SMMGEuler

Information about SMMGEuler

Published on December 30, 2007

Author: Columbia

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Leonhard Euler: His Life and Work:  Leonhard Euler: His Life and Work Michael P. Saclolo, Ph.D. St. Edward’s University Austin, Texas Pronunciation:  Pronunciation Euler = “Oiler” Leonhard Euler:  Leonhard Euler Lisez Euler, lisez Euler, c'est notre maître à tous.” -- Pierre-Simon Laplace Read Euler, read Euler, he’s the master (teacher) of us all. Images of Euler:  Images of Euler Euler’s Life in Bullets:  Euler’s Life in Bullets Born: April 15, 1707, Basel, Switzerland Died: 1783, St. Petersburg, Russia Father: Paul Euler, Calvinist pastor Mother: Marguerite Brucker, daughter of a pastor Married-Twice: 1)Katharina Gsell, 2)her half sister Children-Thirteen (three outlived him) Academic Biography:  Academic Biography Enrolled at University of Basel at age 14 Mentored by Johann Bernoulli Studied mathematics, history, philosophy (master’s degree) Entered divinity school, but left to pursue more mathematics Academic Biography:  Academic Biography Joined Johann Bernoulli’s sons in St. Russia (St. Petersburg Academy-1727) Lured into Berlin Academy (1741) Went back to St. Petersburg in 1766 where he remained until his death Other facts about Euler’s life:  Other facts about Euler’s life Loss of vision in his right eye 1738 By 1771 virtually blind in both eyes (productivity did not suffer-still averaged 1 mathematical publication per week) Religious Mathematical Predecessors:  Mathematical Predecessors Isaac Newton Pierre de Fermat René Descartes Blaise Pascal Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Mathematical Successors:  Mathematical Successors Pierre-Simon Laplace Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss Augustin Louis Cauchy Bernhard Riemann Mathematical Contemporaries:  Mathematical Contemporaries Bernoullis-Johann, Jakob, Daniel Alexis Clairaut Jean le Rond D’Alembert Joseph-Louis Lagrange Christian Goldbach Contemporaries: Non-mathematical:  Contemporaries: Non-mathematical Voltaire Candide Academy of Sciences, Berlin Benjamin Franklin George Washington Great Volume of Works:  Great Volume of Works 856 publications—550 before his death Works catalogued by Enestrom in 1904 (E-numbers) Thousands of letters to friends and colleagues 12 major books Precalculus, Algebra, Calculus, Popular Science Contributions to Mathematics:  Contributions to Mathematics Calculus (Analysis) Number Theory—properties of the natural numbers, primes. Logarithms Infinite Series—infinite sums of numbers Analytic Number Theory—using infinite series, “limits”, “calculus, to study properties of numbers (such as primes) Contributions to Mathematics:  Contributions to Mathematics Complex Numbers Algebra—roots of polynomials, factorizations of polynomials Geometry—properties of circles, triangles, circles inscribed in triangles. Combinatorics—counting methods Graph Theory—networks Other Contributions--Some highlights:  Other Contributions--Some highlights Mechanics Motion of celestial bodies Motion of rigid bodies Propulsion of Ships Optics Fluid mechanics Theory of Machines Named after Euler:  Named after Euler Over 50 mathematically related items (own estimate) Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic):  Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic) Applies to convex polyhedra Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic):  Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic) Vertex (plural Vertices)—corner points Face—flat outside surface of the polyhedron Edge—where two faces meet V-E+F=Euler characteristic Descartes showed something similar (earlier) Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic):  Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic) Five Platonic Solids Tetrahedron Hexahedron (Cube) Octahedron Dodecahedron Icosahedron #Vertices - #Edges+ #Faces = 2 Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic):  Euler Polyhedral Formula (Euler Characteristic) What would be the Euler characteristic of a triangular prism? a square pyramid? The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory Present day Kaliningrad (part of but not physically connected to mainland Russia) Königsberg was the name of the city when it belonged to Prussia The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory Question 1—Is there a way to visit each land mass using a bridge only once? (Eulerian path) Question 2—Is there a way to visit each land mass using a bridge only once and beginning and arriving at the same point? (Eulerian circuit) The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory One can go from A to B via b (AaB). Using sequences of these letters to indicate a path, Euler counts how many times a A (or B…) occurs in the sequence The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory If there are an odd number of bridges connected to A, then A must appear n times where n is half of 1 more than number of bridges connected to A The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory Determined that the sequence of bridges (small letters) necessary was bigger than the current seven bridges (keeping their locations) The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory:  The Bridges of Königsberg—The Birth of Graph Theory Nowadays we use graph theory to solve problem (see ACTIVITIES) Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard):  Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard) Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard):  Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard) Problem proposed to Euler during a chess game Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard):  Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard) Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard):  Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard) Euler proposed ways to complete a knight’s tour Showed ways to close an open tour Showed ways to make new tours out of old Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard):  Knight’s Tour (on a Chessboard) Basel Problem:  Basel Problem First posed in 1644 (Mengoli) An example of an INFINITE SERIES (infinite sum) that CONVERGES (has a particular sum) Euler and Primes:  Euler and Primes If Then In a unique way Example Euler and Primes:  Euler and Primes This infinite series has no sum Infinitely many primes Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Recall Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Euler’s Formula: Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Euler offered several proofs Cotes proved a similar result earlier One of Euler’s proofs uses infinite series Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Euler and Complex Numbers:  Euler and Complex Numbers Euler’s Identity: How to learn more about Euler:  How to learn more about Euler “How Euler did it.” by Ed Sandifer http://www.maa.org/news/howeulerdidit.html Monthly online column Euler Archive http://www.math.dartmouth.edu/~euler/ Euler’s works in the original language (and some translations) The Euler Society http://www.eulersociety.org/ How to learn more about Euler:  How to learn more about Euler Books Dunhamm, W., Euler: the Master of Us All, Dolciani Mathematical Expositions, the Mathematical Association of America, 1999 Dunhamm, W (Ed.), The Genius of Euler: Reflections on His Life and Work, Spectrum, the Mathematical Association of America, 2007 Sandifer, C. E., The Early Mathematics of Leonhard Euler, Spectrum, the Mathematical Associatin of America, 2007

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