Published on May 6, 2008
Training & Development : Training & Development DANH NGUYEN NGUYEN, PhD. RODERIC J. MURRAY, MA. Training and Development and Other HRM Functions : Training and Development and Other HRM Functions Training and Development : Training and Development Training Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members. Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns. Development Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an individual’s skills for the future responsibilities. Use of the Types of Training : Use of the Types of Training How Often the Types of Training Are Offered Source: Tammy Galvin, “The Methods,” Training 38, no. 10 (October 2001): 48–56. Training Dollars Spent On… : Training Dollars Spent On… Source: Tammy Galvin, “The People,” Training 38, no. 10 (October 2001): 58–64. The Systems Approach to Training and Development : The Systems Approach to Training and Development Four Phases Needs assessment Program design Implementation Evaluation Systems Model of Training : Systems Model of Training Phase 1: Needs Assessment________________ Organization analysis Task analysis Person analysis Phase 2: Design________________ Instructional objectives Trainee readiness Learning principles Phase 3: Implementation ________________ On-the-job methods Off-the-job methods Management development Phase 4: Evaluation ________________ Reactions Learning Behavior transfer Results Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment : Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment Competency assessment Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs. ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS TASK ANALYSIS PERSON ANALYSIS …of environment, strategies, and resources to determine where to emphasize training …of the activities to be performed in order to determine the KSAs needed. …of performance, knowledge, and skills in order to determine who needs training. Phase 2: Designing Training Programs : Phase 2: Designing Training Programs Characteristics of successful trainers Trainee readiness and motivation Issues in training design Instructional objectives Principles of learning Training Program Model : Training Program Model Objectives Contents Methods Teaching/learning activities Assessment and Evaluation Training Program Model : Training Program Model Macro Micro Needs Philosophy Entry Evaluation Goals Strategies Objectives Proximal Evaluation Distal Evaluation Rationale Goals Lessons Entry Level Objectives Entry Level Mastery Enabling Operations Teaching methods Materials Formative Evaluation Terminal Performance Objectives Summative Evaluation Units or Courses Designing the Training Program : Designing the Training Program Instructional Objectives Represent the desired outcomes of a training program Performance-centered objectives Provide a basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the instruction will be successful. Knowledge Objectives(Cognitive Domain) : Knowledge Objectives(Cognitive Domain) Highest Level Lowest Level Comprehension Knowledge Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Assessing the value of ideas, things, and so on Assembling a whole from parts Disassembling a whole into parts Using what has been previously learned Knowing what a message means Remembering/Recalling terms, facts, and so on Behavior Objectives(Psychomotor Domain) : Behavior Objectives(Psychomotor Domain) Highest Level Lowest Level Perception Set Guided Response Mechanism Complex overt response Performing automatically with facility / habitually Acting without assistance Performing a task with assistance Getting ready to perform Observing behaviors involved in a task Attitude Objectives(Affective Domain) : Attitude Objectives(Affective Domain) Highest Level Lowest Level Characterization Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Adopting a new way of life or outlook Developing / acquiring a new value system Accepting values / beliefs Participating Paying attention Trainee Readiness and Motivation : Trainee Readiness and Motivation Strategies for Creating a Motivated Training Environment: Use positive reinforcement. Eliminate threats and punishment. Be flexible. Have participants set personal goals. Design interesting instruction. Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning. Assumptions on Adult Learning : Assumptions on Adult Learning Adults want to know why they need to learn something before they will undertake it Adults generally want to be responsible for their own learning Adults enter into a learning process with a rich background of knowledge and learning experiences Adults become ready to learn only when it involves things they need to know and need to be able to do in order to function in their environment Adults want to know why they need to learn something before they will undertake it Adults generally want to be responsible for their own learning Assumptions on Adult Learning : Assumptions on Adult Learning Adults enter into a learning process with a rich background of knowledge and learning experiences Adults become ready to learn only when it involves things they need to know and need to be able to do in order to function in their environment Adult learners are much more life-centered and task-centered when learning, whereas children are subject-oriented when learning Adults learn best by activity Adults relate their learning to previous life experiences. Adults learn best in informal, relaxed environments than in traditional classroom settings Adults need to know if they are progressing. They need regular feedback, guidance, and praise along the way Assumptions on Adult Learning : Assumptions on Adult Learning Once motivated, adult learners will try to get the most our of training in order to improve their job performance Adults need to be able to ask questions and interact during the learning process. They don’t learn as well in passive groups Adults have a desire to learn to be successful. If you can show an adult learner “what is in it for them,” the learning is more effective Feedback and Reinforcement : Feedback and Reinforcement Behavior Modification The technique based on the principle that behavior that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, is repeated more frequently, whereas behavior that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency. Characteristics of Successful Instructors : Characteristics of Successful Instructors Knowledge of the subject Adaptability Sincerity Sense of humor Interest Clear instructions Individual