Rural Agricultural Work Experience

Information about Rural Agricultural Work Experience

Published on January 20, 2019

Author: 8763463618



1. It is with a sense of great pleasure, I, Sanjib Kumar Parida (01A/13), am presenting this report of village attachment programme of Student Ready Programme 2016-17. I feel honored to offer my sincere gratitude to all those people who helped me in completing my Student Ready programme. I am extremely thankful to Dr. L.M. Garnayak, Dean,College of Agriculture for his cooperation and encouragement. Expressing my deep gratitude to Dr. B. Parasar,Dean’s representative, Dr. A.P.Kanungo, Chairman and Dr.B.P. Mohapatra, Coordinator of RAWE programme, Programme Coordinator Mrs. Dr. Tilottma Pattnaik madam,Other staffs of KVK, Jajpur and supervisors Dr.K.C. Samal and Dr.M.K Mishra for their proper guidance during orientation programme and for providing us theoretical knowledge prior to village attachment programme and also for their support during RAWE activities in both the village “ACHYUTPUR”. I would also like to thank the supporting professors as our supervisor on the Student Ready programme. They immensely help us to remove all the obstacles throughout the programme. Last, but not the least, I would also like to thank my beloved friends who accompanied me in my tasks even during odd hours and made me keep up the enthusiasm regarding my tasks. Date: 07/11/16 Sanjib Kumar Parida Place: Bhubaneswar 01A/13

2. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,OUAT,BBSR -3 SANJIB KUMAR PARIDA,01A/13 CONTENTS SL.NO CHAPTERS PAGE NO. 1. Introduction 1 2. Students’ Ready Programme 2 3. RAWE 3 4. Jajpur at a glance 4-5 5. About KVK jajpur 5-8 6 Participatory rural appraisal 9-11 7. Participatory mapping 12 8. Orientation programme 13 9. Inauguration at KVK,Jajpur 14-15 10. Rapport building with the villagers 16 11. Rapport building with host farmer 17 12. Village at a glance 18-22 13. Transect Walk 22-24 14. Village Map 25-28 15. Social Map 28-29 16. Crop Map 29-30 17. Hydrology Map 30-32 18. Enterprise Map 32-33

3. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,OUAT,BBSR -3 SANJIB KUMAR PARIDA,01A/13 19. Mobility Map 33-34 20. Daily Work Profile 34-36 21. Matrix Ranking 37 22. Wealth Ranking 37-39 23. Resource Flow Analysis 40-41 24. Venn Diagram 41-42 25. Timeline 43-44 26. Seasonality 45 27. Livelihood Analysis 46 28. ITKs 47-48 29. Problem Identification and Prioritization 48-49 30. Problem Cause Analysis 49-51 31. SWOT Analysis of Achyutpur 51 32. Action Plan for Achyutpur 52-53 33. Activities done during RAWE 53-81 A. Crop Planning for Different Situation 53-55 B. Weed Management Practices 55-58 C. Fertilizer Management Practices 58-59

4. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,OUAT,BBSR -3 SANJIB KUMAR PARIDA,01A/13 D. Post Harvest Technology 59-60 E. Soil Sampling 60-61 F. Use of Organic Manure and Biofertilizer 62-63 G. Water Management Practices 63-65 H. Nursery Management 65-66 I. Fruit & Vegetable Management 66-67 J. Field Identification Of Pests & Diseases 68-72 K. Disease Management 72-74 L. Training & Demonstration 74-76 M. Socialization Sessions Of Students With Villagers ,Progressive Farmers, ContactFarmers&Local Representatives 77-81 34. AnExposure Visit to Darpani Farm 82 35. Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan 83 36. Experienced Gained During RAWE 84 37. Feedback 85 38. Conclusion 86

5. INTRODUCTION “Everything else may wait but not AGRICULTURE” -Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru The rural agricultural work experience programme (RAWE) is being conducted every year in the 7 th semester. In this programme, all students are divided into different groups and are assigned to carry out different activities under the proper guidance of our respected teachers known as supervisors and also with the coordinators cooperation and participation of the villagers. Here, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) technique is conducted to gain experience. So, we were required to carry out the exercises in the assigned village with the help of the villagers and submit our report through different maps. During the PRA exercise, we were exposed to village situation and we got a basic understanding of various on-farm activities. Each and every student developed communication skills during the presentation conducted regularly under this programme and during training, demonstration and exhibition. Various exercises under this project developed knowledge of the student and revised all the courses that we studied for the last 3 years. We are now comfortable while communicating with the villagers. I think the most important achievement of this RAWE program is that it has generated interest in the minds of the students to do something for the villagers because they have very closely observed the real problems and difficulties faced by the poor farmers. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 1

6. STUDENTS’ READY PROGRAMME  The term READY refers to “Rural and Entrepreneurship Awareness Development Yojana” and the programme was conceptualized to reorient graduates of Agriculture and allied subjects for ensuring and assuring employability and develop entrepreneurs for emerging knowledge intensive agriculture.  It is an essential prerequisite for the award of degree to ensure hands on experience and practical training by adopting the following components :  Experiential learning  Rural Agricultural Work Experience  In Plant Training/ Industrial attachment  Hands-on-training(HOT)/ Skill development training-24 weeks  Students Projects- 10 weeks All the above mentioned components are interactive and are conceptualized for building skill in project development and execution, decision-making, individual and team coordination, approach to problem solving accounting, quality control, marketing and resolving conflicts ,etc. with end to end approach COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 2

7. RURAL AGRICULTURAL WORK EXPERIENCE(RAWE) Agricultural education is an important tool in ensuring increased agricultural productivity, sustainability and environmental and ecological security, profitability, job security and equity. In India RANDHWA Committee (1992) recommended the rural agricultural work experience (RAWE) programme for imparting quality, practical and production oriented education for agriculture degree programme. The World Bank (1975) stated that there was little emphasis on curricular or agribusiness outside Government jobs. Therefore, the agenda for the 21 st century in agricultural education should be drawn on the basis of challenges it has to meet in the near future. RAWE programme provides significant hands on experience in acquiring knowledge & skill. What is RAWE? RAWE (Rural Agricultural Work Experience) is a programme for imparting quality, practical & production oriented for agricultural degree. Importance of RAWE Programme  Preparing agricultural graduates for better career in agriculture.   Preparing agricultural graduates oriented education to face the challenges by acquiring knowledge & skill though hands on experience.  Objectives of RAWE  Understanding the rural life by students.   To get familiarize with the socio-economic conditions of the farmers & their problems with reference to agricultural development.   To provide an opportunity to the students for practical training in crop production through work experience.   To develop communication skills among students using extension teaching methods in transfer of technology.   To develop the understanding regarding agricultural technologies being followed by farmers and to prepare alternate farm plans to suit to the local situation in consultation with farmers.  COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 3

