines The safest area to approach is at the shoulder, preferably on the left approach from the front of the animal. Do not never approach from the backside of the animal. Always speak softly to the horse and move slow and steady. Horses can recognize people who are fearful. Remember horses have panoramic vision and see things almost directly behind them. Be vigilant and alert while dealing animals like horse all the time even you are using the good restraining method Don’t completely rely on what owner is telling about the animal Behavioral Restraining : Behavioral Restraining To distract the attention of animal friendly, without any physical object and without causing much discomfort Untoward Body Language of Horse High head Alert or Fearful Wide eyes Alert or Fearful Forward ears Frightened or Focused on something Backward ears Mad or Aggressive Lifting hind leg Warning for kick Control Points on the Horse Forehead Ears Eyes Nostrils Skin over neck Poll Lips and gums Bars of the mouth Behavioral Restraining : Behavioral Restraining Methods of Behavioral Restraining Rubbing Forhead Rub on the forehead of horse gently It develops association with the human beings and animal starts to cooperate. Pulling Ear Rub by the base of the ear until the horse calms down. Take a hold of the ear and gently pull the ear straight up away from the skull. Covering Eye Firstly, rub the eyes. Cup your hands and rub them over the horse’s eyes. Behavioral Restraining : Behavioral Restraining Picking Nose Slide your thumb up into one nostril and index & middle finger in other one and hold It is not an appealing step, but it pays off in the long run. Skin Folding Just grasp the skin and hold it along the front of the neck where blood is drawn, and a few on the side of the neck where shots are given. You can manage to stay calm when you actually do give a shot Chemical Restraining : Chemical Restraining To restrain with the aid of sedatives and tranquillizers This include the sedative drugs that cool down a hyper horse The choice of drug and dose depend on the length of procedure This method is now a days preferred by animal welfare organization Brooks mainly rely on chemical restraining This is the preferred method while the examination or procedure is painful. Chemical Restraining : Chemical Restraining There are a variety of chemical sedatives some of them are given here Azaperone (0.7-0.9 mg/kg) i/m Xylazine (2.0 mg/kg intramuscularly) Acepromazine (0.1-0.2 mg/kg intramuscularly ) Xylazine 125mg + Butorphenol 7.5mg/1000lbs Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining To restrain the animal forcefully causing pain or disturbing the standing equilibrium of the animal Methods of Physical Restraining Using Twitch This instrument consists of a loop of stout cord attached to a strong-stick by means of a hole an inch or two from the end. These are generally used for restraining of animals by inflicting pain to them. Repeated and continuous use of twitches is avoided because it make difficult to control them about head. Twitches should only be applied immediately before necessary restraint is required. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Types of Twitches There are different types of twitches as Stick twitch Loop twitch Leg twitch Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Stick Twitch Stick twitch can be applied on ear ,upper lip,or lower lip. Stick twitch consists of a piece of stout wood about 1 meter long carrying a 1.5 cm hole about 3 cm from one end. Through this hole rope is inserted . While applying the twitch horse should be halted . Take twitch stick under the right arm and stand on near side opposite the left shoulder. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Put the thumb and last three fingers of left hand through loop of twitch ,but leave index finger out to prevent slipping of rope over wrist. Take animal in confidence and get good hold of upper lip,leaving nostrils free and with the right rapidly twist up the stick. Take as tight a hold as necessary but avoid undue pressure. Twitch helps to restrain animal by causing a harmless pressure upon lip. It also diverts attention of animal from part being manipulated and give a strong hold of head of animal like horse. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Loop Twitch It consists of a rope with a running noose on its one end. The running noose on end of the rope is passed over the poll,into mouth and pulled tightly. It should be used carefully as it can cut commissure of lips Leg Twitch It is an ordinary torniquet applied 10 cm above knee or hock joint of horse. It is used when we have perform minor work on leg. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Gags Gags are used for keeping the jaws of animal apart for examination of mouth or teeth. Types of gags There are several types of gags as varnell s movable gag and linton s gag. These are mostly made of metal. Common type of gag used in large animals is varnell s movable gag. The bars or mouth pieces fit into interdigital space. The tongue should be free. The bars should be covered with rubber with rubber or leather to prevent damage to gums. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Halter It is the rope devised in loops to restrain the head of horse. Using a rope that is about 15 feet long with a loop tied into one end; place the looped end of the rope over the horse’s neck. Fold the remaining rope and pass it through the loop. This should make a larger loop that can be passed over the nose. You should have a nice length of lead line. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Lifting Leg While approaching, face should be towards the tail of the animal. Rub the hand from the shoulder to the cannon bone firmly. Applying pressure on the shoulder of the animal with your shoulder twist the hide over the cannon bone and lift the fore-leg. Same is performed on the hind leg. We also pinch the achilles tendon while lifting the hind leg. Put the leg on your closer thigh. Strapping Leg Cannon bone is also strapped up with the stirrup-leather to the radius and ulna. Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Restraining Hobbles These are similar to a pair of handcuffs that tied around the pasterns or cannon bones The historical use of hobbles is to slow him from wandering too far, too quickly. These are used on front legs. These are used on hind legs of mare while breeding Physical Restraining : Physical Restraining Casting of Equines : Casting of Equines Methods of Casting of Equines Casting with Hobbles Horse is first made to stand with all four legs close together Hobbles are applied and the rope is then drawn up tight, the leading man standing-near to the fore hobble Master Hobble is applied on the opposite side of fore limb where animal has to be casted Rope is pulled by 3-4 men simultaneously Head is held back and pressed upon the ground. A piece of old pasture is the most convenient place. Casting of Equines : Casting of Equines Side-lines : Side-lines Single Side-line A long rope passed round the neck and fastened in form of a collar The free end being carried between the fore limbs Then it is passed between the hind-limbs and around the pastern joint of hind limb. Then it is brought round to the front, and fastened to the collar portion again. This is used for only restraining the horse : Double Side-line The double side-line is employed in the same way on both limbs. In addition it is also used to cast and firmly secure an animal on the ground. A long doubled rope is passed round the neck and fastened in form of a collar Figure 8 knot is applied on the neck The free end being carried between the fore limbs Then it is passed between the hind-limbs and around the pastern joint of hind limb. Then it is brought round to the front, and fastened to the collar portion again.