Published on November 22, 2007
HYDROPOWER: HYDROPOWER BASIC INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES M. Selim Mangan FACTS ABOUT HYDROPOWER: FACTS ABOUT HYDROPOWER The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil. Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. Hydropower provides about 10% of the electricity in the United States. Norway produces more than 99% of its electricity with hydropower. New Zealand uses hydropower for 75% of its electricity. The Power of Water : The Power of Water Hydropower (from hydro meaning water) is energy that comes from the force of moving water. The fall and flow of water is part of a continuous natural cycle. Gravity drives the water, moving it from high ground to low ground. The force of moving water can be extremely powerful. Hydropower is called a renewable energy source because it is replenished by snow and rainfall. As long as the rain falls, this energy source will stand forever. History of Hydropower : History of Hydropower The Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour more than 2000 years ago. In the early 1800s, American and European factories used the water wheel to power machines. In the late 19th century, the force of falling water was used to generate electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In the early 1940s, hydropower provided 33 percent of US electricity. Hydro Dams : Hydro Dams Today there are about 80,000 dams in the United States, but only three percent have power-generating hydro plants. Most dams are built for flood control and irrigation, not electric power generation. A dam serves two purposes at a hydro plant. First, a dam increases the head or height of a waterfall. Second, it controls the flow of water. Dams release water when it is needed for electricity production. Hydropower Plants : Hydropower Plants A hydro plant uses the force of falling water to make electricity. A typical hydro plant is a system with three parts: - an electric plant where the electricity is produced. - a dam that can be opened or closed to control water flow. - a reservoir (artificial lake) where water can be stored. How a Hydro Plant Works : How a Hydro Plant Works To make electricity, a dam opens its gates to allow water from the reservoir to flow through a large tube called a penstock. At the bottom of the penstock, the fast-moving water spins the blades of a turbine. The turbine is connected to a generator to produce electricity. The electricity is then transported via huge transmission lines to a local utility company How Electricity is Produced: How Electricity is Produced The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. As the turbine blades turn, so do a series of magnets inside the generator. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons. The transformer inside the powerhouse takes the AC and converts it to higher-voltage current. The shaft that connects the turbine and generator Storing Energy : Storing Energy One of the biggest advantages of a hydro plant is its ability to store energy. The water in a reservoir is, after all, stored energy. During the day when people use more electricity, water can flow through a plant to generate electricity. Then, during the night when people use less electricity, water can be held back in the reservoir. Storage also makes it possible to save water from winter rains for summer generating power, or to save water from wet years for generating electricity during dry years. Economics of Hydropower : Economics of Hydropower Hydropower is the cheapest way to generate electricity today. Today, it costs about one cent per kWh (kilowatt-hour) to produce electricity at a typical hydro plant. In comparison, it costs coal plants about four cents per kWh and nuclear plants about two cents per kWh to generate electricity. Producing electricity from hydropower is cheap because, once a dam has been built and the equipment installed, the energy source—flowing water—is free. Cost of maintenance is minimal. ENVIRONMENT: ENVIRONMENT Hydropower is clean. It prevents the burning of 22 billion gallons of oil or 120 million tons of coal each year. Hydropower does not produce greenhouse gasses or other air pollution. Hydropower leaves behind no waste. Many dams are used to control flooding and regulate water supply, and reservoirs provide lakes for recreational purposes, such as boating and fishing. ___ HYDROPOWER IN TURKEY: HYDROPOWER IN TURKEY Turkey, according to 1999 data, produces 28 Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) per year from its own primary sources and consumes 75 Mtoe a year of primary energy. It is expected that by the year 2020, the primary energy production will be 78 Mtoe, while primary energy consumption will be 318 Mtoe. However, the country has the potential for 122.3 TWh/year of hydropower, 1.8 Mtoe/year of geothermal power, 50 TWh/year of wind power and 32 Mtoe/year of biomass energy, in usable and/or economic quantities. For this reason, Turkey attaches considerable importance to renewable energies. THE POTENTIAL: THE POTENTIAL Turkey has a gross annual hydro potential of 433 000 GWh, which is almost 1 per cent of world total potential. Of the total hydropower capacity in Europe, Turkey’s share is about 14 