Published on August 9, 2020
1. Report on the current situation of COVID-19 in Malaysia. Student name: MA SINING GS54284 Course: ESC 5113 Lecture: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail
2. • COVID-19 is a newly emerging viral respiratory disease. The disease is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which is similar to the viruses that cause SARS and MERS. Introduction of Covid-19 • The first cases of COVID-19 became known in mid to late December when a clustering of patients with unusually severe respiratory disease was noticed in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, a city with roughly 11 million inhabitants. • On December 31, 2019, China informed the World Health Organization (WHO), and the world took notice for the first time (Schröder, 2020).
3. • 2-14 days represents the current official estimated range for the novel coronavirus COVID-19 (“Coronavirus Incubation Period (COVID-19) - Worldometer,” 2020). • However, a case with an incubation period of 27 days has been reported by Hubei Province local government on Feb. 22 (“Coronavirus incubation could be as long as 27 days, Chinese provincial government says - Reuters,” 2020) • In addition, a case with an incubation period of 19 days was observed in a JAMA study of 5 cases published on Feb. 21. (Bai et al., 2020) • An outlier of a 24 days incubation period had been for the first time observed in a Feb. 9 study (Guan et al., 2020). WHO said at the time that this could actually reflect a second exposure rather than a long incubation period, and that it wasn't going to change its recommendations. incubation period
4. • Period can vary greatly among patients. • Mean incubation period observed: 3.0 days (0 - 24 days range, study based on 1,324 cases) 5.2 days (4.1 - 7.0 days range, based on 425 cases). • Mean incubation period observed in travelers from Wuhan: 6.4 days (range from 2.1 to 11.1 days) (“Coronavirus Incubation Period (COVID-19) - Worldometer,” 2020).
5. Transmission route and symptoms • The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur easily through respiratory droplets and direct or indirect contact with the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, and nose. • People with a compromised immune system, such as the elderly and infants, as well as people with a background history of other diseases, are more likely to be severely affected after being diagnosed with COVID-19 (Lu, Liu, & Jia, 2020; Guan et al., 2020; (Xia, Tong, Liu, Shen, & Guo, 2020) • The symptoms of COVID-19 include a fever, dry cough, fatigue, nasal congestion, headache, diarrhoea, sore throat, and vomiting (Wang et al., 2020)
6. Malaysia Covid-19 Background • Malaysia the first wave of infection started on 24 January 2020, with the identification of 22 cases, of which 12 had a travel history to affected countries and regions. • Eight cases were close contacts and two were from a humanitarian mission. There were 11 days with no cases, from 16 to 26 February 2020. • The second wave began on 27 February 2020 and is still ongoing ( Situation Report Malaysia 29 April 2020, 2020).
7. • According to Noor Hisham “A serious concern for a more massive COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia was when we received notification on 9 March 2020 from our counterpart in Brunei Darussalam about a positive COVID-19 case detected in their country. • The case was epidemiologically linked to an annual mass religious assembly at Seri Petaling Mosque, Kuala Lumpur held between 27 February to 1 March 2020 involving more than 14,500 local and 1,500 international attendees” (DG of health, 2020).
8. Distribution of Covid-19 active cases in Peninsula Malaysia The map shows active cases by district. Active cases means total confirmed cases minus deaths and recoveries.
9. Covid-19 Active Cases in Sabah and Sarawak districts The map shows active cases by district. Active cases means total confirmed cases minus deaths and recoveries.
10. Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia
11. Flattening the Covid-19 infection curve
12. Actions taken by the Government of Malaysia and Ministry of Health to overcome COVID-19 • Malaysian citizens did not initially realize how deadly the virus is. On January 25, 2020, Malaysia showed no intention of banning travellers from China, although China had lready quarantined the entire population of 11 million in Wuhan due to the deadly virus (“Wuhan coronavirus: No plans to stop Chinese tourists for now, says Dr M | TheStarTV.com,” 2020) • Malaysians were also not well prepared to fight the pandemic, mainly because of the political crisis that was happening at the same time and also because they were assured that the virus would not spread easily in Malaysia(Shah et al., 2020) .