8. JAJPUR AT A GLANCE Geographical and Population details of the District Geographical 2,887.69 Area under Forest : 1453.22 50.32 Area : % Total : 1,826,275 in % Male : 926,012 50.70 Female : 900,263 49.30 Rural : 1,731,950 94.84 Urban : 94,325 5.16 Population ( 2011 Census ) Scheduled Caste : 373,513 20.45 Scheduled Caste Male : 190,976 51.13 Scheduled Caste Female : 182,537 48.87 Scheduled Tribe : 125,989 6.90 Scheduled Tribe Male : 64,198 50.96 Scheduled Tribe Female : 61,791 49.04 Population 630 (Per Density : Total Literate : 1,302,292 80.44 Literate Male : 714,650 87.36 Literate Female : 587,642 73.37 Literacy Total Illiterate : 523,983 28.69 Illiterate Male : 0 0.00 Illiterate Female : 0 0.00 Total Households : 407,851 Rural Households : 378,645 92.84 Urban Households : 29,206 7.16 Households BPL Households ( 1997 169,595 -- Census) : SC/ST Households ( 2011 -- -- Census) : COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 4

9. Administrative Setup : Administrative setup of the District No. of Sub-Divisions : 1 No. of Tehsils : 10 No. of Municipalities/Corporation 2 No. of N.A.Cs : 0 : No. of Blocks : 10 No. of Police Stations : 18 No. of Gram Panchayats : 280 No. of Inhabited Villages : 1575 No. of Uninhabited 203 No. of villages : 1781 Villages : ABOUT KVK JAJPUR The Krishi Vigyan Kendra is a district level Farm Science Center established by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi. The aim of Krishi Vigyan Kendra is to reduce the time lag between Generation of technology at the research institutions and it's transfer to the farmer's field for increasing production, productivity and income from the agriculture and allied sectors on a sustained basis. In order to achieve this goal, four mandates have been envisaged in the design of the Krishi Vigyan Kendra. KVK,JAJPUR: – KVK, Jajpur was established in 2002. It is located at Barchana, Jajpur. It has some official staffs including one project coordinator and 6 subject matter specialists. The SMSs are from different disciplines such as Agronomy, Horticulture, Soil science, Ag.Engg, Home Science & Veterinary Science. The present project coordinator is Dr.(Mrs) Tilotama Pattanaik COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 5

10. The total farm area is 50 acre. But under use is 37 acre. Total cultivable area is 25 acre and in rest 12 acre 2 ponds, quarters, KVK building, farmer’s hostel and other infrastructure are present. Units of KVK JAJPUR : 1. Medicinal Garden 8. Mushroom Unit 2. Poly house 9. Godown 3. Techno Park 10.Farm Machinery Unit 4. Net House 11.Apiculture Unit 5. Poultry house 12. Pot manure 6. Cowshed 13. Seed Sale centre 7. Watching shed 14. Threshing Floor MANDATES OF KVK  Conducting on-farm testing to identify the location specificity of agricultural technologies under various farming systems.  Organizing frontline demonstrations to establish production potential of various crops and enterprises on the farmers, fields.  Organizing need based training of farmers to update their knowledge and skills in modern agricultural technologies related to technology assessment, refinement and demonstration, and training, of extension personnel to orient them in the frontier areas of technology development.  Creating awareness about improved technologies to larger masses through appropriate extension programmes.  Production and supply of good quality seeds and planting materials, livestock, poultry and fisheries breeds and products and various bio-products to the farming community.  Work as resource and knowledge centre of agricultural technology for supporting initiatives of public, private and voluntary sector for improving the agricultural economy of the district. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 6

11. INFORMATION ABOUT KVK JAJPUR :  In techno park, organic banana cultivation is done and the varieties used are G-9 (Dwarf) & Bantala (Tall).   In medicinal garden the different species available are – Aloevera, Stivia, Pasanavedi, Tulasi, Rauwolfia, Thalkudi, Poodina, Pippali, Gudumari, Akarakara, Pasaruni, Bhuin Nimba, Aswagandha, Antamula, Asoka, Kumkum, Guluchi.   An agro shade nethouse is there, where different shade loving ornamental plants & indoor plants are kept. A poultry house for broiler chicks where at present only 160 are alive. The farm machinery unit has the following agricultural implements such as – 1. VST – Shakti Yanji 2. Paddy Reaper (Kamco Power Reaper) 3. Power Tiller 4. 8 row paddy transplanter 5. Mini seed processing unit  In polyhouse, green leafy vegetables and other vegetables are cultivated and it is covered by UV protected polythene. A seed Testing Laboratory is under construction.   The model organic farm is in 2 hectare area, where Swarna variety of rice is cultivated organically.   The seed production programme is undertaken in 8 hectare area, but this year only in 6 hectare out of the total area, upland = 2 ha, Medium & Lowland = 8 ha.   The seed production programmer is for production of breeder to foundation seed. In previous years, seed production was carried out in chilli, onion, tomato.   The total pond area is 0.66 ha. There are 2 ponds out of which, one pond of 1 acre is present near the medicinal garden which COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 7

12. is meant for pisciculture, The fingerlings used are Rohu, Catla, Grass carp.  A lawn is present in front of the farmer’s hostel. The different plant species grown are – Monley’s puzzle, rose, tuberose, Tabernae montana coronaria, cycas, exora, thuja, alamanda.    It has a library packed with different agricultural books, journals, magazines, news letters, leaflets, folders etc. and different CDs (44). KVK INSTRUCTIONAL FARM : Total land available (ha) – 11.66 Land under infrastructure (ha) – 1.73 Ponds (2 nos.) (ha) – 0.66 Canal (ha) – 0.43 Cultivable land (ha) – 8.0 Low : Medium : Upland (ha) – 2 : 6 : 0 Irrigation provisions (ha) – Nil Nursery, Kitchen & Herbal garden (ha) - 0.9 Soil type – Clay loam Soil pH – 6.5 KVK ACHIEVEMENTS :- • Use of groundnut decorticator for drudgery reduction. • Use of Aloukik variety of pointed gourd. • Storage of groundnut seeds using CaCl2. • Seedling of pointed gourd from vine cutting. • IPM of Stem borer in paddy. • IPM of okra. • Mushroom cultivation. • SRI method of rice cultivation. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 8

13. PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL (PRA) PRA is a process of involving local people in the analysis and interpretation of local situation. PRA is a methodology for interacting with villagers, understanding them and learning from them. It involves a set of principles, a process of communication and a menu of methods seeking villager’s participation in putting forward their points of view to make use of such learning. It initiates a participatory process and sustains it. Its principles and the menu of methods help in organizing participation. PRA constitutes a process of involvement with rural people for indigenous knowledge building exercise. It is a way of learning form villagers and with their support to investigate, analyze and evaluate constraints and opportunities. It helps to make informed and timely decisions regarding developmental projects. The participation of rural people can be facilitated through PRA for planning, implementing and monitoring of rural developing programme. Objectives  To generate information and collection of data for immediate or future use.   For greater and better involvement of villages by learning about their perceptions, experiences and capabilities.   For learning about the impacts of earlier or ongoing policies and programme and to frame new ones.   For validation and cross-checking of data collected from other sources.   For training of different categories of persons involved in the development process, whether from Govt., NGOs, Banks, Researchers, Extension Agents, Scientists, etc. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 9

