Published on January 7, 2008
Slide1: UNDP RBA Workshop on MDG-Based National Development Strategies Module 3: Rural Development Investment Needs to Achieve the MDGs February 27-March 3, 2006 Introduction: Introduction The rural development investment cluster includes interventions to: increase food production increase incomes ensure access to basic infrastructure services Key Interventions: Key Interventions Agricultural Productivity Rural Income Generation Transport Energy Water Supply and Sanitation Water Resources Infrastructure and Management Slide4: Soil Fertility Depletion 132 million tons of N, 15 million tons of P, 90 million tons of K (worth $11 billion/year) was lost from cultivated land in 37 African countries during the last 30 years Smaling, 1993 Sanchez, 2002 The Problem: Falling per capita Food Availability in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Problem: Falling per capita Food Availability in Sub-Saharan Africa Slide6: The Yield Gap: Raising Agricultural Productivity is Possible Reported grain yield levels in Sub-Saharan Africa Agricultural Productivity -Choose Interventions: Agricultural Productivity - Choose Interventions Focus on food-insecure farmers Interventions aimed at raising food productivity to increase household consumption and generate marketable surplus Interventions cover: Investments to increase soil health (e.g., fertilizers, agroforestry) Provision of improved seeds and planting material Investments in small scale on-farm water management for agriculture (e.g. water harvesting, conservation, irrigation technology) Agriculture and irrigation extension services with a special focus on reaching women farmers Research in agriculture Develop agriculture support systems (early warning systems) Interventions to Improve Nutritional Outcomes: Interventions to Improve Nutritional Outcomes Direct nutritional interventions to pregnant women and lactating mothers Encourage complementary feeding for infants School meals sourced through local production Reduce under-nutrition among children under 5 years Reduce vitamin and mineral deficiencies targeted at vulnerable groups, through micronutrient supplementation when needed Emergency relief (early warning systems, safety nets, direct food aid) Rural Income Generation -Choose Interventions: Rural Income Generation - Choose Interventions Help the poor connect with markets Farmers associations Community and market centers Improving transportation systems Training and skills development Value-addition/agro-based processing activities Quality financial services including microfinance Storage facilities to reduce post harvest losses Agricultural Productivity and Rural Income Generation - Define Targets : Agricultural Productivity and Rural Income Generation - Define Targets Agricultural productivity Taking 1990 as the baseline year, enable at least half of the food-insecure subsistence farm households to grow enough food to feed themselves by 2015 Rural income generation Taking 1990 as the baseline year, provide at least half the food-insecure households in rural areas with access to food storage facilities, quality financial services, value added food processing services, and marketing organizations (such as cooperatives) by 2015. Estimate Resource Needs: Estimate Resource Needs TOTAL NEEDS Target Population Cost, HR, infrastructure components for key interventions Key Interventions: Key Interventions Agricultural Productivity Rural Income Generation Transport Energy Water Supply and Sanitation Water Resources Infrastructure and Management The Case for Transport Infrastructure and Services as Part of an MDG strategy: The Case for Transport Infrastructure and Services as Part of an MDG strategy Transport is not mentioned in the MDGs, but improved transport services (incl. roads, railways, and ports) are critical to: Lower cost of national and international trade Reduce cost of agricultural inputs and raise farmgate prices for produce Improve prospects for non-farm rural employment Improve access to social services (in particular emergency obstetric care to reduce MMR) Reduce time poverty – particularly of women Transport -Choose Interventions: Transport - Choose Interventions Transport systems for health and other essential social services and infrastructure maintenance Upgrading and construction of footpaths, paved secondary or district roads as well as small paved feeder and community roads. Institutional structure and funding arrangements for adequate road maintenance (such as dedicated road funds). Transport -Possible Targets: Transport - Possible Targets By 2015 establish national systems for providing and maintaining motorbikes or other vehicles in support of healthcare, agricultural extension, maintenance of infrastructure, etc. Ensure that 90 percent of the rural population is within 2km of the nearest motorized pick-up point by 2015. Transport Needs Assessment: Transport Needs Assessment Elements of a roads needs assessment: Transport services cost of setting up and operating an integrated fleet of vehicles to provide key social services and infrastructure maintenance see Riders for Health costing model (www.riders.org) Transport infrastructure carry out an inventory of existing road stock to ascertain the need for rehabilitation and regular maintenance estimate additional roads needed to meet the access targets Key Interventions: Key Interventions Agricultural Productivity Rural Income Generation Transport Energy Water Supply and Sanitation Water Resources Infrastructure and Management The Case for Energy Infrastructure and Services as Part of an MDG Strategy: