Rym Kefi

Information about Rym Kefi

Published on January 5, 2008

Author: Me_I

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Human population phylogenetic studies using mithochondrial DNA :  Human population phylogenetic studies using mithochondrial DNA Dr Rym KEFI MIGOD- Institut Pasteur -Tunis Slide2:  Plan: I- Introduction II- Example: Phylogenetic and Neandertal enigma. II- Example I: Mitochondrial DNA diversity of the prehistoric population from Taforalt (12,000 years- Morocco). Slide3:  The main aim of Human population genetics is to find answers concerning: Introduction Differentiation in single population (Bertranpetit et al 1995; Ann Hum Genet) Slide4:  the migration patterns in certain geographic areas. Slide5:  human evolution, and the spread of modern humans (Richards et al 1996, Am J Hum Genet ) Slide6:  Mitochondrial DNA an important tool for Human population genetics Slide7:  The studies of mtDNA polymorphism in human populations were based: initially on restriction enzyme (RFLP) analysis : Low resolution restriction and high resolution restriction mapping (Horai et al 1984, Johnson et al 1983, Horai et al 1984, Cann et al 1987, Torroni et al 1993 ) , Brown and Wallace in 1970: Pioneers in mtDNA investigation Mitochondrial DNA Studies history: Slide8:  on combined method using sequence analysis and restriction mapping (Bertranpetit et al 1995, Vigilant et al 1991, Richards et al 1996, Richards et al 1998, Macaulay 1999, Torroni et al 2001, Maca-Meyer et al 2001, Salas et al 2002) on sequence analysis of the mtDNA control region Slide9:  Mitochondrial Eve Cann et al; Nature 1987 147 individuals from five geographic populations: Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, New Guinea have been analysed by high-resolution restriction mapping Slide10:  Different mtDNA lineages have been diverged from an ancestral women originated in Africa. Mitochondrial Eve Slide11:  RFLPs studies of mtDNA from a wide range of Human populations have revealed a number of stable polymorphic sites in the mtDNA coding region . Mutations observed in both mtDNA coding region and control region in modern human populations have occurred on these pre-existing haplogroups Define the individual mtDNA type or haplotypes Define related groups of mtDNA called haplogroups Slide12:  Alignment of sequences with mtDNA reference (CRS) using “Blast 2 sequences” Haplotype and Haplogroup + RFLP analysis Slide13:  Examples : Individual 1: Slide14:  Mitochondrial haplogroups Slide15:  The phylogenetic relationships between haplotypes were inferred in the first studies by Maximum parsimony tree Then by Neighbor- joining trees Later by Median joining network. Trees were based on distance data calculated from Nucleotide sequence or RFLPs data or Nucleotide sequence combined with RFLPs data. Slide16:  Macaulay et al, 1999; , Am J Hum Genet, Slide17:  Dr Rym KEFI and Dr Eliane BERAUD-COLOMB U600 INSERM-FRE2059 CNRS Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Hôpital de Sainte-Marguerite- Marseille- France Example I: Mitochondrial DNA diversity of the prehistoric population from Taforalt (12,000 years- Morocco). Slide18:  Knowledge of the settlement of Northern Africa region Study of molecular diversity of modern Human populations Study of archaeological specimens and their environment Slide19:  Anthropologic data Transition from Homo erectus towards Homo sapiens archaic Slide20:  Ibero-Maurusian man Ibero-Maurusian industry Slide22:  Ibero-maurusian man 1-Europian origin? (Vallois 1969, Ferembach 1985) 2- Near East origin ? (Vandermeersch 1978) 4- North African origin ? (Camps 1989, Dutour 1995) 3- Subsaharian origin? (Ferembach 1976) Origins ??? Slide23:  Ancestral indigenous component: U6- (Paleolithic: 45.000 years) Eurasiatic component: T, H, U, J…(Neolithic?: 9000 years) Sub-Saharan component : L (Historic?) Former studies using Mitochondrial DNA (Côrte-Real et al. 1996; Rando et al. 1998; Comas et al. 2000; Brakez et al. 2001; Esteban et al. 2004…) showed that the genetic structure of North Africa is composed of 3 components: Genetic data Slide24:  to contribute to the knowledge of North Africa settlement We proposed to analyse the mitochondrial DNA diversity of the prehistoric population from Taforalt (13,000 years BP- Morocco). Aim: Slide25:  The cave of Taforalt in Morocco The cave of Taforalt is Located at 55 km in the North-West of Oujda Slide26:  Ancient DNA was extracted from 31 bone remains from Taforalt Phenol/Chloroforme Extraction Dissolution of bone powders ADN Hypervariable segment 1 (HVS1) of control region (D-Loop) was amplified by PCR and sequenced (R. Kefi et al; C.R.Palévol 2003) Slide27:  Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Taforalt population Genetic structure of Taforalt: Eurasiatic Component : H, U, JT, V: 90,5% North African component: U6: 9,5% In modern Human population, JT is presents only in: 1,6% Berbers from the North of Morocco 1,8% of Sicilians, 1,6% of Italians. Slide28:  The genetic inheritance of Taforalt population (12,000 years) is composed of: Eurasiatic component (J/T, H, U et V) North African component (U6). Similarities between Taforalt and Moroccan populations (Berbers from the North of Morocco) Underline a genetic continuity Slide29:  Ibero-maurusian Origin 4- local origin ? (Camps 1989, Dutour 1995) 3- Sub-Saharan origin? (Ferembach 1976) 1-European origin? (Vallois 1969, Ferembach 1985) 2- Near East origin ? (Vandermeersch 1978) Kefi et al 2005 Anthropologie ; Xliii/1: 55-64 Slide30:  Phylogenetic and Neandertal enigma Example 2: Neandertal lived in Europe and west Asia between 150.000 and 30.000 years (Grimaud–Hervé et al 2001, Klein et al 2003) Neandertal has specific morphological characters (lengthened Cranium, presence of Taurus on orbits , big cranial capacity...) which distinguish him from the anatomically modern man Neandertal coexisted with anatomically modern man, before disappearing 30.000 years ago Slide31:  Many interrogations about the role of Neandertal in the Human evolution. Neandertal is he our ancestor? Did he contribute in our genetic inheritance? or did he disappear without leaving any trace in our genome? Homo Sapiens sapiens Homo neandertalensis Did he belongs to another species? Slide32:  Krings and collaborators (Krings et al. 1997, Cell) studied for the first time ancient DNA extracted from Neandertal humerus. Neandertal was discovered in West Germany. 377 bp Neandertal sequence was aligned with CRS (Cambridge reference sequence). The alignment shows 27 differences (24 transitions, 2 tranversions, 1 deletion) Ancient bone DNA Slide33:  Neandertal sequence was compared to 994 mt DNA sequences from the five continents. The difference between the Modern Man and Neandertal is higher than the intra specific diversity in Modern Human specie. Slide34:  indicates that Neandertal position is distinct from the group including all the Modern Human sequences. NJ tree constructed with 986 modern Human mt DNA sequences, 16 chimpanzee sequences and Neandertal sequence Slide35:  These results show that Neandertal is not the ancestor of the modern Human. Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo neandertalensis constitute two distinct species. Homo sapiens sapiens Homo neandertalensis Slide36:  Marseille