14. PRA Techniques PRA is both an attitude and methodology. It is one of the tools of surveying that helps outsiders to understand the village symbols, systems, dynamics, and politics by using various techniques as well as by methods of direct observation and discussion. The process of understanding the agro system and the social organization can only be successful with the total involvement of the village people & the officials concerned. Need For PRA  Sustained change and the need for accurate and timely information.   It advances that the people themselves are “solution agents” for their problems.   It cuts down the “Normal Professional Bias” and anti-poverty bias towards people.   Reduces down the normal time consuming long methods of survey which consumes the most needed resources and that gives results after a long time.   The method is cost effective, accurate and timely. Purpose of PRA  To use farmer’s criteria, choices and understand the local environment with clear local priorities.   To learn farmer’s indigenous technologies.  To achieve for triangulation using different methods & involving various people to check and recheck the findings.   To develop self-critical analysis and direct contact with local needs and communities. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 10

15. GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING INTERACTION IN PRA: Before  Meet the villagers with an open and frank-mind. Tell them who you are and why you have come.   Build up personal rapport with villagers.  Identify villagers who are willing to share their experiences.  Always begin to interview by relaxing the tension of the interviewer by asking general questions and setting the climate for discussion.  Select a suitable place for the interview. Sit down with the villagers on the same floor. During  Listen carefully, show empathy and be patient.  Intense and careful observation is most important.  Don’t interrupt, suggest or prescribe.  Be polite, gentle and accommodative.  Head nodding during interview is avoided.  Try to follow existing customs of the village.  There is no point in getting impatient or becoming too much inquisitive when the villagers discuss among themselves. After  At the end of the interview, all the interviews must be thanked individually by the members of the group for giving time & sharing their experience.  Sit down with all the members and record all the information collected and the process of information generation. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 11

16. PARTICIPATORY MAPPING/MODELLING This is the construction of a village area using rangoli powders or chalk on the ground or a cement floor for understanding the village lay out ,main features such as housing, temples, stores and other infrastructure and other resources like forests, lands, watersheds etc. Purpose  To get an impression of the social and physical layout of the village as perceived by villagers themselves.   To understand globally the social structure of the village, which live there, which facilities is there, where they are located etc.   To get an impression of the natural resource environment of the village as perceived by the villagers. Situation Where Applicable Participatory maps are useful in identifying status of land holding and animals of different households. In identifying beneficiaries of various developmental programmes etc. Through participatory mapping other items like dry land/ irrigated land, rivers, forest lands and temple lands, tanks and nullahs and other water resources could be identified. The participatory mapping can also be used to prepare treatment plans for soil and water conservations, forestry and other treatments. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 12

17. ORIENTATION PROGRAMME Before direct exposure to the village there was an orientation programme in the college itself from31.08.2016-07.09.2016. The motto of this programme was to aware the students about the works which should be done during the whole semester. All the students, dean sir, all the faculty members of Dept. of Extension Education and 16 programme supervisors were present in this programme. The programme was conducted by the Chairman of RAWE Dr. A. P. Kanungo. During this week we were able to learn about the techniques of PRA. All the faculty members of various departments helped us to understand and to practice all the exercises regarding PRA. During this programme all the students were grouped into 08 groups. My group members were the all the boys of Section A and first 5 boys from Section B. We the group members had to do all the works in the village together. We were allotted one villages i.e. Achyutpur (Dharmasala Block, Jajpur)(Irrigated) during this programme. Each student was allotted two host farmers in that village. My host farmers were Mr. Shyam Sundar Barik and Mr. Prabhat Lenka.We are really thankful to our college and Dept. of Extension Education for arranging this orientation programme which built confidence among us to work with the farmers in the village. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 13

18. Inauguration at KVK,Jajpur : Inauguration is a ceremony to mark the beginning or introduction of something’s. According to the 5th Dean’s Committee the RAWE Programme was renamed as Student Ready Programme where all the students of 4th Year were allotted to different KVK’s in their respective groups. We were allotted to Jajpur, KVK. On the day of inauguration (20 th September, 2016), a grand arrangement was done by the KVK family where many delegates were present to attend the function. Out of them are as follows: Name Designation 1. Mr. Rajiv Lochan Das DDA, Jajpur 2. Mr. Pradeep Kumar Sahoo DAO, Dharmasala 3. Mr. Loknath Jena ADH, Jajpur 4. Mr. Bimalkanti Raptan DAO, Jajpur 5. Mr. Jyotindra Chandra Nayak AHO, Barchana 6. Miss. Bhanupriya Mishra AAO, Mangalpur 7. Miss. Samaptika Kar AAO, Kabatabandha 8. Miss. Sasmita Jena AAO, Danagadi 9. Mr. Ramesh Chandra Roy AAO, Rasulpur 10. Mr. Dilip Kumar Mohanty DPD, ATMA, Jajpur 11. Mr. Ajay Kumar Madali PPO, Dharmasala 12. Mr. Baikunanth Behera Agronomist, Jajpur Rd. 13. Mr. Debabrata Biswal AAO, Korei 14. Mr. Jajati Kehari Jena AAO, Rampa 15. Mr. Pradyumma Mall NGO Seeds COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 14

19. 16. Mr. Alok Mohanty NGO Seeds 17. Mr. Pradyuta Kumar Pattnaik AAE, Jajpur 18. Mr. Tusharkanta Sethy AAO, Barchana 19. Dr. Sawat Kumar Rout AVAS,Barchana 20. Mrs. (Dr.) Tilottama Pattnaik Sr. Scientist & Head 21 Dr. K. C. Samal Assoc. Professor 22. Mr. Subhasish Dash Scientist (Soil Sc.) 23. Mrs. Dharitri Parta Scientist (HomeSc.) 24. Mrs. Babita Mishra Scientist (Horticulture) 25 Mrs. Bijayalaxmi Mohanta Scientist (Ag. Engin.) 26 Dr. Ananga Kumar Das Prof. Assist. (Vet. Sc.) 27. Dr. Trilochan Das CDVO, Jajpur 28. Mr. Niranjan Rout, Dihakuransa Farmer 29. Mr. Chandramani Panda, Khadipada Farmer 30 Mr. NIrantan Padhi, Choromuha Farmer 31 Mr. Laxmidhar Rout, Dihakuransa Farmer Then our respectable DDA of Jajpur, Mr.R.L. Das addressed the meeting and welcomed us. He explained many more things about our journey. DAO, Programme Coordinator welcomed us respectively. All the members of the KVK greeted us warmly. PC (Badchana) explained the aim, goal and objective of “Student Ready Programme” along with about KVK at a glance. She also cited the present information about Jajpur including its climatic conditions, soil type, crop grown, population, fertiliser consumption etc. Then we introduced ourselves along with other dignitaries present in the meeting. Then we attended the party which was organised by the KVK. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 15

