sources of data

Information about sources of data

Published on November 24, 2012




PowerPoint Presentation: WELCOME WELCOME PowerPoint Presentation: SEMINAR PRESENTATION GROUP NO:04 BY:- POORNIMA.R CONTENTS: CONTENTS Introduction Definition of data Sources of data Methods of data collection Techniques of communicating with respondents. INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION Any research study, inductive or deductive, which you undertake for academic or for business purposes, will always require a review of relevant literature, and that will be a “critical” review, not just a description of what others have said. DEFINITION OF DATA : DEFINITION OF DATA Data, plural for datum, are collection of numbers, quantities, facts or records. Are what research is searching for and which are subjected to analysis, statistical procedures and interpretation. Reveal unsatisfactory conditions that need to be improved. PowerPoint Presentation: DATA SOURCES PRIMARY SOURCES SECONDARY SOURCES OBSERVATION INTERVIEW MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE INTERNAL SOURCES EXTERNAL SOURCES PRIVATE DOCUMENTS LIFE HISTORY DIARIES LETTERS PUBLIC DOCUMENTS PUBLISHED RECORDS UNPUBLISHED RECORDS JOURNAL, RADIO, NEWSPAPER, T.V, FILMS, PUBLIC SPEECHES SOURCES OF DATA: SOURCES OF DATA Data are classified according to source as follows: Primary data. Data that are gathered from primary sources. Secondary Data Data gathered from secondary sources. PRIMARY DATA : PRIMARY DATA Are those which are collected afresh and thus happen to be original in character. COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA There are several methods of collecting primary data, particularly in surveys and descriptive researches. In descriptive research, we obtain primary data either through observation or through direct communication with respondents or through personal interviews. SECONDARY DATA : SECONDARY DATA Which have been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA : These are already available i.e which have already been collected, analyzed by someone else. Secondary data may either be published or unpublished data. Researcher must be very careful in using secondary data, because the data available may be sometimes unsuitable. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION : METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION PRIMARY DATA 1) OBSERVATION METHOD:- Method under which data from the field is collected with the help of observation by the observer or by personally going to the field. In the words of P.V. Young, “Observation may be defined as systematic viewing, coupled with consideration of seen phenomenon.” PowerPoint Presentation: OBSERVATION MAY BE Participant Observation method Non-participant Observation method METHODS OF OBSERVATION Structured or Unstructured Method Disguised or Undisguised Method Direct or Indirect Observation Human-Mechanical Observation PowerPoint Presentation: ADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION METHOD The original data can be collected at the time of occurrence of the event. Observation is done in natural surroundings. Therefore, the facts emerge more clearly. Sometimes, the respondents may not like some part of the information. Such information can be obtained by the researcher through observation. Observation can also be done on those who cannot articulate. Any bias on the part of the researcher is greatly reduced in the observation method. PowerPoint Presentation: DISADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION METHOD Observation is required over a long period of time and hence may not occur. For observation, an extensive training of observes is required. This is an expensive method. External observation provides only superficial indications. To delve beneath the surface is very difficult. Only overt behavior can be observed. Two observers may observe the same event, but may draw different inferences. It is very difficult to gather information on (1) Opinions (2) Intentions. PowerPoint Presentation: 2) INTERVIEW METHOD: This method of collecting data involves presentation or oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. There are different type of interviews as follows : Personal interviews : The interviewer asks questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or persons. Telephonic interviews : When it is not possible to contact the respondent directly, then interview is conducted through –Telephone. PowerPoint Presentation: C) Structured interviews : In this case, a set of pre-decided questions are there. D) Unstructured interviews : W e don’t follow a system of pre-determined questions. E) Focused interviews : Attention is focused on the given experience of the respondent and its possible effects. F) Clinical interviews : Concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of individual’s life experience. PowerPoint