Rocks 1

Information about Rocks 1

Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Raimondo

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Rocks:  Rocks Dr. Michael J. Passow This slide show is intended to help you understand important types of rocks.:  This slide show is intended to help you understand important types of rocks. The diagram in the next slide represents the ROCK CYCLE—a scheme that represents the processes of continuous changes that connect the three major groups of rocks: SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS METAMORPHIC It also shows two other important parts of the “Rock Cycle” – SEDIMENTS and molten LAVA and MAGMA Source: http://www.canadianrockhound.com/junior/rock_cycle.html Here is another version of the Rock Cycle:  Here is another version of the Rock Cycle http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Metrocks/Metrocks2.html Slide5:  http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Rocks/Rocks8.html Sedimentary Rocks:  Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks may be made of rock fragments—sediments—or by chemical reactions. The classification of sediments is shown below. http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Sedrocks/Sedrocks6.html Clastic rocks–made of cemented sediments—are classified by their grain sizes.:  Clastic rocks–made of cemented sediments—are classified by their grain sizes. http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Sedrocks/Sedrocks9.html Non-clastic rocks form by chemical precipitation (settling out from a solution.) Limestone is made from calcite, chert from quartz, and halite is rock salt.:  Non-clastic rocks form by chemical precipitation (settling out from a solution.) Limestone is made from calcite, chert from quartz, and halite is rock salt. http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Sedrocks/Sedrocks10.html Biologic sedimentary rocks come from the remains of organic matter.:  Biologic sedimentary rocks come from the remains of organic matter. The most important of these is coal. Anthracite coal results from the greatest pressure and releases the most energy when burned. Other varieties are bituminous and lignite. “Petrified” (permineralized) wood is another organic rock. http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Sedrocks/Sedrocks11.html More about sedimentary rocks:  More about sedimentary rocks Shale is the most common sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks cover about three-quarters of the land surface For more about sedimentary rocks: http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Sedrocks/Sedrocks1.html IGNEOUS ROCKS:  IGNEOUS ROCKS Form by solidification (crystallization) of melted minerals At the surface, LAVA hardens to form EXTRUSIVE rocks with tiny (FINE-GRAINED) crystals or GLASSY (no crystal) TEXTURES Beneath the surface, MAGMA hardens to form INTRUSIVE rocks with easily visible (COARSE-GRAINED) crystal texture. Granite:  Granite Light-colored, coarse- grained, no pattern Mostly quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende Often used for buildings and monuments http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Rocks/Rocks10.html Basalt:  Basalt Dark-colored, fine- grained, extrusive Formed where lava erupted onto surface Most widespread igneous rocks Found locally in the Palisades along west shore of Hudson River, Connecticut River valley http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Slideshow/Igrocks/Igrock2.html Gabbro:  Gabbro Dark-colored, coarse- grained intrusive Similar composition to basalt—plagioclase feldspar with some pyroxene and olivine http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Slideshow/Igrocks/Igrock8.html Obsidian:  Obsidian Natural volcanic glass Forms when lava cools very quickly Usually dark, but small pieces may be clear Fractures along curved (conchoidal) surface Used as spear and arrow points, knives http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Slideshow/Igrocks/Igrock7.html Pumice and other igneous rocks:  Pumice and other igneous rocks Light colored, frothy (many air spaces) Same minerals as in granite, but finer in grain size For more about igneous rocks: http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Igrocks/Igrocks1.html Metamorphic Rocks:  Metamorphic Rocks Formed by heat and pressure changing existing rocks REGIONAL METAMORPHIC affects a large area and results from plate tectonics CONTACT METAMORPHISM affects rocks on a local scale, such as “baking” sedimentary rocks next to magma or lava For more information: http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Metrocks/Metrocks1.html “Foliated” rocks contain much mica and other rocks that produce layering or banding:  “Foliated” rocks contain much mica and other rocks that produce layering or banding Gneisses and schists are common in New York City and Westchester. http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Metrocks/Metrocks5.html Non-foliated metamorphic rocks include marble, which comes from limestone, and quatzite, which comes from sandstone:  Non-foliated metamorphic rocks include marble, which comes from limestone, and quatzite, which comes from sandstone http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Metrocks/Metrocks12.html Additional Resources:  Additional Resources There are many web sites that can provide you with more information about rocks. Most of these slides come from “Volcano World.” You can learn more from their slide show at http://www.volcanoworld.org/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Slideshow/Slideindex.html

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