13. • However, with the number of positive COVID-19 cases in Malaysia increasing in less than a week from 99 on March 8 to 200, with the first two deaths reported in mid-March, Malaysians began to panic (Majid, 2020). • Consequently, the government took many steps to alleviate the mass panic and protect the health of Malaysian citizens (Shah et al., 2020).
14. • According to the Director-General of the MoH Datuk Dr. Noor Hisham Abdullah, one of the strategies was the placement of thermal scanners (Bernama, 2020) • Enhance the detection of fever amongst tourists and/or locals returning from abroad. • Malaysians who returned from Wuhan were screened, identified, and isolated in special quarantine areas for COVID-19. • This measure also involved airline crews as well as the staff of the MoH (Kaos, 2020).
15. • Increase the number of hospitals that could treat COVID-19 cases. • To enhance the MoH efforts in keeping the spread and mortality under control, a Movement Control Order (MCO) was implemented on March 18, 2020. • An alliance involving 38 professional medical societies was established on March 1, 2020 to support the MoH in the area of healthcare (Malaysia Health Coalition, 2020).
16. • MoH urged the remaining participants who attended the tabligh gathering at Seri Petaling mosque to come forward for tests and/or screening. • MoH has been taking aggressive measures by closely working with the police to locate possible carriers of the virus, identifying them, carrying out testing, and imposing a 14-day self-quarantine (Bernama, 2020).
17. • The Ministry has provided awareness programmes on basic protective and hygiene measures to minimize transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in simple diagram form to reach the public easily. • Hand-washing techniques and the use of hand sanitizers and face masks. • Various infographics associated with COVID-19 have frequently been prepared and uploaded onto the website. • The MoH has also conducted daily press briefings, conference recordings, and has published relevant news on COVID-19 • To increase public engagement and ensure public awareness and access to accurate information (Shah et al., 2020) .
18. Actions taken by the media, NGOs, and public institutions Mainstream and social media • COVID-19 has caused fear, anxiety, and confusion. The media, celebrities, and other influencers have appealed to the public to stay at home and avoid mass gatherings. The media has started to use the hashtag #stayhome. • This hashtag has been used widely in the media, and it is hoped that important messages to stop the spread of COVID-19 can reach all levels of society (Shah et al., 2020).
19. NGOs • The MCO has affected Malaysia's economy. Most companies have their employees working from home, and some workers have had to stop working. • NGOs have been actively helping those who are affected by this pandemic. • They have been providing food, shelter for the homeless, and have even given out money to help those in need (“BERNAMA - COVID-19: NGO launches mobile disinfection chamber in Penang,” 2020.).
20. Public institutions • Educational institutions, schools, and higher education institutions have had to close due to COVID-19. However, this has not stopped researchers from various universities from helping citizens in fighting COVID-19. • Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) for example has produced an instant hand sanitizer and face shields (Penyelidik UPM hasikan 700 produk sanitasi tangani Covid-19, 2020) • Universities and colleges have also raised funds in order to help students affected by the virus; for example, UPM, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Rohizai, 2020), and Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK) (Oleh Nor Fazlina Abdul Rahim, 2020).
21. UPM distributes food to students during MCO
22. Individual self-precautions • Malaysians have even stated a preference to stay at home for future protection from germs and viruses, due to fear and anxiety when going to the supermarket, on public transport, or traveling. • They have also practiced wearing protective masks when out in public, frequent hand- washing, and avoiding mass gatherings(Shah et al., 2020) .