Presentation: G) Group interviews : Group of 6 to 8 individuals is interviewed. H) Qualitative and quantitative interviews : Divided on the basis of subject matter i.e. whether qualitative or quantitative. I) Individual interviews : Interviewer meets a single person and interviews him. J) Selection interviews : Done for the selection of people for certain jobs. K) Depth interviews : It deliberately aims to elicit unconscious as well as other types of material relating especially to personality dynamics and motivations. PowerPoint Presentation: ADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEW METHOD Means of Securing Detailed Information Encourages Inputs by Interviewer Cross Checking of Accuracy Flexible Exercise PowerPoint Presentation: DISADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEW METHOD Expensive Subject to Bias and Personal Traits Ineffective in Some areas Recording Complexities Demands Skilled Interviewers Subjective Difficulty in Analysis PowerPoint Presentation: 3) QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD: This method of data collection is quite popular, particularly in case of big enquiries. Questionnaire is mailed to respondents Expected to read and understand the questions Reply in the space meant for the purpose in the questionnaire itself. Respondents have to answer the questions on their own. PowerPoint Presentation: HOW TO CONSTRUCT QUESTIONNAIRE: Researcher should note the main aspects of a questionnaire General form Question Sequence Determine the type the Questions : Direct Question Indirect Question Open Form Questionnaire Closed Form Questionnaire Dichotomous Questions Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) PowerPoint Presentation: DIFFERENT TYPES OF QUESTIONNAIRE Structured and Non-disguised Structured and Disguised Non-structured and Disguised Non-structured and Non-disguised PowerPoint Presentation: ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE Economical Time Saving Greater Anonymity Respondent’s Convenience Standardized Wordings No Variation PowerPoint Presentation: DISADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRE Unwillingness of Respondent to Provide Information Inability of Respondent to Provide Information Influence of Questioning Process PowerPoint Presentation: 4) SCHEDULE METHOD: One of the important methods for the study of social problems. In the words of Thomas Carson Macormic, “The schedule is nothing more than a list of questions which it seems necessary to test the hypothesis.” PowerPoint Presentation: 5) CASE STUDY METHOD : Essentially an intensive investigation of the particular unit under consideration. Its important characteristics are as follows : Researcher can take one single social unit or more of such units for his study purpose. Selected unit is studied intensively i.e. it is studied in minute details. PowerPoint Presentation: 6) SURVEY METHOD : Common methods of diagnosing and solving of social problems is undertaking surveys. Festinger and Kat of the opinion that, “Many research problems require systematic collection of data from population through the use of personal interviews or other data gathering devices.” PowerPoint Presentation: 7) PANEL METHOD : Data is collected from the same sample respondents at the some interval either by mail or by personal interview. This is used for studies on : Expenditure Pattern Consumer Behaviour Effectiveness of Advertising Voting Behaviour and so on SECONDARY DATA: SECONDARY DATA Are second hand data. Researcher takes these data from:- Magazines Newspaper Government agencies , etc. and also Through tertiary sources and they are…. PowerPoint Presentation: Tertiary sources:- These are collection of, gateways to, secondary sources. Include encyclopedias, dictionaries, citation indexes, catalogues and web-based portals, databases and journals contents pages. We use tertiary sources to track down secondary literature which is relevant to our field of study. COMPARISON OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA: COMPARISON OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA PRIMARY DATA:- 1.The primary data frequently give detailed definitions of terms and statistical units used in the surveys. 2.The primary data usually includes a copy of the schedule 3. Usually broken down into finer classifications. SECONDARY DATA:- 1.Secondary data are more convenient to use because they are already condensed and organized. 2.Analysis and interpretation are done more easily. 3.Libraries make secondary data more easily accessible DIFFERENCES: DIFFERENCES PRIMARY DATA 1. The primary data collection cost is costlier. 2. Primary data are time consuming and does not give cut in cost advantage. Primary data cannot be obtained quickly. 3. Need to be obtained by the organization. SECONDARY DATA 1. Secondary data collection cost is more cheaper 2. Secondary data are saving time and give cut in cost advantage. Secondary data can be more quickly obtained. 