Sarah Young Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy

Information about Sarah Young Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy

Published on December 31, 2007

Author: Jade

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy Presentation by Sarah Young Land Use Consultants 17th April 2007:  Delivering Sustainable Bioenergy Presentation by Sarah Young Land Use Consultants 17th April 2007 Outline of presentation:  Outline of presentation What is bioenergy? How much energy is currently produced from bioenergy? What is the scale of the opportunity? Can bioenergy really contribute towards reducing CO2? What are the environmental impacts of bioenergy production? 1. What is bioenergy?:  1. What is bioenergy? Bioenergy is the inclusive term for all forms of biomass and biofuels Biomass: refers to the use of biodegradable matter as a source of renewable heat or electricity Biofuels: are renewable transport fuels including: Bioethanol Biodiesel Biogas Biobutanol What are the main sources of bioenergy?:  What are the main sources of bioenergy? Woodfuels e.g. short rotation coppice (SRC) and short rotation forestry (SRF), forest residues and low grade timber Perennial grass crops e.g. miscanthus Conventional annual crops e.g. sugar beet, cereal crops, sorghum, oil seed rape, linseed and sunflowers Waste e.g. cow and pig slurry, poultry litter and wood waste Bioenergy (in the form of biomass or biofuels) can be generated from four principle sources: SRC plantation Miscanthus Oilseed rape 2. How much energy is currently produced from bioenergy?:  2. How much energy is currently produced from bioenergy? 3. What is the scale of the opportunity?:  3. What is the scale of the opportunity? Resource map of Forestry residues in GB 5-6% of the UK’s electricity supply by 2020 (currently1.5%) 7% of the heat market by 2015 (currently 1%) 5% of the UK’s transport fuel demands by 2010 (currently 0.25%) The Government suggests that bioenergy could provide: Woodfuel strategy for England suggests there is the potential to use an extra 2 million tonnes of wood from existing woodland alone How will this be realised?:  How will this be realised? Straw, waste wood and woodfuel have the greatest immediate potential to contribute to renewable heat and power Short rotation coppice and miscanthus offer significant potential in the longer term but this will require a significant change in land-use In the medium to long term, the development of new conversion technologies will favour the more carbon-efficient multi-annual crops (woodfuels, SRC and miscanthus) and reduce the demand for oilseed rape and wheat as biofuels Existing bioenergy use:  Existing bioenergy use Wood Based Fuels Electricity and Heat Transport Perennial Grasses Conventional Crops Waste but with second generation biofuels…..:  but with second generation biofuels….. Wood Based Fuels Electricity and Heat Transport Perennial Grasses Conventional Crops Waste 4. Can biomass really contribute towards reducing CO2?:  4. Can biomass really contribute towards reducing CO2? Source: Defra from: Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options, Sheffield Hallam University (2003); and WTW evaluation for production of ethanol from wheat, Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, (2004), Can biofuels really contribute towards reducing CO2?:  Can biofuels really contribute towards reducing CO2? Conclusions on carbon savings:  Conclusions on carbon savings Carbon savings are difficult to predict as they are affected by agricultural practice, production, processing methods and transportation of the feedstock The most carbon efficient conversion technologies are those that produce heat or CHP directly from the energy crop rather than those that produce electricity Superior carbon savings can be achieved from second generation biofuels produced from biomass In addition, the estimated yield per hectare from second generation feedstock is at least three times greater than that of rapeseed biomass 5. What are the environmental impacts of bioenergy?:  5. What are the environmental impacts of bioenergy? Range of impacts both positive and negative that arise from use of bioenergy Focus on: Wood based fuels: short rotation coppice (SRC) short rotation forestry (SRF) forest residues and low grade timber Not covering….. Perennial grass crops Conventional annual crops Waste What is short rotation coppice?:  What is short rotation coppice? Densely planted, high yielding varieties of either willow or popular Harvested on average every 2-5 years Expected lifespan of 15-25 years (corresponding to around 6 harvests) Shoots usually harvested during the winter as chips, short billets or as whole stems Yields from SRC at first harvest range from 7-12 tonnes dry weight/ha/yr What are the environmental impacts of SRC?:  What are the environmental impacts of SRC? Management recommendations for SRC:  Management recommendations for SRC Do: Benefits: use mixed species biodiversity, landscape incorporate headlands, rides & open spaces biodiversity, landscape locate to minimise transport reduce CO2 coppice cyclically biodiversity, landscape limit use of fertiliser, herbicides & pesticides biodiversity, water quality Don’t: Impacts: establish large monoculture blocks biodiversity, landscape replace land of high value for biodiversity biodiversity plant in low rainfall areas or on waterlogged soils biodiversity block recreational access well-being plant on sites of archaeological interest heritage What is short rotation forestry?:  What is short rotation forestry? Cultivation of fast-growing trees that reach their economically optimum size between 8-20 years old When felled - replaced by new planting or regenerate from stumps as coppice Varieties may include native species such as alder, ash, birch, poplar, sycamore (cultivars), and non-native species such as eucalyptus and southern beech (nothofagus) What are the environmental impacts of SRF?:  What are the environmental impacts of SRF? Management recommendations for SRF:  Do: Benefits: incorporate 10-20% of open space biodiversity, landscape leave some areas to mature to old age biodiversity maximise diversity of woodland structure biodiversity, landscape harvest cyclically biodiversity, landscape use UK Woodland Assurance Standard biodiversity, water quality Don’t: Impacts: plant in sensitive open landscapes biodiversity, landscape use non-native species biodiversity use exceptionally heavy equipment soil structure, water harvest forests on high carbon soils release CO2 plant on sites of archaeological interest heritage Management recommendations for SRF What are forest residues and low grade timber?:  What are forest residues and low grade timber? Forest residues - harvesting residues (i.e. lop and top or brash) and small roundwood (i.e. small stems of no commercial value) Low grade timber - poor quality final crop and wood from unmanaged coppice Demand for woodfuel for bioenergy has the potential to create an economic rationale for the re-introduction of traditional sustainable woodland management What are the environmental impacts of forest residues and LGT?:  What are the environmental impacts of forest residues and LGT? Slide22:  What are the environmental impacts of forest residues and LGT? Management recommendations for forest residues and LGT:  Do: Benefits: adapt extraction rate to suit soil/ biodiversity biodiversity, soils undertake checks for protected species biodiversity increase structural diversity of woodland biodiversity, landscape leave some forest brash/ cut wood biodiversity, soil & water use UK Woodland Assurance Standard biodiversity, water quality Don’t: Impacts: use exceptionally heavy harvesting equipment soil structure, water extract deadwood biodiversity whole tree harvest on sensitive sites biodiversity, soil Management recommendations for forest residues and LGT Conclusions:  Conclusions Production of bioenergy from wood sources – offers real potential to reduce greenhouse gases and deliver substantial environmental benefits however …… Risk of placing environmental pressure on our limited natural resources To realise opportunities, it is crucial that bioenergy is produced sustainably. We must ensure that we: - deliver real carbon savings - avoid sensitive sites - place particular emphasis on securing the future management of semi-natural woodland - use high environmental standards to maximise environmental benefits

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