20. RAPPORT BUILDING WITH THE VILLAGERS We were assigned to a particular village i.e. Achyutpur. That village was almost 15km away from our Krishi Vigyan Kendra, albeit we move to other villages like Choromuha, Dihakuransa, Bandareshwara and Krishnapada still we are more connected with Achyutpur.Going to a new place to do PRA was at first filled with excitement and nervousness both. In order to boost our confidence our KVK members like PC Madam – Mrs (Dr). Tilottama Pattnaik , Mrs. Dharitri Madam,( Scientist, Home Science), Bipra Sir (Farm Manager) and Dr. K.C Samal accompanied us to that village on the first day of the visit (20th September, 2016).We kept our vehicles beside the main road and entered into the village. The villagers were busy with their works. We addressed them with folded hands and head bowed in respect. We introduced ourselves as 4th yr. B.Sc. (Ag) students from OUAT, Bhubaneswar and described our motto of our visit. We put forward numerous questions regarding the village history, crop grown, standard of living of the people, organizations & institutions, available resources, problems & opportunities. They listened patiently to our politely posed questions and answered with great interest. We arrived at sensitizes and important issues using open ended questions. We requested them to help us in mapping, modeling, matrix ranking, wealth ranking, transact walk and other PRA activities and they showed enthusiastic & active participation. Towards the end, we felt as if we belong to a single family. We knew each other both personally and professionally. We got tremendous cooperation from both the villages’ residents. On the last day of completion of PRA, we thanked each villager individually for helping us throughout by devoting their valuable time & sharing their bountiful experiences. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 16

21. RAPPORT BUILDING WITH THE HOST FARMER In Achyutpur, I visited Mr. Shyam sundar barik’s (my host farmer) home. I wished him with folded hands and gave my introduction in brief.He greeted us happily into the house and addressed me to the other members of the house. Then he offered chair to me. They asked about my native place and about my family members. I also interacted with them informally. Farming is his main occupation. He has a joint family. He is of average economic status. He is literate and his hand is good in farming operation. He has a great knowledge about farming.I was very happy by interacting with my host farmer family member. I took a good bye with a smiling face & they assured me for their fully cooperation. Mr. Prabhat lenka who lived in Achyutpur was also my 2 nd host farmer. On the 1 st day of my visit to the village I searched his home by asking other villagers and finally I found it. When I entered my host farmer house I knocked the door and after some time host farmers wife came and open the door. Then I wished her with folded hand and I introduce myself as a student of College of Agriculture and here, we are allotted host farmers to learn more about agriculture, crop production, and enhancing the practical knowledge.My host wasn’t there. But his son met me who was a genius in agriculture. They asked about my native place and about my family members. I also interacted with them informally. I enquired about him & his family by asking informal questionsand also he told me that he will fully cooperativewith me and takes me to his crop field next week and gives all practical knowledge. I was very happy by interacting with my host farmer family member. After all interaction I departed from his home with a cordial NAMASTE. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 17

22. VILLAGE- AT A GLANCE VILLAGE-ACHYUTPUR (IRRIGATED): • Name of the village- Achyutpur • Gp-avayapur • Block – Dharmasala • District – Jajpur • Total Geographical area- 120ha • Total cultivated area – 85ha • Total population -1050 1) Total families in the village : 199 i) No. of farm families – 116 ii) No. of non-farm families- 83 2) Total population of the village :1050 i) Male- 550 ii) Female – 500 3) Literacy percentage : 60% i) Male – 68% ii) Female – 32% 4) Category of farm families : i) Small ii) Marginal iii) Landless 5) Land use pattern of village : i) Land under cultivation- 85Ha ii) Land under fallow – NIL COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 18

23. 6) Secondary Occupation : 1. Farming 2. Daily labour, wage earning 3. Service holder Business 7) Soil and Land type (Area in Acre) : i. Type of land under cultivation • Upland • Medium Land • Low Land ii. Soil Type • Loamy • Sandy loam • Clay loam The average rainfall (in mm) – 1400 mm 8) Area under irrigation : 9) Cropping pattern : Rice – pulses Rice – vegetable 10) Crops grown in the village : i. Paddy ii. potato iii. Colocasia iv. Other vegetables COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 19

24. 11) Others : i. Type of fish cultured – Rohi, Bhakura, China Rohi, Grass Carb, Silver carb ii. Poultry – Desi bird,banraj iii. Diary – Desi, Jersy iv. Goat - Desi 12) Agricultural implements : i. Desi plough – every farm family ii. M.B. plough – Most farm family iii. Sprayer – 100 iv. Tractor – 5 v. Pumpset – 22 vi. Powertiller – 3 vii. Winnower – 5 viii. Transplanter – 2 ix. Rice Mill - Nil 13) Agro Inputs used in the village : i. H.Y.V. Seed Paddy – Swarna, Pooja, Jangalajata, Ranidhan ii. Hybrid rice – iii. Sented rice – Kudral, Sitabhog, Geetanjali iv. Fertilizer – Urea, DAP, MOP, Gromor COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 20

25. v. Pestiside – Monocrotophos, Rogor, Chloropyriphos, Malathion, Endosulfan. vi. Organic Manure – FYM vii. Bio-fertilizer : Azolla, Azotobacter, Rhizobium viii. Fungicide : Thiram, Bavistin 14) List of Govt. and non-Govt. Organisation functioning in the village : i. K.V.K. (Krishi Vigyan Kendra) ii. Govt. officials – Asst. Agriculture Officer iii. Seed Sale Centre – SSC iv. Avayapur cooperative society 15) Facilities available in the village : i. Pucca road ii. Electricity iii. Water supply iv. Market v. Telephone facility vi. Self Help Group vii. School facilities viii. Panchayat Office 16) Transport : i. Bullock cart – 6 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 21

26. ii. Bicycle – 100 iii. Two-wheeler – 70 iv. Four wheeler - 6 17) Opportunities for villagers : i. Water harvesting structure ii. Improvement of irrigation system iii. Mushroom unit iv. Vermi compost unit v. Honeybee rearing vi. Diary unit vii. Orchard TRANSECT WALK INTRODUCTION: Transect walk is a kind of exploratory walk which is undertaken by the team along with the villagers to observe and send in minute details, the differences of a particular area. It is an exploratory walk, with the help of key participants, around the village for identification of different problems and to know about features of the village like land type, resource, topography land use and crop grown etc. PURPOSE :- To get an idea about farming practices, cropping pattern the physical layout, irrigation facilities etc. To know the agro ecosystem of village To get the cross sectional view of the village COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 22

27. IMPORTANT THINGS THAT ARE TO BE OBSERVED ON TRANSECT :- Physical features :- Topography, Hydrology, Soil types and problem such as erosion etc. Locally involved technologies and management systems. These include traditional indigenous technologies that farmers have been using and their management. Crops and Agriculture :- Land are cropping practices and patterns crop relates problem and various locally applied control measures crop productivity, yield etc. are studied. TRANSECT MAP OF VILLAGE ACHYUTPUR Particulars Up land Medium Land Low land Housing Forest land land Soil type Sandy Loam Loamy Clay loam Sandy loam Laterite & loam Slope Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Water Borewell Borewell Canal,pond Tubewell, rainfall Resource borewell pond Crops Vegetable Rice, sugarcane Rice, Mongo, - colocasia cocoutn Trees Eucalyptus Neem, Banyan Coconut Neem,bel Sall tree tree Mango, Eucalyptus Fertility Medium High High Medium Low COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 23