per cent. Almost half of the gross potential is technically exploitable, and 28 per cent (122 322 GWh/year) is economically exploitable. As of November 2000, there were 120 hydro plants in operation. These have a total installed capacity of 11 588 MW and an annual average generation capacity of 42 015 GWh, amounting to almost 34 per cent of the total exploitable potential. Thirty-four hydro plants with an installed capacity of 3305 MW and an annual generation capacity of 10 981 GWh, which is almost 9 per cent of the total potential, are under construction. HYDROPOWER DEVELOPEMENT PROGRAMME: HYDROPOWER DEVELOPEMENT PROGRAMME Turkey has an enormous task ahead to complete its full hydropower development programme. In the future, 329 more hydro powerplants will be constructed, to exploit the remaining potential of 69 326 GWhİyear, bringing the total number of hydro plants to 483 with a total installed capacity of 34 592 MW. This is foreseen to be accomplished upon the realization of a total development of 19 699 MW. In financial terms, it requires an investment of more than US $ 30 billion. ENERGY POLICIES: ENERGY POLICIES In line with the social and economic development of Turkey, the demand for energy and electricity is growing rapidly. In recent years, the average increase in electricity consumption has been 8 to 10 per cent per year, and it is projected to maintain a similar rate in the coming years. To meet such a demand, the country needs to allocate a total of US$ 3 to 4 billion each year for new energy projects. Energy is a vital and key priority in Turkey for sustainable development. The Government has plans to meet the energy deficit in the country, considering all the alternatives including natural gas, solar and wind powerplants. The aim is to create an energy-sufficient country with a continuous, high quality, reliable and economic electricity supply, and also to encourage sufficient investments to meet the growing energy demand in the country. Slide18: The first aim is the complete the GAP (Southeastern Anatolian Project), which is one of the most ambitious regional development projects ever attempted. It is an integrated, multi-sectorial regional development project, covering all development-related sectors such as agriculture, industry, transportation, urban and infrastructure, health care and education up to the year 2010. With the completion of this vast project,which comprises 22 dams and 19 hydroelectric plants, a total generation of 27 345 GWh/year and the irrigation of an area of 1 785 050 ha will be realized. GAP PROJECT: GAP PROJECT MAP OF GAP PROJECT: MAP OF GAP PROJECT INVESTMENT ALTERNATIVES: INVESTMENT ALTERNATIVES Since the 1980s, necessary legal arrangements have been made and an increase in the number of private investments in the energy sector has been achieved. Because of the very large amounts of financing required for the new hydroelectric powerplant investments, alternative ways of project implementation, operation and distribution have been promoted. The models such as BOT (Build, Operate and Transfer), BO (Build and Operate), BOO (Build, Own and Operate) and TOR (Transfer of Operating Right), developed by Turkey to facilitate private investments in the energy sector. Already 13 hydroelectric plants with an installed capacity of 853 MW have been realized, based on the BOT model. Of these, the largest is Birecik, with a capacity of 672 MW and an avarage annual generation of 2 516 GWh. Slide22: Another model recently introduced in Turkey is the turnkey implementation of hydroelectric projects on a full-financing basis, through bilateral cooperation agreements between Turkey and various countries such as the USA, Austria, France, Russia and Canada. Already 28 projects have been implemented on this basis by the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). The first example of this model is the Karkamış project (189 MW, 652 GWh/year). This project, was developed by a consortium of Turkish and Austrian companies within 47 months, and alI the units have been put into operation. Another example now under construction is the Deriner project (670 MW, 2118 GWh/year), which is one of the highest concrete dams in the world. This project is being undertaken by a consortium of Turkish, Swiss and Russian companies. CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION Turkey is not a rich country as far as primary energy sources such as petroleum and natural gas reserves are concerned, but has an abundant hydroelectric potential, which can be used for generation of electricity. Despite this, it is observed clearly that inappropriate energy strategies are adopted and such an abundant natural resource is not being sufficiently utilized. Turkey, by letting its waters flow without utilization, deprives itself from billions of kWhours of cheap electricity each year. Turkey is being pushed into a position of a country which is unaware of and cannot defend its interests by giving priority to thermal power plants using imported fuel, thus increasing external dependence in energy, instead of developing its own natural resources first. Turkey must base its energy strategy on developing the whole hydroelectric potential at the earliest possible time. THANK YOU!: THANK YOU!