3. Some secondary data sources is that they provide information that could not be obtained by the typical organization.. CATEGORIES OF DATA GATHERED  : CATEGORIES OF DATA GATHERED Facts: These are recollections, observations and perceptions of respondents about themselves and of other people. Attitudes and Feelings: These are the respondent’s ideas and thoughts about the research, topic and his personal feelings about the worth of the item being investigated. Judgments: These data may include the respondent’s opinion about or his actual behavior, in a given situation. PowerPoint Presentation: Psychomotor skills: This refer to the manipulative skills of the individual and his activities that involve his five senses. Results of test and experiments. All other data gathered from the primary and secondary sources of data. SELECTING THE METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA   : SELECTING THE METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA A. Clerical tools The questionnaire method The interview method The empirical observation method The registration method The testing method The experimental method The library method PowerPoint Presentation: B. Mechanical Devices Microscopes Thermometers Camera, etc. “ The choice of the method depends upon some factors such as the nature of the problem, the population of the universe under study, the cost of the survey, and the time factor”. F. THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS OR TOOL   : F. THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS OR TOOL Mechanical Devices Mechanical devices include almost all tools used. Clerical Tools Clerical tools are used when the researcher studies people and gathers data on the feelings, emotions, attitudes and judgments of the subjects. Some examples of clerical tools are filed records, histories, case studies, questionnaires, and interview schedules. ISSUES IN CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION METHOD: ISSUES IN CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION METHOD Is the assistance of an interviewer necessary? Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated? Will co-operation be easily attained? How quickly is the information needed? Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire? How large is the budget? Broad Classification of Communicating techniques : Broad Classification of Communicating techniques Interviewer-administered survey methods Personal Interviews. Telephone Interviews. (Respondent) Self-administered survey methods. Paper-based Electronic Mixed-mode surveys . I. Interviewer-administered survey methods : I. Interviewer-administered survey methods 1. PERSONAL INTERVIEW A form of direct communication in which an interviewer asks respondents questions face-to-face. Door-to-Door Interviews – Interviews conducted at respondents doorsteps (in their homes) Mall Intercept Interviews (Shopping Center Sampling) – Interviews conducted by intercepting respondents at a central location in a shopping mall Pre-arranged Meetings – Interviewing respondents at other mutually agreed upon places Advantages of Personal Interviews: Advantages of Personal Interviews Opportunity for feedback. Opportunity to probe complex questions. Willingness of respondents to spend longer time on interview. Reduction in rate of item nonresponse (completeness of questionnaire). Possibility of using visual aids & props. High response rate / willingness of respondents to participate. Disadvantages of Personal Interviews: Disadvantages of Personal Interviews Interviewer influence. Respondent cannot be anonymous. There may be a need for several callbacks (attempts to re-contact individuals who have been selected for a sample but who were not available during the earlier visit) High cost. 2. TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS: 2. TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS Interviewer-administered interviews that are conducted over the telephone. Telephone interviews are the most widely used method in commercial survey research. Telephone Interviewing Systems Central Location Interviewing. Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview. Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interviewing. PowerPoint Presentation: Telephone Interviewing Systems Central Location Interviewing: Conducting telephone interviews from a single central location from which all interviewers work Usually through WATS (Wide Area Telecommunications Service) , contracts that provide fixed long-distance rates, and allow unlimited calls within a specific geographic area Allows Supervision and control. