Published on August 7, 2014
Sculpture in the Modern Era: Sculpture in the Modern Era 2 nd unit-Lesson 2 Grade 10 What is Sculpture in the 20th Century?: What is Sculpture in the 20 th Century? Much of the sculpture produce in the 20 th -century differ radically in form and content from made in the past. In some instances, it explores the same directions as painting. Likewise, they share the same names: Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, Dadaism, and Surrealism. What cubist Sculpture?: What cubist Sculpture? African art was one of the sources that were fuse in the works of artists to create the cubist style. Influenced by Iberian sculpture, Picasso cast small bronzes with mask-like face, such as Head of a woman (1906-1907, Hirshhorn Museum). This and some of his works were part of the evolution of the Cubist style, a style which was simultaneously developing in his painting. Head of a woman: Head of a woman PowerPoint Presentation: Great distortion is seen in Woman’s Head (1909, Albright- knox Art Gallery, Bufffalo , New York): Its Pinched-out facial planes make this Picasso’s first thoroughly Cubist sculpture. In the following years he made numerous constructions and sculptures that can be characterized as Cubist, such as the sheet-metal and wire Guitar (1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York City) and the wooden Wineglass and Die (1914, estate of the artist). His later sculpture, however, was created along more traditional figurative line, as in the bronze Man with Sheep (1944, Philadelphia Museum of Art). wire Guitar - Man with Sheep : wire Guitar - Man with Sheep Pablo Picasso: Pablo Picasso The prolific works of Spanish painter and sculptor Pablo Picasso greatly influenced the path of 20 th -century art. He settle In Paris in 1904 and began producing works in the Post Impressionist style, He later developed many other styles and produced over 20,000 works. He is considered the greatest artist of the 20 th -century. What is Constructivist sculpture?: What is Constructivist sculpture? Constructivism, Asserting the dynamic of sculptural space rather than the immobility of mass, was a new direction that develop primarily in Russia. Its founder, Initially inspired by the works of Picasso, was Valdimir Titlin . He was renowned for the spiraling wood; Iron, and glass model for his Monument to the Third International (1919-1920, Russian State Museums, Saint Petersburg). Monument to the Third International by Valdimir Titlin. : Monument to the Third International by Valdimir Titlin . Model for Column: Model for Column This piece of sculpture by the Rusiian American sculptor, Naum Gabo , is a model for larger piece he completed in 1923 called Column . The model, like the later piece, is made of glass, plastic, and metal., Column is a representative piece of constructivist sculpture, It is abstract, Geometric, and created with industrial design methods. The model is part of the collection of the Gallery, London. Naum Gabo sculpture the Column: Naum Gabo sculpture the Column What is Dadaist and surrealist Sculpture? : What is Dadaist and surrealist Sculpture? During the World War I year. The French Dada artist. Marcel Duchamp , expressed his disappointments through his art. He selected mass-produced objects, Designating them as sculpture, and calling them “ready-mades.” objects such as a bottle rack, a snow shovel. And a urinal were pronounced by Duchamp to be subjects of art. The Dadaist emphasis on the role of accident, chance, and the unconscious creation of art- as in Duchamp’s Three standard Stoppages (1913-1914. Museum of Modern Art) – was to influence the later surrealist movement. Three standard Stoppages by Marcel Duchamp: Three standard Stoppages by Marcel Duchamp Bicycle Wheel: Bicycle Wheel French Born artist Marcel Duchamp changed the course of modern art in 1913 by exhibiting a bicycle wheel turned upside down and mounted on a kithchen stool. Bicycle wheel was the first of Duchamp’s so-called ready-made, ordinary objects that he turned into objects of art by changing their context and exhibiting them as sculpture. Show here is a 1964 replica of the original, which is now lost. Max Erns: Max Erns The German-born Max Ernst , like Arp, pioneered both Dadaism and Surrealism. His Lunar Asparagus (1935, Museum of modern Art), a delightful work in plaster, depicts two elongated, attenuated plant-like figures. Man Ray: Man Ray Also involved with Dadaism and Surrealism, and a frequent collaborator with Duchamp, was the American-born Man Ray , whose work is well illustrated by the fascinating Object to Be Destroyed (1923, Destroyed in 1957), a metronome with an oscillating stem displaying a photograph of an eye. What is Futurist sculpture?: What is Futurist sculpture? Another direction taken by early 20 th -century avant-garde sculptors was Futurism, an Italian style concerned with expressing motion in art. One of its chief exponents, Umberto Boccioni , made strikingly original bronzes such as Development of s Bottle in Space (1912) and Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913), both in the museum of Modern Art. Development of s Bottle in Space by Umberto