Salt

Information about Salt

Published on December 17, 2007

Author: Denise

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Salt: Cradle to Grave Catarina Hinojos Race, Poverty and the Urban Environment Professor Raquel R. Pinderhughes Urban Studies Program San Francisco State University, spring 2003:  Salt: Cradle to Grave Catarina Hinojos Race, Poverty and the Urban Environment Professor Raquel R. Pinderhughes Urban Studies Program San Francisco State University, spring 2003 Public has permission to use the material herein, but only if author, course, university and professor are credited. This presentation focuses on the life cycle of Salt, cradle to grave, with emphasis on social, environmental and public health impacts associated with it.:  This presentation focuses on the life cycle of Salt, cradle to grave, with emphasis on social, environmental and public health impacts associated with it. The extraction process Distribution of materials needed to produce salt Distribution of salt Health Impacts And the waste resulting from salt production The Extraction Process of Salt:  The Extraction Process of Salt Rock salt mining Solar salt mining Solution mining Vacuum Pan Salt Refining There are four types of Extraction Rock Salt Mining:  Rock Salt Mining Rock salt mining occurs naturally in underground deposits Occasionally in surface deposits in arid areas, as the mineral halite Salt is physically dug out of the ground in an operation involving drilling, blasting, exploding and crushing the rock Slide5:  Rock salt mine Cargill.com Slide6:  Rock salt mine Cargill.com Slide7:  Rock salt mine dredge.com Slide8:  Halite/rock salt Saltinstitute.com Slide9:  Rock salt beds/layers one meter thick Saltinfo.com Slide10:  A rock salt mine turned into a tourist attraction Americanrocksalt.com Solar Salt Mining:  Solar Salt Mining Salt is produced by allowing the sun to evaporate sea water in shallow pools or ‘pans’. Both temperature and salinity are important The water evaporates in successive ponds until the brine is fully concentrated and salt crystallizes on the floor of the crystallizing ponds Slide12:  dredge.com Slide13:  Solar produced salt discolored by bacteria in the ponds nasalt.com Slide14:  Solar salt pond with red brine Salt-mine.com Slide15:  The Alberger® brand salt is produced with the evaporating process alberger.com Slide16:  This is an aerial view of salt ponds Cargill.com Slide17:  Great Salt Lake Minerals Ogden, Utah Solar Pond Facility Saltinfo.com Slide18:  Solar salt mushrooms growing in the Dead Sea Salt.org Slide19:  NATURAL SALT PRODUCTION OF SAN JACINTO It is a realization of natural technical character practiced by dozens of residents of Charapoto community, in which the manual techniques of production of salt in the mineral sources of San Jacinto are shown to the tourists Geocities.com Solution Salt Mining:  Solution Salt Mining When salt deposits are located fresh, recycled water is injected through a well drilled into an underground salt bed or salt dome Dissolution of the salt forms a cavern in the salt deposit Salt brine is withdrawn from the cavern and then transported by pipeline to an onsite evaporating plant to make dry salt, or to a chemical processing plant for chlor-alkali or other chemical production Slide21:  Solution Salt scheme Mininglife.com Slide22:  This solution mining cavern, is where water is injected into a salt formation and brine is withdrawn kgs.ukans.edu Slide23:  brine well and cavity kgs.ukans.edu Slide24:  Solution salt dome Saltinstitute.com Slide25:  Solution-Mined Cavern Storage pbworld.com Slide26:  Mineral Recovery pbworld.com Slide27:  Solution Mining Wellhead Pbworld.com Slide28:  Surface features at a West Texas disposal cavern  npto.doe.gov Slide29:  After salt is mined producers use caverns to store hydrocarbon substances, this is a map of them in Texas utexas.edu Vacuum Pan Salt Refining :  Vacuum Pan Salt Refining Vacuum Pan Salt Refining produces table salt Prior to mechanical evaporation, the brine may be treated to remove minerals that can cause scaling in the evaporators and adversely affect salt purity Chemical treatment of the brine, followed by settling, reduces levels of dissolved calcium, magnesium and sulfate Sulfuric acid treatment or chlorination may be used to remove hydrogen sulfide, and hydrochloric acid will neutralize brine used in diaphragm cell production of chlorine and caustic soda Slide31:  Water is evaporated from purified brine using multiple-effect or vapor recompression evaporators Steam from boilers supplies heat evaporators and is fed from one evaporator to the next Vapor recompression forced-circulation evaporators consist of a crystallizer, compressor and vapor scrubber Feed brine enters the crystallizer vessel where salt is precipitated Vapor is withdrawn, scrubbed and compressed for reuse in the heater Slide32:  Vacuum evaporator Cargill.com Slide33:  Saltinstitute.com Slide34:  Saltinstitute.com Slide35:  Lyons, Kansas Vacuum Salt Facility Saltinfo.com Distribution of Materials Needed to Produce Salt :  Distribution of Materials Needed to Produce Salt Salt is produced naturally in the environment so the only tools needed are for movement of the mineral This includes pipes, conveyor belts, trucks, roads, in some cases explosives And purifying agents for table salt This includes boilers, chemicals and evaporation equipment Slide37:  Conveyor belt that transport salt to vehicle Cargill.com Slide38:  Underground vehicle that transports salt Cargill.com Slide39:  Underground salt mine Cargill.com Distribution of Salt:  Distribution of Salt Packages containing salt usually get transported by trucks Salt is used in three sectors Deicing products melt ice and snow on roads Commercial and industry manufacture chlorine, caustic soda and in paper making Domestic (table salt) Slide41:  Mortonsalt.com Slide42:  Deicing rock salt for snow and ice control geo.msu.edu Health Impacts:  Health Impacts Workers environments vary on what type of salt production they are involved with But all employees are exposed to heavy machinery Some employees are exposed to explosives and chemicals Slide44:  Consumers are also exposed to health hazards too much salt can cause illness high blood pressure heart attack stroke When deicing salt is used on roads there tends to be a run off of water thus transporting salt into ground water This causes a bitter taste in drinking water The increase of salt in the soil isn’t good for crops and natural vegetation Slide45:  Miner digging for salt Dredge.com Slide46:  Saltinstitute.com Waste Resulting from the Production of Salt:  Waste Resulting from the Production of Salt The main waste that seems to be visible in all salt mines is the impact of heavy machinery on the landscape The waste from chemicals, explosives and trucks Another factor is the destruction of natural habitats to build unnatural salt ponds Slide48:  Rods and wires nailed into natural caverns Dredge.com Web References:  Web References www.utexas.edu www.solutionmining.org www.salt-mine.org www.saltinstitute.com www.saltinfo.com www.mininglife.com www.mii.org www.geo.msu.edu www.cargill.com www.americanrocksalt.com www.npto.doe.gov www.nasalt.com

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