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI): Telephone interviewing system in which the interviewer reads questions from a computer screen and enters the answers directly into the computer. Usually incorporate telephone management systems that handle: Phone number selection. Automatic dialing. Sample selection. Automatic callback scheduling. Reporting on number of completed interviews. PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Computerized Voice-Activated Telephone Interviews Computer assumes responsibility for all aspects of the interview administration It dials the respondent, asks the questions, and records the responses. Used mainly for short, simple questionnaires. PowerPoint Presentation: Advantages of Telephone Interviews Relatively high speed of data collection. Inexpensive compared to personal interviews. Better respondent anonymity than personal interviews. Relatively higher respondent co-operation  lower non-response compared to personal interviews. PowerPoint Presentation: Disadvantages of Telephone Interviews Problems in getting representative samples; unlisted phone numbers; random digit dialing as solution. Problem of answering machines & faxes. Need for callbacks. Respondent can easily hang up. Inability to use visual aids. Need for shorter forms of questioning. II. [RESPONDENT] SELF-ADMINISTERED SURVEYS: II. [RESPONDENT] SELF-ADMINISTERED SURVEYS Surveys in which respondents take the responsibility for reading and answering the questions. Present a special challenge in questionnaire design because self-administered surveys rely on the efficiency of the written word rather than the skill of the interviewer. Self-administered questionnaires can be classified into paper-based (printed) or electronic (non-printed) Paper (Printed) Self-Administered Questionnaires: Paper (Printed) Self-Administered Questionnaires Distribution Methods Mail (or Postal) Surveys – using regular mail system (now usually called “Snail Mail Surveys”). Drop-off / Pick-up method. Fax surveys Inserts – e.g. in product packages, magazines, etc. Direct distribution to customers – e.g. in restaurants, airplanes, banks. Warranty / Owner registration cards. Advantages of Postal and Other Printed Self-Administered Surveys: Advantages of Postal and Other Printed Self-Administered Surveys Geographic flexibility. Lower cost. Respondent convenience Respondent can take time to think about response. Respondent has chance to check records for information . Respondent anonymity. Disadvantages of Postal and Other Printed Self-Administered Surveys: Disadvantages of Postal and Other Printed Self-Administered Surveys Absence of interviewer means: Loss of control over the data collection. Respondent can misinterpret questions. Visual props cannot be used. Questions have to be standardized. Takes long time to receive response. Questionnaire has to be short. Low response rates. No assurance that intended subject actually completed the questionnaire. Electronic Self-Administered Questionnaires: Electronic Self-Administered Questionnaires Distribution Methods E-mail Text HTML( Hyper Text Markup language) File attachments Internet Bulletin boards Web HTML Downloadable surveys Kiosk Interactive Surveys On-site computers Disk-by-mail (CD-ROM by mail) Advantages of E-mail Questionnaires: Advantages of E-mail Questionnaires Speed of distribution Lower distribution costs Faster turnaround (response) time Greater flexibility Less handling of paper Disadvantages of E-mail Questionnaires: Disadvantages of E-mail Questionnaires Lack of security (Eavesdropping by administrators) Lack of anonymity Differences in capabilities of respondent’s computers and e-mail software Difficulties for e-mail novices Advantages of Internet Surveys: Advantages of Internet Surveys Speed Cost-effectiveness Eliminate cost of paper, postage, and data entry Larger samples can be obtained Visual appeal and interactivity More sophisticated lines of questioning Can use color, sound, animation, and visual materials Accurate real-time data capture Easy callback capabilities Personalized and flexible questioning Respondent anonymity Disadvantages of Internet Surveys: Disadvantages of Internet Surveys Non-widespread use of internet in the general population Differences in capabilities of respondent’s computers and connection speeds Differences in computer skills Lack of security for personal information RESPONSE RATE ISSUES IN (POSTAL) SURVEYS: RESPONSE RATE ISSUES IN (POSTAL) SURVEYS Response rate: Number of completed and returned questionnaires divided by number of eligible people contacted . Methods for Increasing Response Rate: Methods for Increasing Response Rate 1. Cover letter explaining: Study importance. Request for help. Importance of respondent. Sampling method. Description of reward. Promise of confidentiality,Etc . PowerPoint Presentation: Rewards (monetary & non-monetary). Advance notification. Follow-ups. Prestige of sponsoring institution. Color of questionnaire paper. Type of postage Interesting questions. PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU

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