Published on January 15, 2008
Chapter 4: Chapter 4 Consumer Behavior, Eighth Edition SCHIFFMAN & KANUK The Consumer as an Individual Slide2: Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process Types of Needs: Types of Needs Innate Needs Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired needs Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives Goals: Goals Generic Goals the general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs e.g., “I want to get a graduate degree.” Product-Specific Goals the specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals e.g., “I want to get an MBA in Marketing from Kellogg School of Management.” The Selection of Goals: The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend on their: Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment Figure 4.3 Achieving Goals bySubscribing to a Magazine: Figure 4.3 Achieving Goals by Subscribing to a Magazine Figure 4.4 Different Appeals for Same Goal Object: Figure 4.4 Different Appeals for Same Goal Object Motivations and Goals: Motivations and Goals Positive Motivation A driving force toward some object or condition Approach Goal A positive goal toward which behavior is directed Negative Motivation A driving force away from some object or condition Avoidance Goal A negative goal from which behavior is directed away Rational Versus Emotional Motives: Rational Versus Emotional Motives Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria The Dynamic Nature of Motivation: The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves Figure 4.6 New and Higher Goals Motivate Behavior: Figure 4.6 New and Higher Goals Motivate Behavior Figure 4.7 Changing Consumer Needs: Figure 4.7 Changing Consumer Needs Slide13: Frustration Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. Slide14: Defense Mechanism Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem. Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms: Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms Aggression Rationalization Regression Withdrawal Projection Autism Identification Repression Arousal of Motives: Arousal of Motives Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal Figure 4.8 Cognitive Need Arousal: Figure 4.8 Cognitive Need Arousal Philosophies Concerned With Arousal of Motives: Philosophies Concerned With Arousal of Motives Behaviorist School Behavior is response to stimulus Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School Behavior is directed at goal achievement Need to consider needs, attitudes, beliefs, etc. in understanding consumer behavior Slide19: Physiological Needs (Food, water, air, shelter, sex) Safety and Security Needs (Protection, order, stability) Social Needs (affection, friendship, belonging) Figure 4.9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Ego Needs (Prestige, status, self esteem) Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment) Slide20: Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance Slide21: Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition Figure 4.10 Appeal to Egoistic Needs: Figure 4.10 Appeal to Egoistic Needs Figure 4.11 Appeal to Self-Actualization: Figure 4.11 Appeal to Self-Actualization A Trio of Needs: A Trio of Needs Power individual’s desire to control environment Affiliation need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs Figure 4.12 Appeal to Power Needs: Figure 4.12 Appeal to Power Needs Figure 4.13 Appeal to Affiliation Needs: Figure 4.13 Appeal to Affiliation Needs Figure 4.14 Appeal to Achievement Needs: Figure 4.14 Appeal to Achievement Needs Slide28: Motivational Research Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations. Consumers are not always aware of, or may not wish to recognize, the basic reasons underlying their actions.