28. Ground 40ft 30ft 20ft 25-30ft 40-50ft Water Table Paddy varity Khandagiri, Swarna, Swarna 1018,puja ---- ----- Udaygiri, sub-1 Tapaswani Weed Medium Low Low Low ----- problem Livestock Poultry Cow, Goat Duck, Cow , fishery poultry Enterprise Dairy unit Dairy unit, Poultry Pisiculture Shop unit Institution Temple, Temple,Anganwadi, Temple School Youthclub Land use Cultivation , Cultivation cultivation Habitation Plantation institution ,enterprise unit Problems Water Unavaility of Drainage Lack of Deforestation scarcity agricultural inputs problem institution Opportinuty Apiary, Straw can be used Pond can be Mushroom Afforestation floriculture, for mushroom unit used for unit forage land fishery COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 24

29. VILLAGE MAP This is the construction of a map of village area using rangoli powders or chalk on the ground or a cement floor for understanding the village layout, main features such as housing, temples, stores and other infrastructure and other resources like forests, lands, watersheds etc. PURPOSE :- To get an impression of the social and physical layout of the village as perceived by villager s themselves. To understand globally the social structure of the village, who live where facilities are there, under they are located etc. To get an impression of the natural resource environment of the village perceived by the villagers. SITUATION WHERE APPLICABLE :- Participatory maps are useful in identifying status of the land holding and animals of different households. In identifying beneficiaries of various developmental programmes etc. Through participatory mapping other items like dry land / irrigated land, forest land, river and temple lands, tanks and nullahs and other water resources could be identified. The participatory mapping can also be used to prepare treatment plans for soil and water conservations, forestry and other treatments. Barchana is a semi irrigated village situated at a distance of 200m from the NH-5. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 25

30. RESOURCES BASES OF ACHYUTPUR :- 1) Natural Resources :- i. Upland ii. Medium land iii. Low land iv. Fallow land v. Common area vi. Paddy vii. Pulses viii. Vegetable ix. Colocasia x. Mango Orchard 2) Hydrological resources :- i. No. of ponds – 3 ii. No. of tubewell –6 iii. No. of well –2 iv. Pisciculture unit – 3 v. Lift irrigation point –4 vi. High Level Canal – 1 vii. Area of water bodies – 15 Acre viii. Largest pond—2.5 acre ix. Smallest Pond – 0.8 acre COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 26

31. 3) Livestock Resources :- i. No. of Desi cows – 120 ii. No. of Jersey cows – 20 i. No. of bullocks – ii. No. of Poultry –200 iii. No. of goats –50 iv. No. of sheeps –5 4) Man made resources :- i. Religious institutions Temples – 4 i. Social Organizations a) Self Help Group (SHG) – 11 b) Youth club – 1 c) Farmer’s club - 1 d) Community centre - 1 5) Crop resources :- i. Upland – Rice, Coconut, Drumstick ii. Medium land – Rice, Green gram, black gram, Banana, Coconut iii. Low Land – Rice, green gram, black gram, Colocassia, Vegetable like Brinjal, Onion etc. iv. Fruit Crops – Papaya, Guava, Mango, Tamarind, Date palm, Lemon COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 27

32. 6) Human Resources :- i. Marginal farmers (< 1 ha) ii. Small farmers (1-2 ha) iii. Medium Farmer (2-4 ha) iv. Landless farmer v. SOCIAL MAP Social map is a map which depicts the different social structures like caste structure, religious and social institutions. Social map is a schematic diagram showing the socio-economic picture of the entire village. The survey provides the following findings. 1. No. of households-- 200 2. Total population – 1050 3. Caste system of a village i. General ii. SC/ST iii. OBC 4. Position of different institutions : SAHI :- • Diha Sahi • Lenka Sahi Barala Sahi • Nayak Sahi • Barika Sahi COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 28

33. RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION :- • Sidheswar Temple • Chandrasekhar Temple • Gopinath Temple • Gutumadevi Mandir • Grama Devi Mandir • Mandapa SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS : • Self Help Group 11 • Youth Club – 1 • Anganbadi Centre –1 • Achyutpur U.G. U.P. School • Achyutpur High School • Farmer’s Club • Old Age Home • Community Centre  Co-operative Society CROP MAP • Crop map is a map of the village cropping area using rangoli powders or chalk or any other really available materials on the ground / a cement floor. Through this increase an understanding of village layout can be obtained showing the main features such as water availability, soil type, land COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 29

34. situation, topography, Fertility status and various crop grown under those conditions. • To know the main crop, verification, cropping system main cropping area, potential crop etc. of village. • To get all information regarding crops required for preparation of action plan for a specific category or item. CROP RESOURCES :- • Upland – Sandy Loam • Medium land – Sandy Loam soil • Low land – clay loam soil • Crop Grown – • Pulses – Green Gram, Black gram • Cereals – Paddy • Commercial crop – Rice,vegetable • Plantation Crop – Coconut, Mango, Banana, Papaya,drumstick HYDROLOGYMAP A hydrology map depicts the location of different water sources like ponds, rivers, canals, wells, tube wells etc. It also contains the depth of water table of different regions I.e. upland, medium land, lowland. Purpose  To get an impression about different water sources and depth of water table of different regions of the village. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 30

35. Process We collected materials like rangoli powders, chalks, gravel, color stones, sticks etc. for mapping. We purchased big size paper sheets for redrawing the map which was drawn on the ground .Then we organize the villagers and sat in the club verandah and enquired them about the various water sources and their area in the village. Particulars ACHYUTPUR (Irrigated) No. of ponds 3 No. of rivers 0 No. of wells 2 No. of tube wells 6 No. of lift pumps 4 WATER TABLE DEPTH Land Type ACHYUTPUR(Irrigated) Upland 50-60ft Medium 40-50ft Lowland 20-25ft COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 31

36. INTERVENTIONS:  In village Achyutpur , there 1 river(lingara river) which can be converted to commercial Pisciculture units. As the water table depth is high, there is large scope of irrigation through well and tube wells   In village Achyutpur,as there is no ponds,there is scope for digging 2-3 ponds which can also be converted to fishery unit for fingerlings production. For irrigation very deep bore wells are required as the water table is at very low depth.So more no of tube wells can be dug which can provide drinking water and also help in irrigation. ENTERPRISE MAP It contains various enterprises those are present in the village. Enterprise is a small or large business which is started with the venture of a person aiming to make profit in future. It includes various enterprises like poultry unit, fishery unit, diary unit, goat unit and various agro-industries. Purpose  To know about various existing enterprises in the village Particulars ACHYUTPUR(Irrigated) Poultry Unit 1 Fishery unit No Goatery unit No Dairy Unit No Retail shops 1 Rice Mill No COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 32

37. Process We collected materials like color powders, chalks, gravel, colorstones, sticks etc. for mapping. We purchased big size paper sheets for redrawing the map which was drawn on the ground .Then we organize the villagers and sat in the club verandah and enquired them about the various enterprises present in the village. INTERVENTIONS  In the village there is no mushroom unit. Training should be given to build up mushroom units in Achyutpur villages to women.   In the village processed food and value added product(chilly sauce,tomato ketchup,squash) preparation can be adopted as small enterprises through SHG.   We can introduce rice mill in Achyutpur and cottage industry in the village.   In Achyutpur scope is there for digging 2-3 ponds. So those ponds can be converted to Pisciculture unit,duckery unit. MOBILITY MAP The community can get goods and services from different places. Some resources will be available within the PRA other on the boundaries of the community. People are daily, weekly and occasionally fetch for the resources in and out of their area. PURPOSE- The diagram is used to understand the place travelled, resources collected and to identify the person travelling. The resources could have problems the roads and the means of transportation may not appropriate. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 33

