Socrates IIa

Information about Socrates IIa

Published on August 11, 2007

Author: Flemel

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  Slide2:  *Plato's Euthyphro Slide3:  I. Introduction Slide4:  Dramatic Scene-Setting Characters: Socrates and Euthyphro. (both real people) Dramatic location: outside the King Archon's court, where charges are registered and indictments delivered. -Socrates receiving his indictment for impiety. -Euthyphro files charges against his father for impiety. Dramatic date: Just before Socrates' trial. c. 400 BC. Peity :  Peity n. piety tr--andgt;  (hosia) --divine law; natural law --the service owed by man to God/gods/the divine Peity :  Peity n. piety tr--andgt;  (hosia) --divine law; natural law --the service owed by man to God/gods/the divine 'Justice as desert'. Peity :  Peity n. piety tr--andgt;  (hosia) --divine law; natural law --the service owed by man to God/gods/the divine 'Justice as desert'. So, piety is a form of justice, and impiety is a form of injustice. Slide8:  Socrates: You must know what piety and impiety are!! Euthyphro: I know what piety is. Slide9:  Socrates: You must know what piety and impiety are!! Euthyphro: I know what piety is. Socrates: So, tell me what piety and impiety are. Euthyphro: Certainly. The pious is what I'm doing now, prosecuting the wrong-doer for murder. Slide10:  Q: Tell me what the nature of a dog is. A: Well, this, Lassie, is a dog. 6d.    Sparky Buster Lassie This is a dog. Slide11:  II. Socrates' Introduction of Forms andamp; The Three Roles of Form Euthyphro 4e-5a 5c5-5d5 6d-e Metaphysical Role:  Metaphysical Role Euth. 6d5-6e. Metaphysical Role:  Metaphysical Role Euth. 6d5-6e. The form of F is what makes an object F. Metaphysical Role:  Metaphysical Role Euth. 6d5-6e. The form of F is what makes an object F. Relationship between form and object objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c) forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) Slide15:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Object X is F.' Object X Slide16:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Object X is F.' Object X If true, then i. there is a form of F, ii. the form of F makes X be F. iii. and X 'has' the form of F, or the form of F is 'in' X. Slide17:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Object X is F.' Object X If true, then i. there is a form of F, ii. the form of F makes X be F. iii. and X 'has' the form of F, or the form of F is 'in' X. Form of F Slide18:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Object X is F.' True. Object X If true, then i. there is a form of F, ii. the form of F makes X be F. iii. and X 'has' the form of F, or the form of F is 'in' X. Form of F Slide19:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Object X is F.' True. Object X The form of F is just that in virtue of which it is true that X is F. Form of F Slide20:  X is F: False X is F: True A, B, C, D A, B, C, D Object X Object X Slide21:  X is F: False X is F: True A, B, C, D A, B, C, D Object X Object X F-ness Slide22:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Sparky is a dog.'  Sparky Slide23:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Sparky is a dog.' True  Sparky Slide24:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Sparky is a dog.' True  Sparky Form of Dog i. There is a form, the form of dog, ii. Sparky has the form, or the form is in Sparky. Slide25:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'Sparky is a dog.' True  Sparky Form of Dog i. There is a form, the form of dog, ii. Sparky has the form, or the form is in Sparky. Dogness-itself the nature of dog the being of dog Slide26:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'The Golden Gate Bridge is beautiful.' Slide27:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'The Golden Gate Bridge is beautiful.' Form of Beauty Slide28:  Met. Role. i. Euth. 6d5-6e. ii. The form of F is what makes an object F. iii. Relationship between form and object: objects 'have' forms (Meno 72c); forms are 'in' objects (Laches, 191e, 192a-b) 'The Golden Gate Bridge is beautiful.' Form of Beauty Beauty itself The nature of beauty the being of beauty Slide29:  'John is a bachelor' True  John Slide30:  'John is a bachelor' True  John Form of Bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human Being 4. Unmarried Slide31:  'John is a bachelor' True  John Form of Bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human Being 4. Unmarried. Slide32:  'George W. Bush is a bachelor'  G.W. Bush Slide33:  'George W. Bush is a bachelor' False  G.W. Bush Form of bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human being 4. Unmarried. Slide34:  Euth. 5d, 6d5, What makes many things an F, the form of F, is one and the same in each case. Sparky is a dog. Buster is a dog Lassie is a dog.    Sparky Buster Lassie Form of Dog Form of Dog Form of Dog Slide35:  Euth. 5d, 6d5, What makes many things an F, the form of F, is one and the same in each case. I.e., a form is a universal. Sparky is a dog. Buster is a dog Lassie is a dog.    Sparky Buster Lassie Form of Dog Form of Dog Form of Dog Slide36:  Notes, Etc.:  Notes, Etc. 1. Reading for Monday: Plato's Apology. 