Boccioni: Development of s Bottle in Space by Umberto Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Umberto Boccioni: Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Umberto Boccioni Futurist Sculpture: Futurist Sculpture In his 1913 bronze statue Unique Forms of Continuity in Space Italian Futurist Umberto Boccioni tried to show how a human body interacted with its environment as it moved. This sculpture is in the tale Gallery in London, England. What is Figural sculpture: What is Figural sculpture Despite the new style trends, numerous early 20 th -century European sculpture continued to work in a representational manner. Each produced distinctive form, for the most part base on the human figure. Aristide Maillol: Aristide Maillol In France, Aristide Maillol evoked classical in impressive bronzes of the female figure. One such work is a female torso, Action in Chair (1906, Music National d’Art Moderne Paris), which demonstrates Maillol’s characteristic perfect balance between states of tension and relaxation. Action in Chair Aristide Mailol: Action in Chair Aristide Mailol Henri Matisse: Henri Matisse The French painter, Henri Matisse , also made several series of bronze figural works displaying varying degrees of distortion that express inner muscular tensions. Three Piece Reclining Figure No. 2: Bridge Prop: Three Piece Reclining Figure No. 2: Bridge Prop In creating works like this large bronze sculpture, Three piece reclining Figure No. 2: Bridge Prop (1963), British artist Henry Moore Drew inspiration from the energy and vitality that he found in the art of many ancient cultures. The reclining female form is a recurring theme in Moore’s sculpture What are the recent trend in sculpture?: What are the recent trend in sculpture? 1. Since the 1960’s sculpture have continue working in a variety of media and styles. Anthony Carlo , in England, create powerful metal constructions. Which generally have a horizontal axis. PowerPoint Presentation: Americans working in metal on monumental scale include George Rickey , who composes delicate stainless structures set into motion by wind, and Richard Serra, who builds enormous outdoor structure of steel, such as Kinetic sculpture "Conversation" 1999 by George Rickey . Untitled by Stankiewicz: Untitled by Stankiewicz This 1959 sculpture by American artist Richard Stankiewicz shows his characteristic use of discarded metal and machinery. Stankiewicz’s use of these materials influenced many subsequent artists. Untitled is part of the collection of the National Museum of American Art in Washington, D.C. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Working with artificial light are the American sculptors Chryssa , who uses neon tubes, and Dan Flavin , Who define Spatial voids Through the uses of flurescent tubing. Monument for V. Tatlin: Monument for V. Tatlin American Minimalist sculpture Dan Flavins’s Work consists almost entirely of prefabricated fluorescent light tubing. The light the tubes emit extends into the viewer’s space, diminishing the distinction between the work of art and the space surrounding the viewer’s. Monument for V. Tatlin , create between 1966 and 1969, is in the collection of the tale gallery, London, England. PowerPoint Presentation: 3. other American artist, such as Donald Judd and Sol Le Witt , Produce works through the repetition of identical units – precise, simple forms – in absolute symmetry. PowerPoint Presentation: 4. Judd, a Minimalist, work with solid forms, as in Untitled (1965 Musee National d’Art Moderne , Paris): Le Witt, a pioneer of coceptualism , creates cubes-like empty spaces defineed by slim outlines composed of aluminum, as in Nine-Part Modular Cubes (1977, Art Institute of Chicago) Nine-Part Modular Cubes: Nine-Part Modular Cubes PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Conceptualism, an important current Throughout the 1970s, was strongly influenced by the works and writing of Duchamp. Aiming to give aesthetic precedence to the artist’s ideas, conceptualism sometimes dispensed with substantial works altogether, grading into performance art. The most influential contemporary Conceptualist was the German Joseph Beuys , Whose works satirized post war German Society and recalled his experience as a downed Luftwaffe pilot during World War II, and who was a popular public performer. Joseph Beuys sculptures: Joseph Beuys sculptures PowerPoint Presentation: 6. During the 1980s, sculptors began moving away from the austerity of Minimalism and conceptualism. Organic and eccentric forms began to reappear, a tendency known as Post-Modern or Post-Minimalist sculpture. Figurative motif can be seen in the simple, small-scale works of the American Joel Shapiro . Another American, Nancy Graves , is noted for her whimsical, brightly-colored open-work assemblages Joel Shapiro: Joel Shapiro Nancy Graves: Nancy Graves Early One Morning: Early One Morning English sculptor Anthony Caro is best known for his large abstract works in metal, usually involving prefabricated industrial elements. Caro’s sculptures and teachings influenced many younger artist. Created in 1962, Early One Morning is on the Gallery in London, England.