23. Reference Malaysia: COVID-19 cases by state 2020 | Statista. (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/1107426/malaysia-covid-19-confirmed-cases- by-state/ Malaysian Health Coalition. (2020). Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://myhealthcoalition.org/about/ Situation Report Malaysia 29 April 2020. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/wpro--- documents/countries/malaysia/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-situation-reports- in-malaysia/situation-report-malaysia-29-april-2020-final.pdf?sfvrsn=dbd4fe24_4 Bai, Y., Yao, L., Wei, T., Tian, F., Jin, D. Y., Chen, L., & Wang, M. (2020, April 14). Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 323, pp. 1406–1407. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2565 Bernama. (2020). Health Ministry beefs up health screening at all entry points into Malaysia. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from Nst website: https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/01/560274/health-ministry-beefs- health- screening-all-entry-points-malaysia BERNAMA - COVID-19: NGO launches mobile disinfection chamber in Penang. (n.d.). Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.bernama.com/en/news.php?id=1827414
24. Coronavirus incubation could be as long as 27 days, Chinese provincial government says - Reuters. ( 2020, February 22). Retrieved July 21, 2020, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china- health-incubation/coronavirus-incubation-could-be-as-long-as-27-days-chinese- provincial-government-says-idUSKCN20G06W Coronavirus Incubation Period (COVID-19) - Worldometer. (2020, March 12). Retrieved July 21, 2020, from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/coronavirus-incubation-period/ Deparrtment of Statistics Malaysia. (n.d.). UKK DOSM | CoViD-19 Malaysia by State. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://ukkdosm.github.io/covid-19 DG of health. (2020, June 16). The Malaysian Response to COVID-19: Building Preparedness for ‘Surge Capacity’, Testing Efficiency, and Containment – From the Desk of the Director- General of Health Malaysia. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/06/16/the-malaysian-response-to- covid-19-building- preparedness-for-surge-capacity-testing-efficiency-and-containment/ Dihantar oleh rohizai. (2020, March 30). COVID-19: UTM Terus Perkasa Operasi Susulan Lanjutan PKP Jamin Kebajikan Pelajar | UTM NewsHub. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://news.utm.my/ms/2020/03/utm-terus-perkasa-operasi-susulan-pkp-jamin- kebajikan-pelajar/ Esther Landau. (2020, March 15). Home screening service now available. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/03/574788/home-screening-service-now- available Guan, W., Ni, Z., Hu, Y., Liang, W., Ou, C., He, J., … Zhong, N. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. New England Journal of Medicine, 2020.02.06.20020974. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.06.20020974
25. Kaos. (2020). Health Minister: Malaysians returning from Wuhan to be quarantined for 14 days | The Star. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2020/02/03/health-minister-malaysians- returning-from-wuhan-to-be-quarantined-for-14-days Lu, C., Liu, X., & Jia, Z. (2020). 2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01406736(20)301835 Majid, M. (2020, March 17). Covid-19: Panic and the Malaysian Economy. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from New Straits Times website: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2020/03/575187/covid-19-panic-and- malaysian-economy Oleh Nor Fazlina Abdul Rahim. (2020, May 2). COVID-19: UMK peruntukkan RM49,000 bantu pelajar | Wilayah | Berita Harian. Retrieved July 22, 2020, from https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/wilayah/2020/04/672009/covid-19-umk-peruntukkan- rm49000-bantu-pelajar Penyelidik UPM hasikan 700 produk sanitasi tangani Covid-19. (2020). Retrieved from https://www.sinarharian.com.my/article/76808/KHAS/Koronavirus/Penyelidik-UPM- hasikan-700-produk-sanitasi-tangani-Covid-19 Schröder, I. (2020). COVID-19: A Risk Assessment Perspective. ACS Chemical Health & Safety, 27(3), 160–169. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chas.0c00035 Shah, A. U. M., Safri, S. N. A., Thevadas, R., Noordin, N. K., Rahman, A. A., Sekawi, Z., … Sultan, M. T. H. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia: Actions taken by the Malaysian government. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 97, 108–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.093 Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., … Peng, Z. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(11), 1061–1069. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1585
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