Published on January 28, 2008
Slide1: U.S. Biotech Crop Adoption: Who Decides? Leonard Gianessi Crop Protection Research Institute, CropLife Foundation Transgenic Crops Introduced in the U.S.: Transgenic Crops Introduced in the U.S. Herbicide Tolerant Insect Resistant Virus Resistant Pest Management Decisions: Pest Management Decisions What is the most cost-effective solution to pest problems? compare costs compare efficacy What is acceptable for buyers? U.S. Biotech Crops: U.S. Biotech Crops Year % of Acres Introduced 2003 Herbicide Tolerant Soybeans 1996 80 Corn 1997 12 Canola 1999 91 Cotton 1995 75 Insect Resistant Corn 1996 29 Cotton 1996 40 Sweet Corn 1998 <1 Virus Resistant Papaya 1998 52 Squash 1995 ? Roundup Ready Soybeans:U.S. Adoption: Roundup Ready Soybeans: U.S. Adoption % Acres Roundup Advantages in Soybeans: Roundup Advantages in Soybeans Better weed control Improved crop safety Fewer application trips No need for tillage Fewer active ingredients Taller weeds can be killed Less expensive Canola : Canola Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Conventional Slide8: Glyphosate Application 8 Days After Glyphosate Application 5 Weeks After Glyphosate Application Cotton Weed Control:Mississippi: Cotton Weed Control: Mississippi (Pre 1997) # of Herbicide Applications 5/A # of Active Ingredients 5/A # of Tillage Passes 3/A Cotton: Cotton Untreated Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Impact: + $ 132 million in net income Grower Benefits ofBT Field Corn: Grower Benefits of BT Field Corn Borer Pressure Low High Per Acre Yield Increase (bu) + 5 + 10 Benefit + $2 + $12 USEPA, 2001 Slide12: Adoption of Bt Corn Bt CornValue: Bt CornValue (bu/A) Low High Texas 3 40 Kansas 5 40 Oklahoma 8 18 Colorado 7 23 Louisiana 4 30 Bt Corn : Bt Corn Biotech Insect Resistant Insect Susceptible Impact: + 3.5 billion Lbs./year production Bt Cotton: Bt Cotton Insect Susceptible Biotech Insect Resistant Impact: -1.9 million lbs/yr insecticide use Roundup Ready Corn Adoption: Roundup Ready Corn Adoption % U.S. Acres Roundup Ready Corn: Roundup Ready Corn Low-cost broad spectrum alternatives being used Not available in all important varieties (until recently) Not approved in the European Union Roundup Ready Corn Adoption: 2003: Roundup Ready Corn Adoption: 2003 % Acres Slide19: The genetically modified papaya plants are already being credited with saving an industry that was on its way out New York Times July 20, 1999 Papaya: Infected Tree Removal: Papaya: Infected Tree Removal Papaya: Papaya Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant Squash: Squash Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant Sweet Corn: Sweet Corn Insect Susceptible Biotech Insect Resistant Florida Sweet Corn Production: Florida Sweet Corn Production Million Lbs/Yr Spraying Sweet Corn: Florida: Spraying Sweet Corn: Florida Florida Sweet Corn Experiment: Florida Sweet Corn Experiment Bt Sweet Corn Projection: Florida: Bt Sweet Corn Projection: Florida 80% of Acreage Reduction of 10 Insecticide Applications/Acre Insect Control Cost Reduction of $40/Acre Production Increase of $125/Acre Bt Fresh Sweet Corn: Bt Fresh Sweet Corn Future Insect Control Options: Florida Fresh Sweet Corn: Future Insect Control Options: Florida Fresh Sweet Corn Continued Use of 10 Insecticide Treatments/Acre? Transgenic Bt Sweet Corn? Slide30: Attribute® brand sweet corn Photo courtesy of Syngenta Seeds Biotech Crops Approved but not Planted in the U.S.: Biotech Crops Approved but not Planted in the U.S. Current Status Sugarbeet: Herbicide Tolerant Seed Available Potato: Insect Resistant No Seed Available Virus Resistant No Seed Available Sugarbeet: US: Sugarbeet: US Conventional Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Potential Impact: - $93 million/year weed control costs Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Sugarbeets: U.S.: Biotech Herbicide Tolerant Sugarbeets: U.S. % Acres Planted 1999 0 2000 0 2001 0 2002 0 2003 0 Slide34: Colorado Potato Beetle Potato: Potato Biotech Insect Resistant Insect Susceptible Potato: Potato Biotech Virus Resistant Virus Susceptible U.S. Acreage:Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes: U.S. Acreage: Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes 1999 4 % 2000 2 % 2001 0 % 2002 0 % Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes: Washington: Insect/Virus Resistant Potatoes: Washington Potential Impacts Insecticide Use -130,000 Lb/Yr Insect Control Costs -$600,000/Yr Potato Production +$5 Million/Yr +90 million lbs/Yr Potato: Potato Late Blight Damage Slide40: Fungal Resistant Potato Biotech Fungal Resistant Conventional Fungal Susceptible Citrus: Texas: Citrus: Texas Virus Susceptible Biotech Virus Resistant Citrus Canker Eradication Programs: Florida: Citrus Canker Eradication Programs: Florida Trees Destroyed 1910-1933 258,000 Commercial 1986-1994 88,000 Commercial 1996- 1,200,000 Commercial 600,000 Residential Citrus Canker: Citrus Canker Biotech Bacteria Resistant Bacteria Susceptible Spraying Antibiotics :Apples: Spraying Antibiotics :Apples Apple: Apple Bacteria Susceptible Biotech Bacteria Resistant Potential Impact: 100% reduction in antibiotic use Florida: Potential Grape Production: Florida: Potential Grape Production Florida Ranks #2-3 in Grape/Wine Consumer Purchases Florida has Climate/Soils for Successful Grape Production Currently Florida accounts for 0.01% of U.S. Grape Production U.S. Wine Industry: $ 36 billion/year Slide48: TAMU Biotech Grape: Bacterial Resistant Gene Marking: Biotech Grape: Bacterial Resistant Gene Marking Tomato Geminiviruses: Florida: Tomato Geminiviruses: Florida Reduced Tomato Production by 20% in 1990-1991 At Low Incidence Because of Increased Insecticide Use Biotech Tomato: Biotech Tomato Biotech Virus Resistant Virus Susceptible Under Development at the University of Florida Current Impacts (8 Case Studies): Current Impacts (8 Case Studies) Food and Fiber Production + 4 Billion Lbs. Farm Income + $ 1.5 Billion Pesticide Use - 46 Million Lbs. Potential Impacts (32 Case Studies): Potential Impacts (32 Case Studies) Food and Fiber Production + 10 Billion Lbs. Farm Income + $ 1 Billion Pesticide Use - 117 Million Lbs.