Slowly Changing Dimensions-Informatica By Quontra Solutions

Information about Slowly Changing Dimensions-Informatica By Quontra Solutions

Published on July 28, 2014

Author: quontra123



Slowly Changing Dimensions: Slowly Changing Dimensions Presenter: Quontra Solutions Informatica Online Training Email:[email protected] Call Us:+1 404-900-9988 Topics: Topics What we’ll see: SCD in DWH Why? Who? When? How? We won’t see: SCD in OLAP Why?: 3 Why? Let’s take Sales fact table for example Every day more and more sales take place, hence: More and more rows are added to the fact table Very rarely are the rows in the fact table updated with changes Also Consider... How will we adjust the fact table when changes are made? Why? cont’…: 4 Why? cont ’… Consider the dimension tables Comapred to the fact tables, they are more stable and less volatile However, unlike fact tables, a dimension table does not change just through the increase of number of rows, but also through changes to the attributes themselves Who? When?: 5 Who? When? Who? Fact tables and Dimension tables We will focus on ( Slowly Changing ) Dimensions When? Good question: Inside the ETL process After the ETL process, as a stored procedure Never (wait, you’ll see…) How?: 6 How? This is the big question. From what we discussed for now, we can derive these principles: Most dimensions are generally constant over time Many dimensions, through not constant over time, change slowly The product ( business ) key of the source record does not change The description and other attributes change slowly over time In the source OLTP system, the new values overwrite the old ones Overwriting of dimension table attributes is not always the appropriate option in a data warehouse The ways changes are made to the dimension tables depend on the types of changes and what information must be preserved in the DWH How? 3 Answers:: 7 How? 3 Answers: The usual changes to dimension tables are classified into three types Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 We will consider the points discussed earlier when deciding which type to use Also Consider… Do we have to use the same type for the entire DWH? For the same dimension? Before going on, we must talk about one more thing. Surrogate Key: 8 Surrogate Key A surrogate key is a unique identifier for the entity in the modeled world It is not derived from application data It’s not meant to be shown outside the DWH It’s only significance is to act as the primary key Frequently it’s a sequential number ( Sequence in Oracle or Identity in SQL Server) Surrogate Key, cont.: 9 Surrogate Key, cont. Having the key independent of all other columns insulates the database relationships from changes in the data values or database design (making the database more agile) and guarentees uniqueness For example: An employee ID is chosen as the neutral (business) key of an employee DWH. Because of a merger with another company, new employees from the merged company must be inserted. There is one employee who works in both companies… If the key is a compound key, joining is more expensive because there are multiple columns to compare. Surrogate keys are always contained in a single column Our example: 10 Our example For the demonstration, we’ll use this star schema: Order fact Product Key Time Key Customer Key Salesperson Key Order Dollars Cost Dollars Margin Dollars Sale Units Customer Customer Key Customer Name Customer Code Martial Status Address State Zip Salesperson Salesperson Key Salesperson Name Territory Name Region Name Product Product Key Product Name Product Code Product Line Brand Time Time Key Date Month Quarter Year Type 1 Changes: 11 Type 1 Changes Usually relate to corrections of errors in the source system For example, the customer dimension: Mickey Schreiber -> Miky Schreiber Also Consider… What will happen when number of children is changed? Type 1 Changes, cont.: 12 Type 1 Changes, cont. General Principles for Type 1 changes: Usually, the changes relate to correction of errors in the source system Sometimes the change in the source system has no significance The old value in the source system needs to be discarded The change in the source system need not be preserved in the DWH Also Consider… What will happen when only the last value before the change is needed? Applying Type 1 changes: 13 Applying Type 1 changes Overwrite the attribute value in the dimension table row with the new value The old value of the attribute is not preserved No other changes are made in the dimension