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Me_I

body language
15. 06. 2007
0 views

body language

Pregnant Man Delivers Baby Girl
06. 07. 2008
0 views

Pregnant Man Delivers Baby Girl

Pregnant Man delivers baby girl
04. 07. 2008
0 views

Pregnant Man delivers baby girl

Interview guide
22. 04. 2008
0 views

Interview guide

Price
17. 04. 2008
0 views

Price

valuation models
17. 04. 2008
0 views

valuation models

Stan Mcmillen
14. 04. 2008
0 views

Stan Mcmillen

ABch11
13. 04. 2008
0 views

ABch11

IPStrategy mozambique
10. 04. 2008
0 views

IPStrategy mozambique

magaddinometrans01
09. 04. 2008
0 views

magaddinometrans01

lecture7 07 time cmp
07. 04. 2008
0 views

lecture7 07 time cmp

Easter
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Easter

PHSC1013 Reactions
02. 01. 2008
0 views

PHSC1013 Reactions

Digestive System Disorders
26. 03. 2008
0 views

Digestive System Disorders

ABC on HIV AIDS
16. 06. 2007
0 views

ABC on HIV AIDS

plateau
09. 07. 2007
0 views

plateau

4 YCCC 1500 Competition K1IR
16. 06. 2007
0 views

4 YCCC 1500 Competition K1IR

2DShapes
16. 06. 2007
0 views

2DShapes

Analyzing Political Cartoons 1
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Analyzing Political Cartoons 1

kwanza
09. 07. 2007
0 views

kwanza

7 passions
16. 06. 2007
0 views

7 passions

GreekDrama
09. 07. 2007
0 views

GreekDrama

L9medicine
12. 10. 2007
0 views

L9medicine

Business opportunities 2005
18. 10. 2007
0 views

Business opportunities 2005

Rocio Guirao Diaz
03. 09. 2007
0 views

Rocio Guirao Diaz

Jorge Tellez Fuentes
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Jorge Tellez Fuentes

87 81
22. 10. 2007
0 views

87 81

Active Aging Steps
27. 11. 2007
0 views

Active Aging Steps

Yafei ECG poster final
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Yafei ECG poster final

NACAA Conference FSEP
29. 12. 2007
0 views

NACAA Conference FSEP

chem 101 chapter 6 slides
04. 01. 2008
0 views

chem 101 chapter 6 slides

comp intel
03. 10. 2007
0 views

comp intel

03n 0203 ts00002 LEACH
19. 11. 2007
0 views

03n 0203 ts00002 LEACH

mikelle
28. 12. 2007
0 views

mikelle

Dear God
03. 10. 2007
0 views

Dear God

Team Leader Training 12 11 06
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Team Leader Training 12 11 06

Schneider and Schmitt
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Schneider and Schmitt

paraguay
09. 07. 2007
0 views

paraguay

mowbjan06
09. 07. 2007
0 views

mowbjan06

mlk 2
09. 07. 2007
0 views

mlk 2

Mayan Cosmology
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Mayan Cosmology

