Published on February 26, 2008
Proposed Small Arms Marking PilotJune 2, 2005: Donald L. Roxby – (256) 830-8123 Proposed Small Arms Marking Pilot June 2, 2005 Pentagon Objectives: Pentagon Objectives Identify the most appropriate marking technique for small arms marking Demonstrate automated tracking at Anniston Army Deport - Facilitate the automation of weapons tracking - Eliminate manual data entry - Improve data accuracy - Speed data entry - Link weapon to use history in computer Establish cost per mark (including computer system updates) - Needed to test the feasibility of utilizing performance based logistics (PBL) future UID marking programs Weapon Identification Requirements: Marking must be UID compliant (Data Matrix symbol) The marking shall remain decodable throughout the functional life of the weapon (approximately 25 years) The marking shall withstand all environmental conditions that the weapon will be exposed to under normal and war time conditions, including refurbishment processes. The presence of the marking or the method of marking shall not have a detrimental affect on functional, performance, reliability, or durability of the weapon Symbol markings applied to weapons shall be placed in close proximity to existing human-readable markings Weapons shall be marked in arms rooms (mobile marker) and refurbishment centers (fixed station marker) Weapon Identification Requirements Proposed Marking Locations for M16 Rifle: Proposed Marking Locations for M16 Rifle Permanent Laser Colored Mark Laser Etched, Tamper Resistant Label For Reading Weapon While Racked Proposed Marking Location for M9 Pistol: Proposed Marking Location for M9 Pistol Laser Etched, Tamper Resistant Label For Reading Weapon While Racked Permanent Laser Colored Mark History: History U.S.A.F, Robbins AFB, 1989 - Established that markings could be applied to small arms using laser-marking technology. Tests indicated that laser marking applied to anodized aluminum coating had no adverse affects on substrate material properties. MIL-STD-130 revised to include laser marking of anodized aluminum. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), Alabama, 1990 – Established Compressed Symbology Testing (CST) Laboratory to assist industry with the development of a new two-dimensional symbol for direct part marking. NASA expands upon U.S.A.F. test program and successfully applies 2-D symbols to over 70 different materials. Lab personnel created readable 2-D symbols markings using 40 different marking methods. Material tests confirm that direct laser markings can be safely applied metallic materials (with the exception of bare aluminum and titanium) with negligible effect on material properties. Ohio University, 1993 - Center for Automated Identification Education and Research conducts tests to determine the integrity of selected 2-D symbols for the U. S. Army PM- AMMOLOG project. Tests confirm that Data Matrix and PDF417 are more reliable that Code 39 (1 error per 1,700,000) and that users could expect a 2-D error rate of better than one in 10,000,000. History Continued: History Continued Rockwell International Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, 1993 - MIL-STD-130J revised to permit the implementation of two-dimensional (2-D) symbols onto government programs. Rockwell International Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, 1993 - Hand held readers became available and were tested at Fort Lee, Virginia. Readers failed to read 2-D symbols applied to weapons under low light conditions and were not able to read small code. Automated Identification Manufacturers Association (AIM), 1994 – Releases symbology standard for Data Matrix symbol. American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1995 – Standardizes Symbologies across all industries: - Data Matrix to be used to identify individual parts - PDF417 to be used for shipping and receiving applications - MaxiCode to be used for fright transportation, sorting, and tracking. History Continued: History Continued RVSI Symbology Research Center (SRC), Huntsville, Alabama, 1998 - Advanced readers developed and successfully tested in Arms Room applications. Identifying a 13 clear coat that might withstand small arms operational conditions. Conducted preliminary tests at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. Identified three candidates for subsequent U.S. Army tests. U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Center (AMSTA-AR-ESW-S) at Rock Island, Illinois, 1998 – Conducted additional tests on clear coats identified by the SRC and certified one for use during the Proposed Fort Lewis Weapons Marking Pilot Project. Selected coating (984) conforms to Military Specification MIL-I-46058-C, Type AR, ER and UR (QPL#576-90) and meets “NSA” hydrolytic stability (reversion) requirements. DYMAX 984 passes UL-94 Flammability rating. RVSI Symbology Research Center (SRC), 1998 – Search conducted to identify low cost mobile laser for use in Fort Lewis Pilot Project. Weapons components successfully marked using four different portable lasers. History Continued: History Continued RVSI Symbology