38. PROCESS- We collected materials like chalk for drawing of mobility map. On the scheduled date we arrived and invited some male and female members and told them in brief about the exercise. Then they draw the mobility map and started discussing and gradually opened up. We had drawn two different mobility maps for male and female. APPLICATION- The PRA team and other information resources in short supply and the reason for not having in community. The community action plan includes ways and means to get critical resources in the future. The difficulties faced on the road and resources center taken due consideration for future development. DAILY WORK PROFILE Daily work profile describes how villagers (male & female) spend a day of 24 hours along with different kinds of activities and time allotted for each activity. Daily work profile can be taken for men & women in both categories of farmers and farm laborers. Purpose : To get an account of time spend by farmers & laborers men & women for various activities in a day of 24 hours. Data on village earning, rest & recreation hours. Data on leisure time which can be utilized for development of workers. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 34

39. For Men : Time Duration 5.00 AM to 6.00 AM 6.00 AM to 7.00 AM 6.30 AM to 7.30 AM 7.30 AM to 8.00 AM 8.00 AM to 11.30 AM 11.30 AM to 12.30 PM 12.30 PM to 1.00 PM 1.00 PM to 3.00 PM 3.00 PM to 5.00 PM 5.00 PM to 6.30 PM 7.00 PM to 9.30 PM 9.30 PM to 10.30 PM 10.30 PM to 11.00 PM Activities Waking up Refreshing Feeding the cattle Breakfast Field work Taking bath Lunch Rest Field Work Playing cards, shopping Watching TV or attaining village meetings Dinner Sleep COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 35

40. For Women : Time Duration 3.30 AM to 4.00 AM 4.00 AM to 5.30 AM 5.30 AM to 6.30 AM 6.30 AM to 7.00 AM 7.00 AM to 7.30 AM 7.30 AM to 8.00 AM 8.00 AM to 12.00 PM 12.00 PM to 1.00 PM 1.00 PM to 1.30 PM 1.30 PM to 3.30 PM 3.30 PM to 5.00 PM 5.00 PM to 6.00 PM 6.00 PM to 6.30 PM 6.30 PM to 7.00 PM 7.00 PM to 8.00 PM 8.00 PM to 9.30 PM 9.30 PM to 10.30 PM 10.30 PM to 11.00 PM Activities Wake up Household activities Taking bath Worshipping God Breakfast preparation Have breakfast Cooking Lunch Washing utensils Rest Gossiping Household activities Worshipping God Have tiffin Watching TV Cooking Dinner Sleep COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 36

41. MATRIX RANKING Villager’s preference & attitude towards a particular topic of interest is revealed to us by this technique. It helps us to understand farmer’s priorities in crop varieties, vegetables, tree species, livestock categories, soil & water conservation techniques, irrigation methods etc. The reason for their liking & disliking & the suitable difference in choice & priority among the villagers of different areas can also be understood which help us to prioritize & determine the strategy. PURPOSE :- • To get better understanding of farmer’s decision making process. • To identify criteria used to prioritize & select certain items of activities over others. Situation where applicable :- Matrix ranking can be used to study a range of subjects like soil, crops, crop varieties, trees, fodder, types of cattle & breeds . WEALTH RANKING Wealth ranking is a method of ranking or grouping of households on the basis of income, wealth and other local measures of wellbeing. Different criteria can be used for wealth ranking based on rural perceptions. Wealth ranking is based on the presumption that rural people have the necessary knowledge to group households which implies that they have knowledge of kinds and positions of household assets, other items and attributes to the household concern. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 37

42. Purpose To asses and identify the pattern of wealth possession by the villagers based on their various criteria. To identify resourceful and resource poor villagers through general consensus. How : The decision group involving villagers follows different system to categorize community members. WEALTH RANKING OF ACHYUTPUR VILLAGE : Sl.No. Category Criteria No. of Families 1 Very Rich a) Land 01 Area – >30 acre b) High income c) Two and four wheeler d) More foodstoc k e) Business, service f) Self sufficien t g) More risk bearing ability h) Ability to help other COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 38

43. 2 Rich a) Land area (20 acre) 15 b) More income c) Govt employee d) Two wheelers e) more livestock f) Self sufficient 3 Medium a) Land area(5-10acer) 25 b) less livestock c) Low to medium income d) less foodstock 4 Poor a) land area(1-5acer) 75 b) low incom c) kaccha house d) Very less livestock e) Occasional labour 5 Very poor a) No land holding 83 b) No live stock c)Yenanis & labourers d) limited incom COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 39

44. RESOURCE FLOW ANALYSIS Resource flow analysis means whatever inputs for cultivation or food products either available within the village or import from the outside of village.  When these all resources are designed into a map form it is called as resource flow map or inflow-outflow map.  For paddy : INPUT OUTPUT 1. Seed 30 bags of paddy 2. 1. 20 bags – consumption – Fertiliser husk (Cattle feed) – milk – (FYM, consumption – marketing DAP, – milk (Rs.16/- per litre) & Urea, curd and cheese. Potash 2. 10 bags – Marketing – & azolla) Money earned used for 3. Tractor farming & other 3. Straw – 70% Cow feed – equipm 30% other purpose ents COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 40

45. For live stock : INPUT OUTPUT 1. Cattle 5. milk 2. Chicks 6. meat (marketed) 3. Finger lings 4. feed For Vegetables : INPUT OUTPUT 1. Seed (Amaranthus, 4. Vegetables – Coriander, pumpkin, consumption – Okra) marketing – money 2. Fertilizer earned used for 3. Organic manure farming and rest in saving account. VENN DIAGRAM • It is a method to find out who, what person or organizations or institutions are important in a community. • The venn diagram represents the relationship among the various institutions, organizations, programmes or individuals and with each other and with the village as per the perceiveness of villager. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 41

46. Purpose : • To identify the groups and institutions operating in the village and the interactions among them. • To know the extent of co-operating and involvement in developmental programmes. • It indicates the relative importance or un-importance of a particular institution / individual in a particular village. • It helps in decision making in the community. How : This exercise is carried out by improving the villagers as key informants such as elders, religious persons, extension persons and other knowledgeous persons with the use of different sizes of circles or paper contents indicating the importance of institution and the extent of benefits gained by the villagers. LIST OF INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN VENN DIAGRAM : School, bank, Police Station, SHG, Market, College, Co-operative society, station, Block, , Post Office, Farmer’s Club, K.V.K., Gram Panchayat, Anganwadi, rice mill, fire station ,hospital, veterinary dispensary. CONCLUSION : From this venn diagram we may conclude that they get benefitted from kvk, market ,rice mill ,block, cooperative society, and hospital. They feel that fire station also plays a measure role for them but they are not getting benefitted from it. As compared to fire station they get more benefit in post office but they don’t give too much importance to it. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 42