GCSE ART D of Dead
09. 07. 2007
0 views

GCSE ART D of Dead

Enter the 2007 Art Comp1
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Enter the 2007 Art Comp1

cases
24. 02. 2008
0 views

cases

a032405
09. 10. 2007
0 views

a032405

sfa ch2
01. 01. 2008
0 views

sfa ch2

6 12USAITAsecondpanel
22. 10. 2007
0 views

6 12USAITAsecondpanel

Gatekeepers 6
11. 12. 2007
0 views

Gatekeepers 6

EU New Member States Brno NA
18. 03. 2008
0 views

EU New Member States Brno NA

Chinese Dynasties
25. 03. 2008
0 views

Chinese Dynasties

2 4 Adams Hallam
07. 10. 2007
0 views

2 4 Adams Hallam

Wings of the Centennial
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Wings of the Centennial

Creating a User Group 2005
30. 03. 2008
0 views

Creating a User Group 2005

Observation
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Observation

usingmypyramidadult
04. 03. 2008
0 views

usingmypyramidadult

Stefan Stanciugelu
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Stefan Stanciugelu

carreira
19. 06. 2007
0 views

carreira

Capitalization Part 2
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Capitalization Part 2

Caceres 2007
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Caceres 2007

CHETEMPOFA
18. 06. 2007
0 views

CHETEMPOFA

cervantes
18. 06. 2007
0 views

cervantes

CEIS 23 06
18. 06. 2007
0 views

CEIS 23 06

cartoon classics
18. 06. 2007
0 views

cartoon classics

cardiac2
19. 06. 2007
0 views

cardiac2

hphennalect
09. 07. 2007
0 views

hphennalect

Current Presentation March06
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Current Presentation March06

cul 18
18. 06. 2007
0 views

cul 18

competitive rviews
18. 06. 2007
0 views

competitive rviews

company wbc
18. 06. 2007
0 views

company wbc

City Guide Mobile web en
18. 06. 2007
0 views

City Guide Mobile web en

MICROIII Aula11
14. 11. 2007
0 views

MICROIII Aula11

comunicado2
22. 10. 2007
0 views

comunicado2

Camilla Schreiner UiO
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Camilla Schreiner UiO

verb som laanord
27. 09. 2007
0 views

verb som laanord

LCWS05 gao 1
12. 10. 2007
0 views

LCWS05 gao 1

ambiguity
16. 06. 2007
0 views

ambiguity

all about burgers 1
16. 06. 2007
0 views

all about burgers 1

AGME 1
16. 06. 2007
0 views

AGME 1

Advanced ADO
16. 06. 2007
0 views

Advanced ADO

adolposter winkles
16. 06. 2007
0 views

adolposter winkles

AbrahamseOverviewAM
16. 06. 2007
0 views

AbrahamseOverviewAM

31 Presentation
16. 06. 2007
0 views

31 Presentation

303lec09
16. 06. 2007
0 views

303lec09

04 06 training
15. 06. 2007
0 views

04 06 training

Brian PM FINAL
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Brian PM FINAL

Berkeley ISSC Feb 07
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Berkeley ISSC Feb 07

Autism 06 BU handout
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Autism 06 BU handout

Attraction
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Attraction

Asali
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Asali

April Showers
15. 06. 2007
0 views

April Showers

APA San Diego
15. 06. 2007
0 views

APA San Diego

ap05blogs
15. 06. 2007
0 views

ap05blogs

anastasatos
15. 06. 2007
0 views

anastasatos

Analyzing Political Cartoons
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Analyzing Political Cartoons

analyzing cartoons incent asia
15. 06. 2007
0 views

analyzing cartoons incent asia

africanamericanhumor
16. 06. 2007
0 views

africanamericanhumor

americanpoplanguage
15. 06. 2007
0 views

americanpoplanguage

mainmenu2007changes jml
06. 03. 2008
0 views

mainmenu2007changes jml

StephenAbram RecreatingServices3
10. 03. 2008
0 views

StephenAbram RecreatingServices3

Joanna Krupa
03. 09. 2007
0 views

Joanna Krupa

HowtheWestWasWon
19. 02. 2008
0 views

HowtheWestWasWon

accidental humor
16. 06. 2007
0 views

accidental humor

keyes
03. 01. 2008
0 views

keyes

VolkswagenCoaching
16. 11. 2007
0 views

VolkswagenCoaching

07 kauai1
26. 02. 2008
0 views

07 kauai1

Urban Waters and Ports html
30. 12. 2007
0 views

Urban Waters and Ports html

awakening
15. 06. 2007
0 views

awakening

RR11 NIA Hodes
03. 01. 2008
0 views

RR11 NIA Hodes

AAAR diesel1
29. 02. 2008
0 views

AAAR diesel1

RSS AnnualMtg3
29. 09. 2007
0 views

RSS AnnualMtg3

USTC
29. 11. 2007
0 views

USTC

ESS Adv Plan Present 4 18
09. 07. 2007
0 views

ESS Adv Plan Present 4 18

CMR0101
18. 06. 2007
0 views

CMR0101