Research Center (SRC), 2003 – Tests confirm that CO2 laser can discolor weapon coatings with out breaking corrosion protection seal … thereby eliminating the need for a clear coat over the mark. RVSI Symbology Research Center (SRC), 2004 – Managed program to develop a mobile marking card and head-held Nd:YAG laser under National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCSM)/DoD. RVSI Symbology Research Center (SRC), 2005 – Working with Front Range Laser to develop a hand-held CO2 laser for use in UID legacy marking applications. Proposed Approach: Proposed Approach Marking program to be conducted in phases Phase I - Requirements Study Phase II – Test, Setup and Demonstrate System Phase III – Initial Operations Phase I - Requirements StudyFunded BY RVSI: Phase I - Requirements Study Funded BY RVSI Test Plan: Test Plan Establish data format Establish data size Evaluate small arms use and overhaul environments Evaluate marking processes And select optimal Method Mark samples and conduct reading tests Study existing tracking system and establish number of input stations Make recommendations based on tests, interviews and system evaluations. Requirements Study: Requirements Study Visited Anniston, to evaluate existing refurbishment and overhaul processes Bldg 129 – Small Arms Shop, evaluated current tracking and overhaul processes. Bldg 114 – Metal Plating Shop, evaluated finish stripping and re- plating processes. Bldg 145 – Machine Shop, evaluated alternative marking process capabilities Discussed how small arms are currently processed and tracked Obtained samples to test laser coloring process Generated presentation containing recommended small arms marking and reading processes Develop phase II proposal for small arms marking and reading system for Anniston Small Arms Options: Small Arms Options Small Arms Types Processed at Anniston *M-9 9mm Pistol M-16 5.56mm Rifle M-60 7.62mm Machine Gun M240G Medium Machine Gun M2 .50 Caliber [12.7mm] Machine Gun M134 5.56mm Mini Gun Others * Weapon selected for evaluation under Phase I (high volume & used by multiple government agencies.) Beretta M9 Pistol Selected for Pilot: Beretta M9 Pistol Selected for Pilot Beretta M9 pistol selected because is has broad use across multiple organizational lines. Solution offers more bang for the buck!! - Over half a million M9 handguns have been delivered to the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard. - Weapon also used by US Immigration and Naturalization Service, US Postal Service and many major law enforcement organization, such as the LA Police Department, LA sheriff’s Office and Maryland, Ohio and Pennsylvania State Police. 9mm Pistol Receiver Specifications : 9mm Pistol Receiver Specifications Receiver Material: Light aluminum alloy (7075-T6). Anodized in a sulfuric acid bath, making the hardness and durability equal to steel. Receiver Thickness: 0.101-inch Coating: Hard Anodize (Bruntom) Surface Color: Non-glare, corrosion-resistant, black matte finish Current Marking Depth (Steel Stamp): ?-inch Note: Beretta only makes one frame style for each caliber, so all 9mm 92-series guns (FS, G, D, brigadier, etc.) use the same frames. M-9 Overhaul: M-9 Overhaul M-9 Overhaul Processes: 1) Degreased & Cleaned with trichloroethylene at 195 degrees 2) Steel Shot (S70 grade) 3) Chromic Acid Strip 4) Steel Shot (S70 grade) 5) Alkaline Cleaner 6) Water Rinse 7) Desmutter 8) Plating (anodize) 9) Water Rinse 10) Dye 11) Sealer Marking Format/Size: Marking Format/Size Weapon Type: M9 Pistol Available Marking Area: 0.371-inch square Data Format: Construct 2 Data content: [)>RS06GS17V8T257GS1PM9GSS1234567RSEoT Symbol Matrix Size: 22x22 Data Cell Size: 0.0136-inch Overall Symbol Size: 0.30-inch Marking Process Evaluation: Marking Process Evaluation Marking Process Selection: Marking Process Selection Laser marking selected as optimum solution. No special fixtures required, fast, high resolution, no consumables, easy to use, long life and require very little maintenance. Laser engraving will survive overhaul and is best solution for small arms marking, but is not approved for use and will require additional testing. Laser discoloration is approved for use and can be implemented immediately, but will not survive overhaul and will need to be reapplied after part is anodized at Anniston. Multiple laser types will work. Laser Wavelengths Evaluated: Laser Wavelengths Evaluated Laser Type Selected: Laser Type Selected CO2 Laser Selected Lowest cost laser Wavelength provides fewest safety issues Laser beam turns black dye in surface finish white No corrosion issues - anodize coating not penetrated Application approved for use by MIL-STD-130 and NASA-STD-6002 UID marking (0.30-inch square) can be applied to M9 pistol in 2.10 seconds Marker very versatile and can used for many other applications Example Of Proposed Small Arms Marking : Example Of Proposed Small Arms Marking Phase I Conclusions: Phase I Conclusions The team is ready to proceed with Phase II Marking Process has been selected Further testing required to certify use of deep laser engraving Need to define numbers of input