Published on July 30, 2014
Ringwood Camera Club Beginner’s Digital Photography: Ringwood Camera Club Beginner’s Digital Photography Mike Richards Course Outline: Course Outline Week One - The Camera Camera Basics Composition Introduction Week Two – The Computer More Composition Transferring Images Image Improvement Week Three – Using The Image Printing Web sharing Keeping them safe Can you trust your eyes?: Can you trust your eyes? Why do our eyes play tricks?: Why do our eyes play tricks? Eye and brain work together Scan the scene for important elements Create a visual image We see what we want or expect to see Camera: Camera No tricks – it captures everything Everything in its field of view is stored equally It’s dumb - doesn’t know what you’re trying to photograph. Use lenses, camera controls and software to match what we capture to what we see. Types of Camera: Types of Camera Compact – Point & Shoot Permanently attached lens Small sensor size Convenient Often fully automatic Types of Camera: Types of Camera Bridge Camera Bridge between Point & Shoot and SLR Fixed lens, usually with wide zoom range Small sensor Manual and Automatic controls Types of Camera: Types of Camera Mirrorless Compact Camera Systems (CCS) Use much larger sensors but not as large as SLRs Include full manual controls Interchangeable lenses Electronic viewfinder Quality is now excellent Types of Camera: Types of Camera Single Lens Reflex (SLR) Large sensor Optical viewfinder Interchangeable lenses High quality Viewfinders: Viewfinders Screen Digital Sensor The Camera: The Camera Four Vital Elements Lens F ocus the image Determines angle of view Aperture Controls amount of light Affects sharpness Shutter Controls amount of light Freeze or exaggerate movement Sensor C aptures the image The Camera: The Camera Lens Sensor Aperture Shutter The Lens: The Lens Lens Sensor Focal length Angle of View: Angle of View Lens Sensor Short focal length Wide angle view Narrow view Long focal length The Lens: The Lens 35mm equivalent? Convenient way to quote angle of view 50mm = standard view 28mm = wide angle – landscapes, etc. 105mm = short telephoto – portraits 200mm = telephoto The Aperture: The Aperture Lens Sensor Aperture Shutter Aperture: Aperture Aperture: Aperture Controls the amount of light passing through f numbers – can be confusing! If the hole through the lens is the same size as the focal length it’s f1 If the hole is half the size (25mm) it’s f2 Quarter the size and it’s f4 50mm 50mm Aperture – Depth of Field: Aperture – Depth of Field f1.7 f2.8 f4.0 f5.6 f8.0 f11 f16 Aperture END The Shutter: The Shutter Lens Sensor Aperture Shutter Shutter: Shutter Shutter: Shutter Opens to let light through to the sensor Speeds are fractions of a second 30 = 1/30 th of a second The slower the speed, the more light gets to the sensor Fast shutter speeds freeze action Slow shutter speeds smooth movement but can result in camera shake Shutter Speed effects: Shutter Speed effects High Speed 1/350 Low Speed 1/15 Fast Shutter Speed: Fast Shutter Speed 1/1600 Exposure Slow Shutter Speed: Slow Shutter Speed 10 second exposure The Sensor: The Sensor Lens Sensor Aperture Shutter The Sensor: The Sensor B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G B R G Pixel 4 thousand pixels 3 thousand pixels 12 megapixels sensor : Lowest detectable Pure black Brightest detectable Pure white Over saturated No detail 8 to 10 stops Photons The Sensor Cells The Sensor: The Sensor Matrix of photosensitive cells Each pixel cell has three sensors Red, Green & Blue Collects and measures photons Limited brightness range (8-10 stops) 12Megapixels is plenty! The Sensor - ISO: The Sensor - ISO International Organisation for Standardisation Adjusts the sensitivity of the sensor. Similar to turning the volume up ISO 100 – 200 = normal range for most cameras High ISOs good for low light but you get more noise or grain in the image. Noise Example: Noise Example The Camera Summary: The Camera Summary Lens Sensor Aperture Shutter Automatic Exposure Camera Summary: Camera Summary Lens Field of view & Perspective Aperture Light control & depth of field Shutter Light control & motion freezing/smoothing Auto-exposure Averages the scene Easily confused Adjusts aperture, shutter and sensor Composition - Common Mistakes: Composition - Common Mistakes A quick pictorial review of some common problems Confusion: Confusion Confusion: Confusion Position: Position Too Bright: Too Bright Too Contrasty: Too Contrasty Camera Shake – Slow Shutter: Camera Shake – Slow Shutter Framing: Framing Things to consider: Things to consider Our eyes are amazing Instant autofocus Brightness range of 24 stops Filter-out unwanted information Cameras are limited Guess what you want in focus Brightness range 8-10 stops Capture everything Things to Consider : Things to Consider Choose your position carefully Get as close as you can – fill the frame Move around to get the best framing Look around the edges Watch for distractions Check the lighting Avoid sun on the lens Avoid too much bright sky Creative Tips: Creative Tips Simplify your images Change yours or the subjects position for a clean background Fill the frame with the subject North facing window for portraits Large diffused light is much kinder Experiment with camera settings Use auto to find starting point Try Aperture Priority Old Masters: Old Masters Simple Lighting: Simple Lighting Creative Tips: Creative Tips External Portraits Try placing light behind subjects Avoid mid-day sun or use shade Landscapes Best in morning or evening light Less contrast Low angle light enhances textures Rear Lighting: Rear Lighting Landscapes: Landscapes The End!: The End! Any questions?