Published on January 14, 2008
Figure 6.1 Relationship to the Previous Chapters and The Marketing Research Process: Figure 6.1 Relationship of Qualitative Research to the Previous Chapters and the Marketing Research Process Focus of This Chapter Relationship to Previous Chapters Relationship to Marketing Research Process Qualitative Research Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques The Marketing Research Process (Chapter 1) Tasks Involved in Problem Definition and Developing an Approach (Chapter 2) Exploratory Research Design (Chapter 3) Problem Definition Approach to Problem Field Work Data Preparation and Analysis Report Preparation and Presentation Research Design Figure 6.1 Relationship to the Previous Chapters and The Marketing Research Process Figure 6.3 A Classification of Marketing Research Data: Figure 6.3 A Classification of Marketing Research Data Marketing Research Data Secondary Data Primary Data Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Causal Descriptive Survey Data Observational and Other Data Experimental Data Figure 6.3 A Classification of Marketing Research Data Figure 6.4 A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures: Qualitative Research Procedures Indirect (disguised) Projective Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques Focus Groups Direct (Nondisguised) Depth Interviews Completion Techniques Association Techniques Figure 6.4 A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Figure 6.4 A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Table 6.1 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research: Table 6.1 Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research Table 6.2 Characteristics of Focus Groups: Table 6.2 Characteristics of Focus Groups Figure 6.5 Procedure for Conducting a Focus Group: Design the Focus Group Environment Recruit and Select Focus Group Participants Select a Moderator Prepare the Discussion Guide Conduct the Group Interview Prepare the Focus Group Report Figure 6.5 Procedure for Conducting a Focus Group Figure 6.5 Procedure for Conducting a Focus Group Advantages of Focus Groups: Advantages of Focus Groups Synergism Snowballing Stimulation Security Spontaneity Serendipity Specialization Scientific scrutiny Structure Speed Disadvantages of Focus Groups: Disadvantages of Focus Groups Misuse Misjudge Moderation Messy Misrepresentation Advantages of Online Focus Groups: Advantages of Online Focus Groups Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened. Unique opportunity to re-contact group participants at a later date. Can recruit people not interested in traditional focus groups: doctors, lawyers, etc. Moderators can carry on side conversations with individual respondents. There is no travel, video taping, or facilities to arrange; so the cost is much lower. Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups: Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups Only people that have access to the Internet can participate. Verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. There is lack of general control over the respondent's environment. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Products can not be touched (e.g., clothing) or smelled (e.g., perfumes). Depth Interviews: Depth Interviews Like focus groups, depth interviews are an unstructured and direct way of obtaining information. Unlike focus groups, however, depth interviews are conducted on a one-on-one basis. These interviews typically last from 30 minutes to more than an hour. They attempt to uncover underlying motives, prejudices, or attitudes toward sensitive issues. Depth Interviews: Depth Interviews Substantial probing is done to surface underlying motives, beliefs, and attitudes. Probing is done by asking such questions as: “Why do you say that?'' “That's interesting, can you tell me more?'' “Would you like to add anything else?” Advantages of Depth Interviews: Advantages of Depth Interviews Can uncover deeper insights about underlying motives than focus groups. Can attribute the responses directly to the respondent, unlike focus groups. Result in a free exchange of information and there is no social pressure to conform. As a result of probing, it is possible to get at real issues when the topic is complex. Disadvantages of Depth Interviews: Disadvantages of Depth Interviews Skilled interviewers capable of conducting depth interviews are expensive and difficult to find. The quality and completeness of the results depend heavily on the interviewer's skills. The data obtained are difficult to analyze and interpret. The length of the interview combined with high costs limits the number of depth interviews. Definition of Projective Techniques: Definition of Projective Techniques An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern. In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation. Word Association: Word Association In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral or “filler” words to disguise the purpose of the study. Responses are analyzed by calculating: (1) the frequency with which any word is given as a response; (2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given; and (3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time. Completion Techniques: Completion Techniques In Sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. A person who wears Tommy Hilfiger shirts is ____________________________________ As compared to Polo, Gant and Eddie Bauer, Tommy Hilfiger shirts are __________________________________ Tommy Hilfiger shirts are most liked by ___________________________________ A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase. Completion Techniques: Completion Techniques In story completion, respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words. Construction Techniques: Construction Techniques With a picture response, the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality. In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques. Figure 6.6 A Cartoon Test: Figure 6.6 A Cartoon Test MACY’S Let’s get some clothes from Macy’s! Figure 6.6 A Cartoon Test Expressive Techniques: Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. Third-person technique The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. This third person may be a friend, neighbor, colleague, or a “typical” person. Advantages of Projective Techniques: Advantages of Projective Techniques They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms. Helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level. Disadvantages of Projective Techniques: Disadvantages of Projective Techniques Suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques, but to a greater extent. Require highly trained interviewers. Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses. There is a serious risk of interpretation bias. They tend to be expensive. May require respondents to engage in unusual behavior. Guidelines for Using Projective Techniques : Guidelines for Using Projective Techniques Projective techniques should be used because the required information cannot be accurately obtained by direct methods. Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding. Given their complexity, projective techniques should not be used naively.