spectrumastrotalk

Information about spectrumastrotalk

Published on November 28, 2007

Author: funnyside

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Einstein’s Universe and Beyond…:  Einstein’s Universe and Beyond… Professor Lynn Cominsky Sonoma State University January 15, 2004 National Aeronautics and Space Administration:  National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space:  Space Slide4:  Aerospace Technology Biological and Physical Research Space Science Earth Science Human Exploration and Development of Space NASA ENTERPRISES Education Slide6:  Astronomy and Physics Division Infrared, Visible and Ultraviolet Radio, Microwave, X-ray, Gamma-ray, Gravity, Cosmic Rays Structure and Evolution of the Universe Structure and Evolution of the Universe:  Structure and Evolution of the Universe To explain structure in the Universe and forecast our cosmic destiny; To explore the cycles of matter and energy in the evolving Universe; To examine the ultimate limits of gravity and energy in the Universe ranging from the closest stars to the most distant quasars. Structure and Evolution of the Universe Missions:  Structure and Evolution of the Universe Missions ACE HETE-2 ASTRO E2 INTEGRAL Chandra LISA CHIPS RXTE Constellation-X SWAS GALEX Swift GLAST WMAP Gravity Probe B XMM-Newton Hubble Not yet launched In orbit Slide9:  Spanning the EM Spectrum ASTRO-E2 Chandra CHIPS Con-X GALEX GLAST HETE-2 INTEGRAL MAP RXTE SWAS XMM-Newton Swift Energy (eV) Radio Infrared Visible UV X-ray Gamma ray Slide10:  http://universe.sonoma.edu Your first choice for on-line information! SEU Main research areas:  SEU Main research areas Cosmic Microwave Background X-ray Astronomy Gamma-ray Astronomy Gravity Coming soon ---- Beyond Einstein! X-ray Astronomy – a brief history:  X-ray Astronomy – a brief history Began in 1962 with the discovery of first extra-solar X-ray source (Sco X-1) in a rocket flight by Giacconi et al. (Nobel prize in 2002) First satellite was SAS-A aka Uhuru (1970-3) Uhuru X-ray Astronomy:  X-ray Astronomy First imaging X-ray satellite was Einstein Observatory (1978-81) Currently in orbit: RXTE, Chandra and XMM-Newton (ESA/NASA) Einstein Chandra X-ray Sourcery:  X-ray Sourcery Earliest source was Sun – corona and flares Then neutron stars and black holes in accreting binaries were discovered to be strong x-ray emitters – 10 orders of magnitude greater! Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity:  Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity Event horizon around singularity is defined by radius where escape velocity is equal to the speed of light Not even light can escape, once it has crossed the event horizon R = 2GM/c2 Chandra X-ray Observatory:  Chandra X-ray Observatory 1 arcsecond images  “HST of X-ray Astronomy” Breakthroughs in every area of study Stars Compact Objects Galaxies Galaxy Clusters 1-10 keV X-rays Launched 7/23/99 Cas A SNR shows central NS in one of Chandra’s first images Black Holes Are Everywhere!:  Black Holes Are Everywhere! Black holes in quasars QSO Galaxy Empty Black holes in“normal” galaxies Black holes in empty space Deep Image Coming soon – we hope! NuSTAR:  Coming soon – we hope! NuSTAR SMEX Phase A study underway Spectrum Astro will provide spacecraft and Mission Operations Center Focusing hard X-ray telescope (6-80 keV) with CdZnTe detectors Black hole finder and supernova remnant studies Launch in 8/07 if selected for flight Gamma-ray Astronomy: The Big Picture:  Gamma-ray Astronomy: The Big Picture Whole sky glows Extreme environments Probes of the Universe CGRO/EGRET All Sky Map Early Gamma-ray Astronomy:  Early Gamma-ray Astronomy • Gamma-ray Bursts Vela Program : A Bomb or Not a Bomb? A few hundred events, a few hundred theories Gamma-ray Sources SAS-2 – discovered 2 pulsars (1972) COS-B – about 25 sources (1975-82) Most unidentified, but 1 quasar Diffuse extra-galactic background Compton GRO – four instruments Opened up the gamma-ray Universe Mass and energy:  Mass and energy Einstein’s most famous equation Einstein realized that mass and energy were equivalent and interchangeable This interchange is commonly observed in high-energy astronomy Swift and GLAST use this principle in different ways E = mc2 Creating Energy from Mass:  Creating Energy from Mass When two oppositely charged particles meet in flight, they can annihilate to create two gamma-ray photons traveling in opposite directions The rest mass of an electron or its anti-particle, the positron, is 511 keV/c2 Annihilating an electron creates E= 511 keV Explosions in Space:  Explosions in Space Energy is also created from mass when stars explode Supernovae herald the deaths of stars Gamma-ray Bursts signal the deaths of even more massive stars They are the birth cries of black holes Gamma-Ray Bursts:  Gamma-Ray Bursts When you’ve seen one gamma-ray burst….. You’ve seen one gamma-ray burst! Distribution of GRBs in the Sky:  Distribution of GRBs in the Sky Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission:  Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission Will study Gamma-Ray Bursts with a “swift” response Burst Alert Telescope X-ray Telescope UV/Optical Telescope Spacecraft by Spectrum Astro To be launched in 2004 Nominal 2-year lifetime Slide27:  Repoints within 50 s after detecting GRB to obtain X-ray and optical data Detects about 150 GRBs per year and their afterglows Sends initial coordinates of burst to ground within 15 s Sends high resolution coordinates of GRB to ground within 50 s Determines distance to burst within 1000 s Swift.sonoma.edu Creating Mass from Energy:  Creating Mass from Energy Pairs of oppositely charged particles can be produced from a single energetic gamma-ray photon, interacting with converter material Pair production in space:  Pair production in space NASA is launching GLAST in 2007 Large Area Telescope (joint with DOE) GLAST Burst Monitor LAT uses pair production to track gamma-rays from space to their sources – often huge black holes! Spacecraft by Spectrum Astro GLAST LAT Technologies:  GLAST LAT Technologies GLAST Science:  Explore the era of star formation in the universe, the physics of dark matter and the creation and evolution of galaxies GLAST Science Going Beyond Einstein:  Going Beyond Einstein NASA is beginning a new program to test predictions of Einstein’s theories: What happens at the edge of a black hole? What powered the Big Bang? What is the mysterious Dark Energy that is pulling the Universe apart? Do Einstein’s theories completely describe our Universe? BE Great Observatories:  BE Great Observatories Constellation X LISA Four X-ray telescopes flying in formation Three satellites, each with 2 lasers and 2 test masses Beyond Einstein Probes:  Beyond Einstein Probes Census of hidden Black Holes Dark Energy Inflation Black Hole Finder Measure expansion history Polarization of CMB BE Mission Concept Studies:  BE Mission Concept Studies Black Hole Finder: EXIST: Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope Spectrum Astro is providing spacecraft information to concept study SSU is leading E/PO Dark Energy Probe: Leading concept is SNAP: Supernova Acceleration Probe NASA and DOE have signed agreement for “Joint Dark Energy Mission” Beyond Einstein Vision Missions:  Beyond Einstein Vision Missions Big Bang Observer Black Hole Imager Direct detection of gravitational waves from Big Bang Resolved image of the Event Horizon Some last words from Einstein:  Some last words from Einstein “The most incomprehensible thing about the Universe is that it is comprehensible” Background follows:  Background follows GLAST design:  GLAST design

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