assistance Enthusiasm Phase 3: Implementing the Training Program : Phase 3: Implementing the Training Program Importance of training outcomes Type of trainees Choosing the instructional method Nature of training Organizational extent of training Knowledge Objectives & Methods : Knowledge Objectives & Methods Highest Level Lowest Level Comprehension Knowledge Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Independent project, Labs Group Projects, Field experiences Discussion, Case studies, Laboratory, Projects Discussion, Games Simulation Lecture, Progress instruction Lecture, Practice Attitude Objectives & Methods : Attitude Objectives & Methods Highest Level Lowest Level Characterization Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Independent Projects Experience Group Projects, Field Experience Role-playing, Group Projects Simulation, Discussion Lecture Discussion Behavior Objectives & Methods : Behavior Objectives & Methods Highest Level Lowest Level Perception Set Guided Response Mechanism Complex overt response Games, Field Experience Games, Practices, Role-Playing Peer Teaching, Games Demonstration, Drill and Practice Demonstration Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees : Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees On-the-Job Training (OJT) Apprenticeship Training Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training Classroom Instruction Programmed Instruction Audiovisual Methods Computer-based Training and E-Learning Simulation Advantages of Web-based Training : Advantages of Web-based Training Learning is self-paced. Training comes to the employee. Training is interactive. New employees do not have to wait for a scheduled training session. Training can focus on specific needs as revealed by built-in tests. Trainees can be referred to online help or written material. It is easier to revise a computer program than to change classroom-training materials. Record keeping is facilitated. The computer program can be linked to video presentations. The training can be cost-effective if used for a large number of employees. Training Methods for Management Development : Training Methods for Management Development On-the-Job Experiences Seminars and Conferences Case Studies Management Games Role Playing Behavior Modeling On-the-Job Experiences : On-the-Job Experiences Coaching Understudy Assignment Job Rotation Lateral Transfer Special Projects Action Learning Staff Meetings Planned Career Progressions Case Studies : Case Studies The use of case studies is most appropriate when: Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills are most important. The KSAs are complex and participants need time to master them. Active participation is desired. The process of learning (questioning, interpreting, and so on) is as important as the content. Team problem solving and interaction are possible. Be clear about learning objectives, and list possible ways to achieve the objectives. Decide which objectives would be best served by the case method. Identify available cases that might work, or consider writing your own. Set up the activity—including the case material, the room, and the schedule. Follow the principles of effective group dynamics. Provide a chance for all learners to take part and try to keep the groups small. Stop for process checks and be ready to intervene if group dynamics get out of hand. Allow for different learning styles. Clarify the trainer’s role. Bridge the gap between theory and practice. Role Playing : Role Playing Successful role play requires that instructors: Ensure that group members are comfortable with each other. Select and prepare the role players by introducing a specific situation. To help participants prepare, ask them to describe potential characters. Realize that volunteers make better role players. Prepare the observers by giving them specific tasks (such as evaluation or feedback). Guide the role-play enactment through its bumps (since it is not scripted). Keep it short. Discuss the enactment and prepare bulleted points of what was learned. Behavior Modeling : Behavior Modeling Behavior Modeling An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and gives trainees the chance to practice and role-play those behaviors and receive feedback. Involves four basic components: Learning points Model Practice and role play Feedback and reinforcement Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program : Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program Criteria forEvaluatingTraining Training Program Evaluation : Training Program Evaluation Criterion 4: Results assessment Criterion 2: Extent of learning Measuring program effectiveness Criterion 1: Trainee reactions Criterion 3: Learning transfer to job Criterion 1: Reactions : Criterion 1: Reactions Participant Reactions. The simplest and most common approach to training evaluation is assessing trainees. Potential questions might include the following: What were your learning goals for this program? Did you achieve them? Did you like this program? Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? What suggestions do you have for improving the program? Should the organization continue to offer it? Criterion 2: Learning : Criterion 2: Learning Checking to see whether they actually learned anything. Testing knowledge and skills before beginning a training program gives a baseline standard on trainees that can be measured again after training to determine improvement. However, in addition to testing trainees, test employees who did not attend the training to estimate the differential effect of the training. Criterion 3: Behavior : Criterion 3: Behavior Transfer of Training Effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job. Maximizing the Transfer of Training Feature identical elements Focus on general principles Establish a climate for transfer. Give employees transfer strategies Criterion 4: Results : Criterion 4: Results Utility of Training Programs. The benefits derived from training. Return on Investment Viewing training in terms of the extent to which it provides knowledge and skills that create a competitive advantage and a culture that is ready for continuous change. Benchmarking The process of measuring one’s own services and practices against the recognized leaders in order to identify areas for improvement. Plan: conduct a self-audit to identify areas for benchmarking. Do: collect data about activities. Check: Analyze data. Act: Establish goals, implement changes, monitor progress, and redefine benchmarks.