2. Paper's due next Friday. Start soon. You must spend a fair amount of time reading and rereading the relevant passage. Treat it like a puzzle. Epistemological Role:  Epistemological Role Euth., 6e. If someone knows the form of F, then he or she can judge accurately (can know) whether an object, X, is F or not. Slide39:  Are these bachelors?     John Judy Mark Jared Slide40:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor?     John Judy Mark Jared Slide41:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor?     John Judy Mark Jared Form of Bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human Being 4. Unmarried. Slide42:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor?     John Judy Mark Jared Form of bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human being 4. Unmarried. M A H U ~M A H ~U M A H U M ~A H U Slide43:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor? John is a bachelor     John Judy Mark Jared Form of bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human being 4. Unmarried. M A H U ~M A H ~U M A H U M ~A H U Slide44:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor? John is a bachelor Judy is not a bachelor     John Judy Mark Jared Form of bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human being 4. Unmarried. M A H U ~M A H ~U M A H U M ~A H U Slide45:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor? John is a bachelor Judy is not a bachelor Mark is a bachelor     John Judy Mark Jared Form of bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human being 4. Unmarried. M A H U ~M A H ~U M A H U M ~A H U Slide46:  Are these bachelors? What is the form of bachelor? John is a bachelor Judy is not a bachelor Mark is a bachelor Jared is not a bachelor     John Judy Mark Jared Form of bachelor 1. Male 2. Adult 3. Human being 4. Unmarried. M A H U ~M A H ~U M A H U M ~A H U Semantic Role:  Semantic Role In sentences of the form, 'X is F', 'F' signifies the form of F. E.g., The form of piety is the meaning of the word 'piety'. The form of triangle is the meaning of the word 'triangle'. Slide48:  'the Golden Gate Bridge' 'beauty' Form of Beauty Slide49:  'The Golden Gate Bridge is beautiful.' Form of Beauty Slide50:  ■ Three Roles of Form ■ Metaphysical Role The form of F makes an object to be F. Epistemological Role Knowing the form of F, gives one the ability to judge correctly whether an object is F or not. Semantic Role In sentences of the form, 'X is F', 'F' signifies a form. Slide51:  III. Euthyphro's Second Attempt to Define Piety andamp; The Socratic Method. Slide52:  Euthyphro's First Attempt: What I'm doing now is what's pious, prosecuting the wrongdoer. Slide53:  Euthyphro's First Attempt: What I'm doing now is what's pious, prosecuting the wrongdoer. Euthyphro's Second Attempt (7a): What is loved by the gods is pious; what is hated by the gods is impious. Socrates: Excellent! Slide54:  A. The Mechanics of the Socratic Method The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. Slide61:  Logical Consistency and Inconsistency Slide62:  consistent George W. Bush is CEO of Texaco. Al Gore is President of the US. Anna Nicole is alive and well. set of propositions Slide63:  consistent George W. Bush is CEO of Texaco. Al Gore is President of the US. Anna Nicole is alive and well. inconsistent Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. set of propositions set of propositions Slide64:  P Q R S Slide65:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Slide66:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. All dogs are barkers. Some dogs are barkers Slide67:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. All dogs are barkers. TRUE Some dogs are barkers TRUE Slide68:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. All dogs are barkers. TRUE FALSE Some dogs are barkers TRUE FALSE Slide69:  All dogs are barkers. All barkers breath oxygen. ------------------ All dogs breath oxygen. If an argument is valid, then the premises entail the conclusion. valid Slide70:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Slide71:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. Slide72:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. David is in MND 3009 David is not in MND 3009 Slide73:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. Slide74:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. TRUE FALSE Slide75:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. TRUE FALSE FALSE Slide76:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. FALSE TRUE Slide77:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. FALSE TRUE FALSE Slide78:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. Slide79:  P Q R S T ~T A --andgt; B 'entailment' 'implication' 'logical consequence' If A is true, then B must be true. If B is false, then A must be false. Contradiction: A proposition and its negation. One must be true and one must false. Since one of T or ~T must be false, so too must one of P or R be false. But if so, it's not possible all of the propositions of the set are true at the same time. So, the set is inconsistent. Slide80:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Slide81:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Socrates did not die a natural death. Slide82:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Socrates did not die a natural death. Socrates died a natural death. Slide83:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Socrates did not die a natural death. Socrates