Published on January 3, 2008
SOUTHEAST: SOUTHEAST 4TH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES CLASS WHAT WE WILL LEARN: WHAT WE WILL LEARN GROWING SEASON ELECTRICITY COAL MINER MISSISSIPPI RIVER COAL The Mighty MississippiLesson 1 Objectives: The Mighty Mississippi Lesson 1 Objectives Describe the ecological importance of rivers. Explain the role of rivers in the development of the United States. Analyze why cities are located by rivers. VOCABULARY: VOCABULARY Source- staring point of a river. Mouth- a place where the river empties into the ocean or another large body of water. Tributaries- smaller rivers. River Basin- land that is drained by a river and the river’s tributaries. Port- a place where ships load and unload their goods. (New Orleans) Delta- the land formed by the soil the river deposits as it flows into the sea. Wetland- a wet area such as a swamp or marsh. The Mississippi RiverTHE BODY OF THE NATION: The Mississippi River THE BODY OF THE NATION Means the “father of waters” The source starts in Itasca in Minnesota The mouth of the river is in Louisiana Throughout the course of the Mississippi is fed by smaller rivers called tributaries. Some of the tributaries are really large rivers. The Missouri and the Ohio rivers empty in the Mississippi. The Mississippi has a large river basin The river basin drains land in 31 of the United States as well as 2 Canadian provinces. Its tributaries reach all 5 regions On the River: On the River For many years the Mississippi has been used for travel and trade. In the last 20years walls have been built along parts of the river to control flooding. They also keep the river from changing its course New Orleans is near the mouth of the river. This has helped the city grow over time. New Orleans is one of the busiest ports in the nation because it is located by the mouth. Goods from all over the United States are shipped here. The Mississippi’s delta is also located in Louisiana. WETLANDS: WETLANDS The Mississippi delta and other areas of the costal plain has an elevation close to sea level. Due to rivers and streams running downhill water from this area does not always go away. As a result a wetland is formed Wetlands are important for the environment They help control floods by soaking up the water. One wetland can absorb 300,000 gallons of water. They also provide homes for many animals and plants. A Long Growing Season Lesson 2 Objectives: A Long Growing Season Lesson 2 Objectives Explain which factors make agriculture profitable. Describe the effect of climate on the economy and ways of life in the Southeast. VOCABULARY: VOCABULARY Agriculture- the business of growing crops and raising animals. Growing season- the number of days in a year when the weather is warm enough for crops to grow Cash crop- is grown to be sold for money Tourists- people on vacation. WATCH THEM GROW: WATCH THEM GROW Plants need food and water to grow and they also need to stay warm. Farmers need to watch the growing season. Our country’s regions have different growing seasons. The long growing season allows farmers to raise certain crops that can not be raised in cooler regions. Peanuts would be an example of this crop. Peanut plants take 4-5 months to grow. A frost can easily destroy an entire crop. Peanuts also need plenty of rain to grown. The region of the Southeast received enough rain for most crops PEOPLE WORK WITH CLIMATE: PEOPLE WORK WITH CLIMATE The climate in the Southeast allows farmers in this region to grow various cash crops Tobacco and rice are also other types of cash crops found the Southeast. Arkansas grows more rice than any other state. That is because of the states precipitation. Arkansas receives 49 inches of rain a year An unexpected freeze can damage many crops, infact it my even destroy all of it. Every year warm weather of the Southeast brings in millions of tourists. Some tourists are called “sunbirds” they enjoy the warm weather. COAL: A BURIED TREASURELESSON 3 OBJECTIVES: COAL: A BURIED TREASURE LESSON 3 OBJECTIVES List major industries of the Southeast. Explain how coal is formed, mined, and used. Evaluate the pros and cons of various methods used to create electricity. VOCABULARY: VOCABULARY Industry- all the businesses that make one kind of goods or provide one kind of service. Coal- a black or brown mineral found in the ground. Labor Union- a group of workers who push for better working conditions. Technology- the use of skills ideas, and tools to meet people’s needs. A DIFFICULT JOB: A DIFFICULT JOB Coal miners worked many hours digging for coal. They had little light and limited air to breath. They removed coal with picks, shovels and sometimes explosives. There were many dangers in coal mining. Tunnels would cave in and trap the miners. Tunnels also had gases in them. If a spark was set an explosion would take place. Many miners lost their lives this way. Children worked in the mines till the 1940’s A DIFFICULT JOB CONTINUED: A DIFFICULT JOB CONTINUED In the 1890 miners all over decided to form a labor union. Over the years the union improved pay and mine safety. The union also demanded medical care for miners with lung damage from years of breathing in coal dust. The union also demanded medical care for miners with lung damage from years of breathing in coal dust. A COAL MINER: A COAL MINER Mining has changed since the 1900’s. New machines let workers to dig up coal faster. The work is not as dangerous as it use to be. Mining has become easier due to technology. Mining has become easier due to technology. Miners today use extractors and other machines. Miners today use extractors and other machines. COAL AND ELECTRICITY: COAL AND ELECTRICITY More than half of our country’s electricity comes form power plants that burn coal. Burning coal pollutes the air, however scientist have developed technology that makes burning coal cleaner Nuclear power plants supply one-fifth of our electricity. The don’t create smoke, but they create waste that are very dangerous. Electricity can also be made from running water. This does not pollute, however rivers cannot supply enough electricity to meet our needs. DEEP IN THE GROUND: DEEP IN THE GROUND Much of the coal is found in the Southeast. Unlike most minerals coal can be burned, when burned it gives off heat. Navajo and the Hopi were among the Native Americans who used it for heat and to bake pottery. The coal industry began to take affect in the 1830’s The railroads began to spread around this time. Coal was much easier to move with a train. By the 1890’s people were using 200 million tons each year.