47. TIME LINE It is chronology or sequence of events that have taken place in a particular village or area or community. These may related general historical events of the village, or to specify the subjects or sectors such as health, education, agriculture, animal husbandry and allied sectors etc. Purpose : • The time line helps on in remembering from back up to the present date such as the year when road was build, adoption of HYV seeds of different crops, fertilizer, pesticide, farm inputs, occurrence of neutral calamities like flood, drought, cyclone, epidemics, insect attack. • This exercise can be applied to plan the objective developmental programme on agriculture, health, nutrition, animal husbandry along with helps to understand the trend and changing need and interest of farming community. How : • Group discussion should be done by interviewing the key individuals regarding the past events of the villager. The elderly persons should be involved as they can remember the events from the very beginning. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 43

48. TIME LINE OF ACHYUTPUR VILLAGE: Sl. Year Historical Event No. 1 1518 Establishment of village 2 1955 Establishment of grampanchayat 3 1976 Establishment of abhayapur cooperative society 4 1986 First use of TV in the village 5 1990 First use of sprayer 6 1991 Establishment of tubewell 7 1996 First use of motorcycle 8 1998 Availability of kisan credit card 9 2000 Indraawas facility 10 2001 First use of tractor 11 2004 Establishment of packka road 12 2006 First use of mobile phone 13 2007 Pragati krushak club 14 2007 Village was adopted by kvk 15 2007 First use of impliment 16 2008 Mushroom cultivation was adopted 17 2009 SHG organization in village 18 2010 Poultry unit in village 19 2011 Establishment of anganwadi COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 44

49. SEASONALITY Seasonality is an exercise to determine seasonal patterns in rural areas as related to farming practices, rainfall, labour availability etc. It attempts to establish regular cycle or pattern of activity and occurrences within a community over 12 months. It determine the seasonal calendar as understood and practiced by the villagers. This is determined in terms of odiya months, like Baisakha, Jyestha etc. and then adjusted to the English calendar. This is built upon using different lengths of sticks or numbers of stores or seeds to quantify items such as employment, availability of agri inputs, income, expenditure etc. Purpose : • A seasonal calendar helps to present large quantities of diverse information in a common time frame. It compares community activities for month by month across sectorial boundary. It identifies cycles of activity that occur within the life of community on regular basis and helps determining whether there are common periods of excessive environmental problems of opportunity over the course of normal year. These yearly cycles are important in determining for example : labour availability, timing for project activity, potential absorptive capacity for new activities, times of diseases and food shortage and employment generation. • Data for seasonal calendar was collected from community group. Effort was made to diversify informants from community groups i.e. men and women, informal leader, young and old residents. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 45

50. LIVELIHOOD ANALYSIS Livelihood analysis reveals the sources of income for rural people and the occupational and economic categories prevalent in the village.  It is represented by the help of pie-chart. Purpose  To identify major economic and occupational groups of the village and their sources of income. OCCUPATION ACHYUTPUR(IRRIGATED) VILLAGERS PERCENTAGE FARMING 65% BOTH FARMING 25% AND PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SERVICE 3% SKILLED LABOUR 3% GOVT.SECTOR 2% BUSINESS 2% COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 46

51. INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES (ITKs) 1.) Storage of rice by mixing turmeric powder : • Turmeric powder mixed with rice to reduce the insect damage in rice. 2.) Storage of rice with red chilly : • Addition of 20-30 red chilly in 1 quintal of rice bag prevent the attacked stored grain pest. The pungent smell act as repellant. 3.) Cow urine acts as fungicide of vegetable diseases : • Cow urine is stirred with water, then filtered 2-3 times in white cotton. Then extract collected is then spread in the field. 4.) Tulasi leaf extract control blast of rice : • Leaf extract prevent blast disease in rice. 5.) Leaf eating insect of pointed gourd can be controlled by neem oil • Neem leaf oil can control insect of pointed gourd • Also controls many diseases 6.) Control of Wilt in green gram by seed treatment with kerosene : • Green gram seeds are smeared with kerosene oil before sowing to prevent wilt. 7.) Control of BLB in rice : Use of cow dung slurry in rice field. 8.) For control of foot and mouth disease in the cattle : Apply mixture of coconut oil and camphor in affected areas. 9.) Control of gundhi bug in rice: Apply mixture of cow urine, husk and kerosene. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 47

52. 10.) For the aphid control in country bean: Use of detergent water. 11.) For the control of different sucking pests: Use of 1k.g of each neem, karanja, tulsi, arakha, bael and fresh cow urine 1lit mixed in 10 lit of water and is applied in the field after 7 days. 12.) Little Leaf of Chili is controlled with the help of fish scales. 13.) Bundles of wild tulasi are put in paddy plot to prevent the attack of gundhi bug. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITISATIONS Problem is a condition or a situation that the people after study with or without have decided need changing. Problem are the barrier for achieving goal or objective. OBJECTIVE : To list out the problem present in village situation For development of action plan Severity of problems Frequency of occurence Distribution of problem PROCESS : Identification of problem was done by discussing with a group of farmer. All the problems in area were collected and identified democratically through participation of village people. The villagers were asked to identify the problem, most felt & of widest concern affecting major people and should related to family, community abd national situation. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 48

53. The problems are given below that were being identified in the village “ACHYUTPUR”. 1. Yellow stem borer in rice 2. Low yield in green gram 3. Failure in Govt. seed supply 4. FMD of cattle 5. Eryiophide mite attack in coconut 6. Irrigation problem in rabi season 7. Labour security PROBLEM CAUSE ANALYSIS After identification and prioritization of problem the cause analysis should be done in order to develop a particular action plan. The three main problems in village achyutpur are • Yield loss of paddy • Low yield of cauliflower • Distress seal of potato i. Yield loss of paddy : • Primary causes a) Pest attack b) Improper fertilization application c) Loss due to bull grazing • Secondary causes a) Mono cropping of rice b) Heavy urea application c) Lack of knowledge about soil fertility of their land d) Improper drainage channel COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 49

54. • Tertiary causes a) Higher percentage of low land b) Risk of crop loss c) Repeated use of same variety and chemical d) Lack of soil testing facility • Intervention a) Facility of mobile testing van b) Training about multiple cropping ,crop rotation and other cropping system c) Guidance on plant pest control by plant protection officer d) Control of bull by local means and fencing ii. Low yield of cauliflower : • Primary causes a) Insect pest attack b) Frost effect c) Bull grazing • Secondary causes a) Resistance of pest to insecticide and pesticide b) Lack of fencing • Tertiary causes a) Use of same chemical and same variety year after year b) Intervention a) Proper pest and disease control b) Protection of field by fencing iii. Distress seal of potato : • Primary causes Lack of cold storage • Secondary causes Ignorant activity of government COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 50

