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Published on November 23, 2007

Author: Francisco

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Pueblo Modernism: Section 2 :  Pueblo Modernism: Section 2 Dr. Rushing Tuesday February 7, 2006 : Arapaho painted parfleche (1850, collected 1870s)):  : Arapaho painted parfleche (1850, collected 1870s)) Arapaho painted parfleche (1885, collected by George Dorsey, Field Museum in 1903):  Arapaho painted parfleche (1885, collected by George Dorsey, Field Museum in 1903) Parfleche::  Parfleche: A French Canadian word derived from parer (to parry or turn aside) and fleche (arrow) apparently referring to war shields of heavy rawhide; the term was used to describe untanned skin and any object made from such material, including the envelope-like containers see here. Kill Eagle (Cheyenne/Sioux, born 1820), painted hide (1870-75) both Native and commercial pigments:  Kill Eagle (Cheyenne/Sioux, born 1820), painted hide (1870-75) both Native and commercial pigments Kiowa drawing of Kiowa Prisoners on the train to Ft. Marion, Florida (1875):  Kiowa drawing of Kiowa Prisoners on the train to Ft. Marion, Florida (1875) Walter Bone Shirt (Lakota), drawing of “witches playing with their baby” (1890):  Walter Bone Shirt (Lakota), drawing of “witches playing with their baby” (1890) Walter Bone Shirt (Lakota) drawing, “performing the Dream of Black Tail Deer”:  Walter Bone Shirt (Lakota) drawing, “performing the Dream of Black Tail Deer” Photo of Ernest Spybuck (Pawnee, 1910):  Photo of Ernest Spybuck (Pawnee, 1910) Ernest Spybuck (1883-1949):  Ernest Spybuck (1883-1949) Born Potawatomi-Shawnee Reservation, OK Artist, historian, farmer His style not influence by either Studio Style or Kiowa Five (emerged before either of those fully developed) An untrained painter who began making images of daily life when he was a child. Ernest Spybuck (continued):  Ernest Spybuck (continued) Continued as an adult with the patronage of the anthropologist M.R. Harrington. His work matured along with this growing participation as an adult in ritual and ceremonial life. Thus he made images not only of Shawnee life, but the peyote rituals of the Kickapoo and Delaware. His having lived the life gave his paints authentic detail and accuracy, which made them valuable for anthropologists, but they also had a sense of individualism about them in the figures. Spybuck, Procession Before a War Dance:  Spybuck, Procession Before a War Dance Carl Sweezy (c. 1879-1953):  Carl Sweezy (c. 1879-1953) Born near the former Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation and educated at the Carlisle Indian School, in Pennsylvania and the Chilocco Indian School in Oklahoma. A self-taught artist, baseball player, civil service employee and Indian agent for the Federal government. Carl Sweezy (Arapaho, c. 1879-1953), Peyote Road Man (1930):  Carl Sweezy (Arapaho, c. 1879-1953), Peyote Road Man (1930) cf. Byzantine fresco :  cf. Byzantine fresco Sweezy, Indians Fighting White Men (before 1942) house paint/board:  Sweezy, Indians Fighting White Men (before 1942) house paint/board detail:  detail The Kiowa “Five”:  The Kiowa “Five” Spencer Asah James Auchiah Jack Hokeah Stephen Mopope Louise Smoky Monroe Tsatoke Slide21:  Asah, Auchiah, Hokeah and Mopope, and Tsatoke were given art instruction at St. Patrick’s Mission School in Anadarako, OK. as early as 1914 by Sister Olivia Taylor (Choctaw) and later by Susan Peters, an Indian Service Field Matron, in 1918 until 1922 (?). Later, from 1926-29 all six of them received instruction from Edith Mahier and Oscar Jacobson at the University of Oklahoma. They were enrolled in what has been described as “special courses,” which means that they were segregated from the rest of the students. Among the aesthetic elements they were introduced to was the Art Deco style of illustration. They developed a hybrid style, which included aspects of traditional Plains painting (hide and ledger book), but which was also modern in style as well: flat colors, clear outlines, sinuous curves, linear, etc. The subject matter tended to be nostalgic and traditional: hunting, warfare, dancing, and so on. Slide22:  According to J. J. Brody, the work is decorative, design-conscious and more emblematic than narrative. In 1928 their work was organized into an exhibition by Jacobson that traveled to the first International Art Exposition in Prague; the following year, 1929, a portfolio edition of prints by the Kiowa Five was published in France: Kiowa Indian Art (1929), which is now a rare collector’s item. In the 1930s they were quite active painting murals in Oklahoma and Washington D.C. under the auspices of the federal government. Spencer Asah (c. 1905-1954):  Spencer Asah (c. 1905-1954) He was the son of a buffalo medicine man and was “raised in a milieu of traditional Indian values,” which could be said of all