The Case for Energy Infrastructure and Services as Part of an MDG Strategy Lower indoor air pollution (e.g. to reduce U5MR) Improve provision of social services (e.g. lighting in schools, refrigeration in health centers) Increase agricultural productivity (e.g. through groundwater pumps) Reduce women’s time poverty (e.g. to halve poverty and achieve gender equity goal) Make energy available for manufacturing industries and other productive uses (e.g. to halve poverty) Halt deforestation and other land degradation Energy Services for the MDGs: Energy Services for the MDGs Cooking with modern fuels and improved stoves Electricity Motive power/energy to be generated by simple means, water pumping, etc Energy Choose “MDG-Compatible” Interventions: Energy Choose “MDG-Compatible” Interventions Efficient cooking stoves, modern fuels & improved ventilation Increase sustainable biomass production (e.g. agroforestry, woodlots or community forestry, area closures, etc.) Off-grid electricity together with necessary wiring to schools and health facilities complemented with battery charging stations Rehabilitation and extension of the electric power grid/connection Motive power infrastructure and fuels/diesel generator Energy Possible Rural Targets: Energy Possible Rural Targets Enable the use of modern fuels and devices for 50% of those who at present use traditional biomass for cooking Support x% of the population in adopting improved cook-stoves and measures to reduce the adverse health impacts from cooking with biomass Ensure by 2008 that all schools and health facilities have access to electricity Provide access to modern energy services at the community level for all rural communities (in the form of electricity and mechanical power) Energy Needs Assessment : Energy Needs Assessment Coverage Targets (Access ) Modern fuels for 50% of those who currently use biomass Electricity for urban and peri-urban areas Electricity and motive power for rural communities Population & Infrastructure Data # of HH # of communities km of LV/MV/HV line Cost Data Cooking: Cookstoves and fuel Electricity: ($ per km line; connection cost; $/kWh) Input Ratios: kg fuel per hh kWh of electricity per hh/yr x Covered Population & Total Costs Key Interventions: Key Interventions Agricultural Productivity Rural Income Generation Transport Energy Water Supply and Sanitation Water Resources Infrastructure and Management Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural) -Choose Interventions: Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural) - Choose Interventions Provision and operation of infrastructure for domestic water supply Construction and operation of sanitation facilities including drainage systems and facilities for disposal of sullage and wastewater Hygiene education Provision and operation of infrastructure for water supply and sanitation for schools and health facilities. Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural) -Define Targets: Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural) - Define Targets MDG Target 10 Taking 1990 as the baseline year: Halve the proportion of people in rural areas without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015 Halve the proportion of people in rural areas without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015, aiming for each target village to achieve full sanitation coverage and to end the practice of open defecation Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural):Estimating Needs - Key Points: Water Supply and Sanitation (Rural): Estimating Needs - Key Points Define technology mix to be used each year (e.g., boreholes vs. rainwater collection, latrines vs. septic tanks) Include rehabilitation of existing but defective infrastructure Include full operation and maintenance costs Millennium Project Needs assessment Tool is available Key Interventions: Key Interventions Agricultural Productivity Rural Income Generation Transport Energy Water Supply and Sanitation Water Resources Infrastructure and Management Case for Water Resources Management and Infrastructure for the MDGs: Case for Water Resources Management and Infrastructure for the MDGs IWRM needed to manage increasingly scarce water resources effectively (National « Regional « Local) Water storage is required to Mitigate impact of run-off variability to ensure perennial water supply Increase hydropower potential Flood protection No country has generated sustained economic growth without large-scale investments in water storage Irrigation infrastructure required to Increase yields and strengthen potential for cash crops Mitigate impact of inter and intra seasonal precipitation variability Water Resources Infrastructure & Management - Interventions: Water Resources Infrastructure & Management - Interventions Provision and maintenance of water storage and other infrastructure for water management (such as watershed management and water conservation, early warning systems, ground and surface storage systems, etc.) Plans, systems and institutions for integrated water resources management, as appropriate Hydrological monitoring Measures to address the social and environmental issues associated with large-scale water management infrastructure Thinking About Country Needs : Thinking About Country Needs Are there costed sectoral strategies? How can sectoral NA work be integrated into national planning processes? Who are the key stakeholders to be engaged to: identify interventions, set targets, provide data agree on unit costs, with review by technical experts How can targets and interventions be monitored and evaluated periodically?