table row The key of this dimension table or any other key values are not affected Easiest to implement 33154112 Mickey Schreiber K12356 Married Negba 11 ST Customer Key: Customer Name: Customer Code: Martial Status: Address: 33154112 Miky Schreiber K12356 Married Negba 11 ST Customer Code: K12356 Customer Name: Miky Schreiber Before After Key Restructuring K12356 -> 33154112 Also Consider… Which indexes will help here? How the “change box” will appear in the real world? Change Box Type 2 Changes: 14 Type 2 Changes Let’s look at the martial status of Miky Schreiber One the DWH’s requirements is to track orders by martial status (in addition to other attributes) All changes before 11/10/2004 will be under Martial Status = Single, and all changes after that date will be under Martial Status = Married We need to aggregate the orders before and after the marriage separately Let’s make life harder: Miky is living in Negba st., but on 30/8/2009 he moves to Avivim st. Type 2 Changes, cont.: 15 Type 2 Changes, cont. General Principles for Type 2 changes: They usually relate to true changes in source systems There is a need to preserve history in the DWH This type of change partitions the history in the DWH Every change for the same attributes must be preserved Also Consider… Must we track changes for all the attributes? For which attributes will we track changes? What are the considerations? Applying Type 2 changes: 16 Applying Type 2 changes 33154112 Miky Schreiber K12356 Single Negba 11 ST Customer Key: Customer Name: Customer Code: Martial Status: Address: 51141234 Miky Schreiber K12356 Married Negba 11 ST Customer Code: K12356 Martial Status (11/10/2004): Married Address ( 30/8/2009 ): Avivim st. Before After 11/10/2004 Key Restructuring K12356 -> 33154112 51141234 52789342 52789342 Miky Schreiber K12356 Married Avivim st. After 30/8/2009 Also Consider… What will happen if in addition to Address we also have State, zip code? What will happen if the customer code will change? Change Box Type 2 concluded: 17 Type 2 concluded The steps: Add a new dimension table row with the new value of the changed attribute An effective date will be included in the dimension table There are no changes to the original row in the dimension table The key of the original row is not affected The new row is inserted with a new surrogate key Also Consider… What is the data type of the effective date column? Must it contain both date and time? How will the surrogate key be built? Advantages? Disadvantages? Type 3 Changes: 18 Type 3 Changes Not common at all Complex queries on type 2 changes may be Hard to implement Time-consuming Hard to maintain We want to track history without lifting heavy burden There are many soft changes and we don’t care for the “far” history Type 3 Changes: 19 Type 3 Changes General Principles: They usually relate to “soft” or tentative changes in the source systems There is a need to keep track of history with old and new values of the changes attribute They are used to compare performances across the transition They provide the ability to track forward and backward Applying Type 3 changes: 20 Applying Type 3 changes 12345 Boris Kavkaz (null) Ra ’ anana 1/1/1998 Salesperson Key: Salesperson Name: Old Territory Name: Current Territory Name: Effective Date: Salesperson ID: RS199701 Territory Name: Netanya (12/1/2000) Before After Key Restructuring RS199701 -> 12345 Also Consider… What is the effective date before the change? Can the old terriroty column contain null? What about the current territory? 12345 Boris Kavkaz Ra ’ anana Netanya 12/1/2000 Type 3 concluded: 21 Type 3 concluded No new dimension row is needed The existing queries will seamlessly switch to the current value Any queries that need to use the old value must be revised accordingly The technique works best for one soft change at a time If there is a succession of changes, more sophisticated techniques must be advised There’s even more: 22 There ’ s even more Type 0 changes Type 4 – using history tables Type 6 – Hybrid (what about 5?) Type 6 – Alternative implementation SCD in OLAP Conclusions: 23 Conclusions 3 Main ways of history tracking Choose the way you’d like for every dimension table You may combine the types It all depends on the system’s requirements Bibliography: 24 Bibliography Data Warehousing Fundamentals, Paulraj Ponniah, John Wiley Publication Wikipedia (Slowly Changing Dimension) Questions?: 25 Questions? Thank you: 26 Thank you

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