the Kiowa Five/Six Spencer Asah (?) untitled (c. 1925):  Spencer Asah (?) untitled (c. 1925) Stephen Mopope (1898-1974):  Stephen Mopope (1898-1974) He was a champion dancer and singer and flute player and member of the O-HO-MAH lodge, a ceremonial society of the Kiowa. One of his uncles had been a Ft. Marion artist and another of his uncles was James Silverhorn, a distinguished Kiowa hide and ledger book painter. continuity with pre-Reservation artistic traditions Stephen Mopope, Apache Ben (1928):  Stephen Mopope, Apache Ben (1928) Louise Smoky (1907-?):  Louise Smoky (1907-?) was one of the original five (before Auchiah) to take art classes at the University of Oklahoma and indeed was the first Kiowa woman of note to break the male tradition of figurative painting. She was a noted bead worker also and she brought to her painting a marked interest in geometric patterns of design. Louise Smoky (Bougetah), Pow Wow Dancer (n.d.):  Louise Smoky (Bougetah), Pow Wow Dancer (n.d.) Louis Smoky, Kiowa Family (1927):  Louis Smoky, Kiowa Family (1927) James Auchiah (1906-1974):  James Auchiah (1906-1974) His grandfather was the famous Kiowa Chief Satanta his father was noted Indian Scout. As a boy he saw sacred paintings being made in conjunction with the Ghost Dance and his grandmother, who was a medicine women and color mixer was a major influence in his life. He participated in the creation of a new calendar count and came to see his art as a record that preserved traditional Kiowa history. James Auchiah, Kiowa Burial (n.d.):  James Auchiah, Kiowa Burial (n.d.) Jack Hokeah (1902-?):  Jack Hokeah (1902-?) around 1930 Susan Peters began organizing trip for the Kiowa Five to participate in the Gallup Inter-Tribal Ceremonials in New Mexico. This was both an opportunity to promote their paintings and to dance, except for Tsatoke, who was a singer. On one such trip Hokeah met Maria Martinez and ultimately lived for a decade at San Ildefonso as her adopted son. His presence in New Mexico helped create a synthesis of early modern Pueblo painting with the Kiowa Five style and it was this synthesis that was codified and institionalized at the Santa Fe Indian School in the early 1930s. Jack Hokeah, Grass Dancer (1922):  Jack Hokeah, Grass Dancer (1922) The Studio Style:  The Studio Style At the San Fe Indian School 1932-1962 Photo of Dorothy Dunn (c. 1925):  Photo of Dorothy Dunn (c. 1925) Dunn, Studies based on Pueblo pottery, c. 1932:  Dunn, Studies based on Pueblo pottery, c. 1932 Lena Romero, Tesuque pottery designs from pottery in the Laboratory of Anthropology :  Lena Romero, Tesuque pottery designs from pottery in the Laboratory of Anthropology Stanley Mitchell (Navajo), drawing of Navajo concha designs in the Lab (1936):  Stanley Mitchell (Navajo), drawing of Navajo concha designs in the Lab (1936) Jose J. Garcia (Santo Domingo), Sunflowers (1937):  Jose J. Garcia (Santo Domingo), Sunflowers (1937) Rufino Vigil (Tesuque), Women firing Pottery (1937):  Rufino Vigil (Tesuque), Women firing Pottery (1937) Rosita Martinez (Acoma), Acoma Women Selling Pottery (1936):  Rosita Martinez (Acoma), Acoma Women Selling Pottery (1936) Eileen Lesarlley (Zuni), Zuni Women with Olla (1935):  Eileen Lesarlley (Zuni), Zuni Women with Olla (1935) Ben Quintana (Cochiti) In the Mountains (1935):  Ben Quintana (Cochiti) In the Mountains (1935) Harrison Begay (born 1917):  Harrison Begay (born 1917) (Kaskay Yah Ne Yah or Warrior who walked up to his enemy; born 1917); after attending the Studio from 34-39 he studied architecture at Black Mountain College and served in WWII. In the 1950s he cofounded Tewa Entrerprises, which made silkscreen prints. In 1954 he was awarded Les Palmes Academique by the French government. Harrison Begay (Navajo), Navajo Weavers (n.d.):  Harrison Begay (Navajo), Navajo Weavers (n.d.) Harrison Begay, Night Chant Ceremonial Hunt (1947):  Harrison Begay, Night Chant Ceremonial Hunt (1947) Gerald Nailor (Navajo), Deer and Fawn (1936):  Gerald Nailor (Navajo), Deer and Fawn (1936) Mary Ellen (Navajo), Navajo Women with Corn (1941):  Mary Ellen (Navajo), Navajo Women with Corn (1941) Mary Ellen, Yeibechei Gathering Yucca for a Dance (1941):  Mary Ellen, Yeibechei Gathering Yucca for a Dance (1941) Geronimo Cruz Montoya (Po Tsunu, San Juan Pueblo), Picking Plums (1934):  Geronimo Cruz Montoya (Po Tsunu, San Juan Pueblo), Picking Plums (1934) Gerald Nailor (Navajo), untitled (c. 1938?):  Gerald Nailor (Navajo), untitled (c. 1938?) Woody Crumbo (Potawatomi), Land of Enchantment (c. 1940) cf. Kiowa Five:  Woody Crumbo (Potawatomi), Land of Enchantment (c. 1940) cf. Kiowa Five Narciso Abeyta (Ha-So-De, Navajo), Changeable Wolf Man (1958):  Narciso Abeyta (Ha-So-De, Navajo), Changeable Wolf Man (1958) Joe Herrera (Cochiti), Men’s Arrow Dance (1938):  Joe Herrera (Cochiti), Men’s Arrow Dance (1938)

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