saghala Cedric Patin

Information about saghala Cedric Patin

Published on November 28, 2007

Author: Miguel

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Tone Shift and Tone Spread in Saghala, a Bantu Language of Kenya:  Tone Shift and Tone Spread in Saghala, a Bantu Language of Kenya Cédric PATIN Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie – UMR 7018 (CNRS/Sorbonne-Nouvelle) Université Paris III SAGHALA (E 74b):  SAGHALA (E 74b) pitch-accent system tone shift & tone spread 5 successive rules  Domain Analysis TONAL PATTERNS:  TONAL PATTERNS dissyllabic noun roots = a single tonal contrast: (1) Low /ki  tanda/ kitanda bed /²  kuku/ Nguku chicken  (2) High-Low /ma  z@so/ [email protected] eyes   /wa  [email protected]/ [email protected] men TONAL PATTERNS:  TONAL PATTERNS monosyllabic noun roots are L: (3) /mu  li/ muli body /mi - zi/ mizi cities TONE SHIFT:  TONE SHIFT (4) niÄulaÄa I will buy  VS niziÄ[email protected]Äa I will buy them (goats)  (5) nïovu elephant  ilya nï[email protected]@ that elephant  TONE SPREAD:  TONE SPREAD (6) Nïovu elephant iz"Û nï[email protected] these elephants  ilya nï[email protected]@ [email protected] that big elephant  [that - elephant - big] elephant = 3 different tone patterns depending on the preceding word 3rd pattern = H.H VS underlying = L.L  Tone Spread applies after Tone Shift LENGHT OF THE SPREADING:  LENGHT OF THE SPREADING last example of (6): ilya nï[email protected]@ [email protected] tone spreads as far as the adjective « big » (mbwaa)  if the demonstrative is deleted, then the entire phrase is low: nïovu mbwaa big elephant  LENGHT OF THE SPREADING:  LENGHT OF THE SPREADING 3rd utterance of (6): tone spreads across two syllables ilya nï[email protected]@ [email protected] 2nd utterance of (6): tone only spreads across one syllable iz"Û nï[email protected]  the lenght of the spreading vary LENGHT OF THE SPREADING:  LENGHT OF THE SPREADING why? HYP : after shifting, spreading stops on the first syllable of the following word: (8) ih"Û [email protected] mbwaa this big nose   ilya [email protected]@ [email protected] that big nose  LENGHT OF THE SPREADING:  LENGHT OF THE SPREADING but: (9) ivilya v@[email protected] vibwaa those big beds  *ivilya v@[email protected]@ v@bwaa TONE CONTACTS:  TONE CONTACTS (10) [email protected] "Ûzilya z"@luwe [email protected]| those dirty goats are dead  [ goat – those – dirty – are dead ] izilya [email protected] [email protected]@ [email protected]| idem [those – goat – dirty – are dead ] TONE CONTACTS:  TONE CONTACTS mbuz"Û "Ûzilya z"@luwe izilya [email protected] [email protected]@ 1st utterance : mbuzi = LH ziluwe = HLL 2nd utterance : mbuzi = HL ziluwe = LHH TONE CONTACTS:  TONE CONTACTS 2nd example: izilya [email protected] [email protected]@ H tone on /[email protected]/ (which is supposed to be on the syllabe zi) is deleted because of contact with High tone on /[email protected]/ TONE CONTACTS:  TONE CONTACTS spreading may cause tone contacts  ( 2nd tone will be deleted) (11) ilya [email protected]@di mbwaa that big gift  ACROSS WORD BOUNDARIES:  ACROSS WORD BOUNDARIES (12) ih"Û mbuz"Û this goat  [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]@ these children are tall  [Dém - children - tall] ACROSS WORD BOUNDARIES:  ACROSS WORD BOUNDARIES ih"Û mbuz"Û the tone of the demonstrative does not spread, as expected, onto the following word (cf. iz"Û nï[email protected]) no tone contacts + no deletion of lexical tone (cf. ilya [email protected]@di) SUMMARY:  SUMMARY (13) A] [email protected] [email protected] B] [email protected] [email protected]@ C] [email protected] [email protected]@ D] cvcvcv [email protected]@cv E] cvcvcv [email protected]@cv F] cvcvcv [email protected] G] cvcvcv [email protected]@ [email protected] tone shifts systematically onto the following syllable tone spreads at least once – after shifting - in A, B, D, E and G tone does not spread in C (1st tone) or F tone spreads twice in G SUMMARY:  SUMMARY G (cvcvcv [email protected]@ [email protected]) = the only situation where the tone spreads across 2 syllables  exception  spreading is not reduced in A or D but extended in G [C] VS [A]:  [C] VS [A] [F] VS [G/D]:  [F] VS [G/D] ANALYSIS:  ANALYSIS an accentual language: no active low tone no tonal distinction on monosyllabic noun roots a single tonal contrast on disyllabic noun roots ANALYSIS:  ANALYSIS 5 successive rules and constraints, using Domain Analysis, which deal with all the situations domains have 2 advantages: a. deal in a simple and elegant way with a large variety of phenomena b. dismiss heavy representations with accentual and tonal features RULE 1: TONE SHIFT:  RULE 1: TONE SHIFT one syllable to the right: see A – G rule attested in the following eastern Bantu languages : Jita (E 25), Kikuyu (E 51), Daida (E 74a), Nyamwezi (F 22)... I propose that all accents, in nominal phrase, move simultaneously the left boundary of the domain is placed after the tone bearing syllable (14) mbu(z@) goat RULE 2: TONE SHIFT:  RULE 2: TONE SHIFT after shifting the accent’s tone spreads on the next syllable rule attested in the following eastern Bantu languages: Bemba (M 42), Gweno (E 65)... domain must be longer than a single syllable (15) i(h@ Nï[email protected])vu this elephant  RULE 3: 2nd ACCENT DELETION:  RULE 3: 2nd ACCENT DELETION 3rd rule claims that if 2 accents appear on a single word, the 2nd is deleted occurs after Tone Shift it is impossible to have 2 left boundary domains on a single word (16) izilya ([email protected]@)(d@....  izilya ([email protected]@)di.... RULE 4: SPREAD’S EXPANSION:  RULE 4: SPREAD’S EXPANSION after Spreading, the last syllable of a word can bear a high tone if the first syllable of the next word does not yet bear a tone, this tone will spread on it this rule is also attested in many languages of the area (e.g. Digo (E 73), Nyamwezi) right boundaries of the word and the domain cannot coincide[1] (17) ilya (nï[email protected]@) mbwaa  ilya (nï[email protected]@ [email protected])a [1] A constraint proposed by Cassimjee & Kisseberth (1998) RULE 5: OCP REPAIR:  RULE 5: OCP REPAIR Saghala suprasegmentals obey the OCP last rule states that any spreading which creates violations of the OCP is undone impossibility to have 2 successive high tones, that is 2 adjacent domains (18) i([email protected] [email protected])([email protected]  i([email protected]) mbu([email protected] CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION presentation: major features of the pitch-accent system of Saghala never been described until now an unusual system: local shifting and local spreading 5 ordered rules & constraints, using Domain Analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie (UMR 7018 – CNRS) Fédération de Typologie Linguistique et Changements Diachronique Dave Roberts (corrections) Informants

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