stations and types of data to be uploaded Required equipment has been identified Manpower is available RVSI and Anniston are prepared to take the next step Awaiting PM approval to proceed Phase II – Set-up, Test, and Demonstrate System: Phase II – Set-up, Test, and Demonstrate System Phase II – System Test and Demonstration: Phase II – System Test and Demonstration Build up a fixed marking station with fixtures for M9 Pistols Acquire and ship appropriate marking, reading, and verification and communication equipment to Anniston Set-up hardware at appropriate positions Test/debug hardware/host computer interface Begin Phase II marking operations Test and certify use of deep laser engraving (new process) Develop average marking, reading, verification, and registry input times Establish initial cost per weapon based on Phase II study Generate final report Establish Data Input Points: Establish Data Input Points Receiving Shipping Receiver Plating End-To-End Tracking Receiving Inspection Shipping Inspection Teardown Reassembly UID Marking UID Registry Update Part repair/ replacement Hardware Needed to Support Phase II : Hardware Needed to Support Phase II The RVSI team will provide all equipment necessary to mark the weapons, verify mark quality and to pass information to a new small arms data base. Monode fixed station, 30 watt CO2 laser RVSI UID Compliance Kit (CK) for checking and mark quality verification RVSI HE40’s for readers at each data input station RVSI MX Wedge Software to link readers to existing computers (emulate keyboard) Data system update and storage - TBD Small Arms Marking Process: Small Arms Marking Process Initiate Phase II marking using Laser Coloring (approved marking process) Conduct study to determine feasibility of marking small arms using deep laser engraving (new process that will survive overhaul) Deep Laser Engraved Marking USAF Marking Test Coupon – Machine and Laser Engraved Marks Survive Overhaul And Remain Readable Deep Laser Engraving Process: Deep Laser Engraving Process The process can be adapted to apply Data Matrix symbols using a Nd:YAG laser configured for deep laser engraving to cut a representation of the symbol directly into the lower receiver. The laser program can be adjusted to product symbols of varying sizes and to any depth required. It can also cut data cells with shapes reflect light away from the reader lens, creating the artificial contrast required for successful reading SEM Cross Section Of Laser Engraved Marking Laser Engraving Test Plan: Laser Engraving Test Plan Acquire Samples of AL 7075 T-6 Apply deep laser engraved markings of varying depths and shapes (not more then 10 percent of receiver thickness) Submit samples to Anniston to send through overhaul/plating process Monitor marking readability as samples pass through overhaul processes Submit test results and samples to Rock Island Arsenal for evaluation/ approval Revise MIL-STD 130 to include new process Note: Will required a reader upgrade at each station Phase III – Initial Operations: Phase III – Initial Operations Phase III – Pre-Production System Operations (6 Months) : Phase III – Pre-Production System Operations (6 Months) Mark weapons either before or after overhaul – based on Phase II findings. Read and conduct mark quality verification Ensure appropriate data entry protocols are followed Update holding database for subsequent UID registry transfer (not part of this phase) Government will lease all required equipment Do Not Delay!: Do Not Delay! All legacy parts require a UID by Dec 31, 2010, This will require that starting on May 12, 2005 at least 1306 firearms be marked daily to meet the quota. Every day delayed only increases this number! Slide35: Symbology Research Center 5000 Bradford Drive NW Suite A Huntsville, Alabama 35805 Tel: (256) 830-8123 Fax: (256) 895-0585 Web Sites: www.UIDSupport.com www.rvsi.com E-mail: [email protected] 2005 RVSI Acuity CiMatrix, All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A The Symbology Research Center is the most advanced 2-D symbology R&D laboratory in the world, maintaining the countries most comprehensive materials marking database. The center maintains a close relationship with NASA to further develop this 2-D technology. The SRC, through RVSI, holds more than a hundred patents related to 2-D and 3-D technology and has developed, enhanced and tested over 40 compressed symbology marking methods. Our consulting service can usually solve your most difficult machine-readable part marking or code reading problems via the use of the Data Matrix symbology. Any government or commercial entity can request assistance on a specific product identification problem by submitting a Problem Statement to RVSI Corporate Headquarters 486 Amherst St, Nashua, N.H. 03063 1(800) 468-9503. Slide36: Copyright RVSI 2005 - All rights reserved Warranty Disclaimer. THIS BRIEFING AND ALL OF THE INFORMATION IT CONTAINS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT, ARE HEREBY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMED. Limitation of Liabilities. 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