Published on February 4, 2008
An Index To Assess Impact of Development Interventions on the Community of Kanawan Aytas: An Index To Assess Impact of Development Interventions on the Community of Kanawan Aytas Joseph Salonga1, Borromeo B Motin2 & Lourdes J. Cruz2,3 1Kanawan Aytas Reservation, 2Bataan Center for Innovative Science & Technology & 3UP Marine Science Institute Goal of Rural LINCTo develop a mechanism to mobilize S&T resources for direct mitigation of poverty: Goal of Rural LINC To develop a mechanism to mobilize S&T resources for direct mitigation of poverty Original Objectives: To generate employment opportunities & to establish sustainable means of livelihood as long-term solutions to poverty & socio-political instability in rural areas. Pilot Site: Morong, Bataan Slide4: International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups UP System & Michigan State University Exploratory Phase “How can we ensure that your proposed activities will not damage our culture?”: “How can we ensure that your proposed activities will not damage our culture?” Belen Restum, Kanawan Ayta December 13, 2003 Long-term impact of development interventions on an indigenous community is difficult to assess. : Long-term impact of development interventions on an indigenous community is difficult to assess. Need realistic method for impact assessment What development index to use? Must establish a status baseline for project Compare post-project value of index with baseline value Slide7: The widely accepted Human Development Index (HDI) does not include a cultural indicator The standard economic indicators are not applicable to a predominantly non-monetary economy BB Motin, LJ Cruz, F Gifford and MA Kron (2006) Indigenous Perspectives, : CONCERNS METHODOLOGY: METHODOLOGY Over a span of 10 months 3 workshops with tribal leaders 5 public consultations (tribal leaders and community) 4 consultations with youth (HS students) and parents Social scientist, BB Motin facilitated consultation-workshops and held interviews. Ayta HS student wrote minutes of meetings. Mechanism of consultations/workshops: Mechanism of consultations/workshops Tentative list of topics presented to group Aytas suggested other topics before group agreed on a final agenda for the day Discussions are led by an elder in a non-formal atmosphere Important information mentioned by the Aytas during discussion was noted on a blackboard At end of session (4 to 6 hours), BB Motin summarized information given by participants Summary approved by Aytas If necessary, information was verified with participants unable to attend previous meetings. Socio-Cultural Development Index (SCDI): Socio-Cultural Development Index (SCDI) Culture Education Earnings from employment & livelihood Health Development Indicators ► Population: 289► Sex ratio: 52% Male to 48% Female► Ethnographic distribution: Pure Aytas (Kulots) – 51% Descendants of intermarriages (mestizos) – 17% Non-indigenous (Unats) – 32% : ► Population: 289 ► Sex ratio: 52% Male to 48% Female ► Ethnographic distribution: Pure Aytas (Kulots) – 51% Descendants of intermarriages (mestizos) – 17% Non-indigenous (Unats) – 32% Demographic Profile of Magbukún Aytas in Kanawan A measure of the ability of indigenous Aytas to live according to their traditionsIndicators identified Aytas for participative assessment of cultural integrity:- Communal ownership of ancestral land- Language- Customs- Rituals- Costume: A measure of the ability of indigenous Aytas to live according to their traditions Indicators identified Aytas for participative assessment of cultural integrity: - Communal ownership of ancestral land - Language - Customs - Rituals - Costume Cultural Integrity Slide13: Assessment of Cultural Integrity Assessment of Cultural Integrity: Assessment of Cultural Integrity Customs Traditional ceremonies & rituals Dances Healing ceremony Wedding ceremony Burial ceremony Traditional costumes & tools Slide15: Indicators used for assessing cultural integrity Slide16: 2003-2004 Total # of individuals = 95 Never attended school = 29.5% Finished elementary school = 29.4% Finished high school = 2.1% Educational attainment of Aytas at age 15 & above. Slide17: Enrollment ratio in elementary and high school among Aytas 6 to 19 years old = 49/68 (0.72) Literacy rate among >15 years old = 31/95 (0.33) Literate those who have at least gone through Grade III. Aytas think they can already read and sign documents Overall rating for education component = 0.268. Education Component of SCDI Slide18: Typical year-round livelihood activities of the Aytas Slide19: Total income of employed Kanwan Aytas = PhP 1,500,700 Total income of other households = PhP 1,238,700. Total income = PhP 2,739,400 for a community of 297 Aytas Ave yearly per capita income of PhP 9,220 $ 0.47/ person/ day. Future development target: To improve the Aytas’ economic status to the next poverty line of $2 per day $2 per day target is assigned an SCDI rating of 1.0, Current economic rating = 0.230. Economic Component of SCDI Slide20: Weight distribution and diet of Ayta children in Kanawan Barangay Health Center, Binaritan, Morong, Bataan (2003-2004) Slide21: Between 1980 to 2004, 39 deaths occurred. 13 died at the age of 25-82 Out of 185 live births9 survived less than a week, 4 lived up to 2 months and 13 died before the age of one year. Cause of children’s deaths in Kanawan is primarily lung infection. 49% of Kanawan children less than 6 years of age are underweight Estimated infant mortality rate (IMR) is 26 out of 185 or 141 per 1000 live births for the above period. Arbitrary rating: IMR of 10 = 1.0 IMR of 200 = 0.0 IMR of 141 – 0.30 Health Component of SCDI Slide22: Ave. life expectancy at age 10 is 48 years Based on deaths in Kanawan over a period of 24 years Not from a single cohort Life Expectancy Index (LEI) formula given by the National Statistics Coordination Board of the Philippines (National Statistics Coordination Board) value of 25 for minimum life expectancy at birth and 85 for maximum life expectancy at birth adjusted to life expectancy at age 10 Estimated LEI = (48-15)/ (75-15) = 0.550. Health component of SCDI = Ave. of IMR and LEI= 0.425 Health Component of SCDI Slide23: Components of the Socio-Cultural Development Index (SCDI) Integrated Reforestation, Conservation, and Sustainable Livelihood Program for Kanawan Aytas: Integrated Reforestation, Conservation, and Sustainable Livelihood Program for Kanawan Aytas Site: Bataan National Park Support: Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation (PTFCF) Objective: To motivate, mobilize and empower Aytas to rehabilitate and conserve two critical areas of their ancestral domain. Integrated Reforestation, Conservation, and Sustainable Livelihood Program for Kanawan Aytas: Integrated Reforestation, Conservation, and Sustainable Livelihood Program for Kanawan Aytas Components IEC and Biodiversity assessment & monitoring Inventory of dipterocarps Reforestation Livelihood projects based on services & non-wood products Ecotourism Processing of forest fruits Beekeeping and honey production Herbals Slide26: EDUCATION HEALTH LIVELIHOOD CULTURE EMPOWERMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A HOLISTIC APPROACH Real empowerment can happen only if there is a program for sustainable community development. Learning-is-Fun Sessions: Learning-is-Fun Sessions Medical Mission : Medical Mission Vaccination to control measles and eradicate hepatitis B Slide29: Maraming salamat po!