died a natural death. TRUE FALSE Slide84:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Socrates did not die a natural death. Socrates died a natural death. TRUE FALSE FALSE Slide85:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Socrates did not die a natural death. Socrates died a natural death. TRUE FALSE Slide86:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Socrates did not die a natural death. Socrates died a natural death. TRUE FALSE FALSE Slide87:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Can't be true at the same time. So, the set is inconsistent. Slide88:  Socrates died a natural death. Xanthippe watched Socrates die by drinking Hemlock. Socrates was born in Athens. Played no role in generating a contradiction. Slide89:  P Q R S T Z ~T The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. The "elenchus" or the Socratic Method:  The 'elenchus' or the Socratic Method 1. Socrates asks, 'What is X?' 2. The interlocutor gives an answer: X is Y and Z. 3. Socrates gets the interlocutor to assent to a number of very plausible or certainly true propositions: p, q, and r. 4. The interlocutor's account of X, together with p, q, and r, Socrates will show are inconsistent. 5. Hence, the interlocutor must abandon some of his stated beliefs. 6. Given p, q, and r are regarded as very plausible or certainly true, the interlocutor almost always abandons his account of X. Slide96:  The Socratic Method in Action: Euthyphro's Second Attempt to Define Piety 7a Slide97:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) Slide98:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Slide99:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. Slide100:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Slide101:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Slide102:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Some gods hate the same things other gods love. Slide103:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Some gods hate the same things other gods love. The same thing is both pious and impious. Slide104:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Some gods hate the same thing other gods love. The same thing is both pious and impious. It's not the case that the same thing is both pious and impious. Slide105:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Some gods hate the same thing other gods love. The same thing is both pious and impious. It's not the case that the same thing is both pious and impious. Slide106:  What is pious is what the gods love; what is impious is what the gods hate. (7a) Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Some gods hate the same thing other gods love. The same thing is both pious and impious. It's not the case that the same thing is both pious and impious. So, his beliefs can't be true at the same time. Which to reject? Slide107:  Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. The gods differ on whether the same thing is good/bad, just/just Some gods hate the same thing other gods love. It's not the case that the same thing is both pious and impious. Slide108:  Piety and impiety are opposites. (5d, 7a) The gods quarrel and differ; there's mutual hostility between them. Hostile and angry differences are differences over what's good/bad, or just/unjust. People love what they find just/good, and hate what they find unjust/bad. consistent But now, with no account of the form of piety, he has failed to show that he knows what piety is. Slide109:  Euthyphro's Third Attempt To Define Piety. (9e) Slide110:  Euthyphro's Third Attempt To Define Piety. The pious is what all the gods love; the impious is what all the gods hate. Slide111:  Euthyphro's Third Attempt To Define Piety. The pious is what all the gods love; the impious is what all the gods hate. Wow! If so, then only a few things, if any, are pious or impious! All the rules, norms, and customs held to because they are thought to tell us what is pious are out the window. seeing and being seen:  seeing and being seen   Bill Sparky seeing and being seen:  seeing and being seen   Bill sees Sparky. Bill Sparky sees seeing and being seen:  seeing and being seen   Bill sees Sparky. Sparky is being seen. Bill Sparky sees being seen 'affect' seeing and being seen:  seeing and being seen   Bill sees Sparky. Sparky is being seen. seeing and being seen:  seeing and being seen   Bill sees Sparky. Sparky is being seen. Slide117:  loving and being loved   Nash Jess Slide118:  loving and being loved   Nash loves Jess.  Nash Jess loves Slide119:  loving and being loved   Nash loves Jess. Jess is being loved/beloved.  Nash Jess loves being loved/ beloved Slide120:  loving and being loved   Nash loves Jess. Jess is being loved/beloved. Slide121:  loving and being loved   Nash loves Jess. Jess is being loved/beloved. Slide122:   all the gods Slide123:   all the gods X love All the gods love X. Slide124:   all the gods X love being loved by the gods/ god-loved All the gods love X. X is being loved by all the gods, i.e., X is god-loved Slide125:   all the gods X love being loved by the gods/ god-loved #1. X is god-loved, because all the gods love X. #2. It is not the case that all the gods love X because X is god-loved. All the gods love X. X is being loved by all the gods, i.e., X is god-loved Slide126: 

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