55. • Intervention a) Preparation of value added products b) Establishment of cold storage by government SWOT ANALYSIS OF ACHYUTPUR (IRRIGATED) 1.STRENGTH  Irrigation through canal, pond , bore well etc.  Use of modern machinery in farm.  Use of hybrid & HYV seeds.  Availability of farm inputs like seeds, fertilizer , 2 nd pesticides.  Cultivation of commercials plantation crop. 2.WEAKNESS  Inadequate storage facility.  Lack of Knowledge and information on various modern technologies related to Agriculture .  Some youth clubs are defunded. 3.OPPORTUNITIES  Established of storage structure.  Promotion of IFS.  Post harvest products and their sale .  Mushroom unit , vermiculture and apiary unit .  Water harvesting structures. 4.THREAT  Involvement of middle man and political interference.  Migration of labour.  Least linkage with credit institutions.  Yield reduction due to monkey and OX . COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 51

56. ACTION PLAN OF VILLAGE ACHYUTPUR (IRRIGATED) For cropping area : • Soil testing for judicious fertilizer management • Seed treatment • Use of bio-fertilizer • Replacement of Swarna variety with Ranidhan and Pratikhya • Introduction of flood resistant variety swarna sub-I and scented rice variety sitabhoga • Seed production programme • IPM and INM can be undertaken • Use of herbicides and Mechanical weeder • Use of neem coated Urea • Use of biopesticides • Insitu moisture conservation, mulching and water harvesting For Waterlogged area :- • Proper drainage facility • Pisciculture • Rice and fish farming system • Piggery For Homestead Area : • Mushroom • Poultry • Grafted Mango • Diary • Apiary COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 52

57. For women : • Mushroom cultivation • Enhancement of SHG • Imparting training to the farm women on cottage industry such as bamboo. For Rural youth : • Formation of youth club • Formation of marketing co-operative society • Impairing training on skill on non-agricultural sector • Forming Farm science club • Training on SRI method of cultivation ACTIVITIES THAT WERE DONE During rawe A. CROP PLANNING FOR DIFFERENT SITUATION • Crop planning allows us to generate an idea of what need to get prepared, seeded or transplanted to meet the needs of the marketing plan. Crop rotations, planned orders of specific crop or crop families, reduce the impact of pests, pathogens and weeds. Including cover crops in a farm rotation can add significant fertility to the soil, build soil organic matter, attract beneficial insects and reduce the weed pressure. • It’s hard to defor a particular farm or village without a proper map. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 53

58. • During our visit to Village Achyutpur which is a rice dominated area and of which most of the farmers are marginal in land holding where we came across various aspects of agriculture. The RAWE programme was held at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Badchana, Jajpur where we came across various famers who are very advanced in every aspect of farming and they know a lot more than us . One such example is Kishori Kant Rout who is an advanced farmer and knows about most of the schemes and advancement in technology. • They were mostly using cultivars of rice like khandagiri, Udaygiri, Tejas, Tapaswini, Nadiaphula, Culture (Early Duration Type), Swarna, Swarna sub – 1, Beena ( Medium Duration Type), Pooja, 1018, Kalashree, Chakadola, Sarchina (Long Duration Type) etc. Mostly it was an irrigated area. In rice cultivation they were actually following the recommended dose of fertiliser application like 40:20:20, 60:30:30 and 80:40:40 N2: P2O5:K2O kg/ha for early, medium and long duration respectively. We also came across some of the weeds like Avena fatua, Echinochola crus-gali, Leptocloa chinensis etc. To control using implements like cono weeder and the chemicals like pretilachlor, nomini gold, hitcel, kalinga heera etc. Achyutpur is an advanced farm mechanised village, most of the farmers were using latest farm implements in the field like MB plough, Cultivator, Rotavator, Cono weeder, Transplanter, Tractor, Seed cum fertiliser drill, Combine harvester etc. • A group of students started collecting information from Kishori Kant Rout and fellow farmers about the crop plan followed by them. From the info provided by them we got to know that most of the farmers follow multiple farming, the COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 54

59. type of soil was basically clay loam and clay type, for irrigation they mostly depend on bore wells and canal water and the type of land was medium and low land. During Kharif season the farmers cultivate rice and during the Rabi season they grow mostly vegetables (Cabbage, cauliflower, coriander, onion), pulses (green gram, black gram), sugar crops basically sugarcane and even some crops like groundnut, colocasia and potato. In the Kharif season they are practising sowing of paddy in single row method (BGREI Scheme). Recommendations: To adopt the multiple cropping system along with the other allied sectors like poultry, mushroom . Not to use the same varieties to avoid fluctuation in the field. Apply herbicides and pesticides in time with recommended dose. WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES MANAGEMENT OF WEEDS : It can be done by these methods: • CULTURAL METHOD • MECHANICAL METHOD • CHEMICAL METHOD • BIOLOGICAL METHOD COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 55

60. 1.CULTURAL METHOD : • Summer ploughing, Crop rotation,Inter cropping, Line sowing, Timely sowing, etc. 2.MECHANICAL METHOD: • These are :Hand hoeing, hand pulling, tillage, sickling, Mulching, burning, digging etc.. 3.CHEMICAL METHOD:  Rice (Direct Seeded Condition)  • Butachlor @ 1kg/ha and Pretilachlor @ 0.75kg/ha. The Pretilachlor is also applied with Safner. Anilophos and Pendimethalin is also applied @ 0.3kg/ha & 1.0kg/ha respectively. • 2, 4 D Ethyl Ester @ 0.5 kg/ha after 25 days of the emergence of the crop along with Safner @ 0.5%. Transplanted Rice • All is same as the direct seeded rice plant except the application of Pendimethalin. • On the other hand Oxadiazone in the name of Ronestar @ 0.5kg/ha and Thiobencarb in the trade name of Saturn @ 1.5kg/ha are applied as Pre emergence herbicide. • In case of Nursery the herbicides applied are Soffit, Thiobencarb and Propanil @ 0.5kg/ha, 1kg/ha and 3kg/ha respectively. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 56

61. PULSES: • Metachlor and Pendimethalin @ 0.75kg/ha are applied as pre emergence that to 1-2DAS. • On the other hand Fuzalfopethyl @ 0.05kg/ha is applied as post emergence that to 20 days after emergence. SUGARCANE • Pre emergence application of Metrimuzin @ 0.75kg/ha and Atrazine @ 1kg/ha 1-2 days after the planting of the setts. • Post emergence application of 2,4 D ethyl ester @ 0.8 kg/ha after 25-30 Days of the growth of the plant which is generally planted in the Dec- Jan. • Early post emergence of Glyphosate @ 1kg/ha after 60- 90 days after planting. POTATO • Metrimuzin @ 0.05kg/ha and Pendinethalin @ 0.75 kg/ha are applied as pre emergence application. • Fuzalfopethyl @ 0.5kg/ha as Post emergence. • In case of SUGARCANE, MAIZE & SORGHUM striga is an important weed and to control it 2,4 D ethyl ester @ 1kg/ha is applied. COLE CROPS • Pendimethalin @ 1kg/ha as pre emergence application and Fluchloralin @ 0.75kg/ha is applied as Pre plant incorporation. • Fuzalfopethyl @ 0.75kg/ha is applied as post emergence. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, OUAT, BBSR-3 Page 57

62. 4.BIOLOGICAL CONTROL : • We can control by biological means. There are some biological entities which will suppress the weeds without harming our crops. • Like Zygogramma bicolorata a beetle which suppresses the carrot grass,

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