Published on August 1, 2014
Week 4 Behavioral Package & Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment: Week 4 Behavioral Package & Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment Heather Enos, Ed.S ., BCBA University of Colorado Denver SPED 5490 Behavioral Package : Behavioral Package Based on behavior principles Four fundamental consequences that explain most behavior When a positive consequence happens after a behavior occurs the behavior is likely to happen again. Example? When a negative consequence happens after a behaviors occurs the behavior is likely to decrease. Example? When a positive consequence is removed after a behaviors occurs that behavior is less likely to occur again. Example? When a negative consequence is removed after a behavior occurs the behavior is likely to occur again. Example? Behavioral Package : Behavioral Package Often requires… Determine the function of the problem behavior How? Functional assessment Functional analysis Descriptive assessment Behavioral Package : Behavioral Package What are the functions? Obtain?? Escape?? Not specified? Behavioral Package : Behavioral Package Target Behaviors Academic skills Communication Social skills Play skills Problem behaviors Your articles???? Behavioral Package: Behavioral Package Reduce problem behaviors and increase functional skills Contingency contracting Toilet training Shaping Token economy Functional Communication Training Behavior Intervention Package: Behavior Intervention Package Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) An approach for changing a child’s behavior Is based on humanistic values and research. An approach for developing an understanding of why the child has challenging behavior and teaching the child new skills to replace challenging behavior. A holistic approach that considers all of the factors that impact on a child, and the child’s behavior Research on PBS: Research on PBS Effective for all ages of individuals with disabilities 2-50 years. Effective for diverse groups of individuals with challenges: mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, autism, emotional behavioral disorders, children at risk, etc. PBS is the only comprehensive and evidence- based approach to address challenging behavior within a variety of natural settings. Old Way New Way: Old Way New Way General intervention for all behavior problems Intervention is reactive Focus on behavior reduction Quick Fix Intervention matched to purpose of the behavior Intervention is proactive Focus on teaching new skills Long term interventions Behavior Intervention Package: PBIS: Behavior Intervention Package: PBIS 5 components of PBIS: Establishing a Team Conducting Functional Assessment Developing the Intervention Plan Reducing targeted behaviors Teaching new (replacement) behaviors Implementation Evaluations 1. Potential Team Members: 1. Potential Team Members Parents/Family Teacher Assisting Teacher/Paraprofessional Therapists Administrative Staff Other(s) Functional Assessment: Functional Assessment A process for developing an understanding of a person’s challenging behavior and, in particular, how the behavior is governed by environmental events. Results in the identification of the “purpose” or “function” of the challenging behavior. Functional Assessment: Functional Assessment Observe the child in target routines and settings. Collect data on child behavior, looking for situations that predict challenging behavior and that are linked with appropriate behavior. Interview persons most familiar with the child Review records. 3. Behavior Support Plan: 3. Behavior Support Plan Behavior Hypotheses - Purpose of the behavior; your best guess about why the behavior occurs Prevention Strategies - Ways to make events and interactions that predict challenging behavior easier for the child to manage Replacement Skills - Skills to teach throughout the day to replace the challenging behavior Responses - What adults will do when the challenging behavior occurs 4. Implementation: 4. Implementation Identify outcomes valued by the team “KIS it” (Keep It Simple) Create simple, user-friendly forms to monitor outcomes (e.g., rating scales, check sheets) Schedule dates for check-ins Monitoring Progress: Monitoring Progress Behavior Date Frequently Screams Minimal screaming 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Screaming to protest (loud, inappropriate voice) : 1 = 0-2 times 2 = 2-4 times 3 = 5-8 times 4 = 9-15 times 5 = 16 or more times Screams PowerPoint Presentation: Support providers enter into play activities and teach Tim new play routines. Adults provide support by scaffolding Tim’s interactions in play routines outside and during centers. Yes No Sometimes Adults assist Tim with turn-taking interactions by moving into play activities and mediating his social exchanges; and then scaffold the interaction. Yes No Sometimes Adults facilitate the use of communication repair strategies by Tim. Tim may use unintelligible mumbling or aggression if adults fail to quickly interpret his message. Yes No Sometimes Pre-teach Tim through the use of a scripted story the following skills: asking to play, everyone can play (turn taking), being flexible and accepting other’s ideas and space, and asking the teacher for help. Yes No Sometimes Tim is cued with visual cue cards. The cue card is presented to Tim after gaining his attention (i.e., directly given to him by showing him the picture cue along with simple verbal cue). Yes No Sometimes 5. Evaluation Support Plan Implementation Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment: Comprehensive Behavioral Treatment Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Discrete Trial Training (DTT): distinct, repetitive responses following a specific stimulus that result in reinforcement. A discrete trial is a single cycle of instruction that may be repeated several times until a skill is mastered. Discrete Trial Training (DTT) : Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Discrete trial training (DTT) facilitates the acquisition of skills by breaking the skill down into small, teachable steps that can be repeated. DTT facilitates learning new skills by isolating the important components of the skill and rewarding successful completion of small steps. Discrete Trial Training (DTT): Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Each teaching trial has a beginning or prompt (antecedent), a response (the target skill) and an end (the consequence or reinforcer ). The use of antecedents and consequences is carefully planned and implemented. Positive praise and/or tangible rewards are used to reinforce desired skills or behaviors. Step by Step Instructions : Step by Step Instructions Nine steps to implementing DTT. These include: 1. Deciding what to teach: assessment and summarizing results 2. Breaking the skill down to teachable steps 3. Setting up the data collection system 4. Designating location(s) 5. Gathering materials 6. Massed trial teaching 7. Delivering the trials 8. Conducting discrimination training 9. Review and modify Massed Trial Teaching: Massed Trial Teaching A discrete trial consists of 5 main parts: An initial instruction – ex. “ Touch your nose. ” A prompt or cue given by the provider to help the child respond correctly – ex. Provider points to child ’ s nose. A response given by the child – ex. Child touches their nose. An appropriate consequence, such as correct responses receiving a reward designed to motivate the child to respond correctly again in the future – ex. “ Nice job touching your nose, ” teacher gives child a sticker. A pause between consecutive trials – waiting 1 – 5 seconds before beginning the next trial.