Published on April 17, 2008
Sports, Aggression, and Steroids: Sports, Aggression, and Steroids Evolution of Aggression: Evolution of Aggression Slide3: VS VS Animal Studies- Moyer: Animal Studies- Moyer 1. Territorial defense 2. Predatory aggression 3. Inter-male aggression 4. Fear-induced aggression 5. Irritable aggression 6. Maternal aggression 7. Instrumental aggression Environment, brain circuits, and stimuli are all involved in defining aggressive behavior Animal Studies- Paul Brian: Animal Studies- Paul Brian 1. Self-defensive behavior 2. Social conflict 3. Predatory attack 4. Parental defense 5. Reproductive termination Focused on utility of aggressive behavior. Human aggression vs. animal aggression: Human aggression vs. animal aggression Humans are the only primates who kill their own kind? Aggression as a solution to adaptive problems: Aggression as a solution to adaptive problems 1. Aggression is a means to gain resources that are valuable for survival and reproduction 2. aggression can be used to defend against an attack 3. Aggression occurs between same-sex rivals who want the same resources. Aggression as a solution to adaptive problems: Aggression as a solution to adaptive problems 4. Aggression increases a person’s status within a social construct 5. Using aggression in building a reputation deters attacks 6. Aggression deters long term mates from sexual infidelity Almost all aspects of aggression lead to reproductive success.: Almost all aspects of aggression lead to reproductive success. Palmer and Tilley studied number of sex partners of males in gangs and males not in gangs Yanamoma- unokais( those who have killed) have more wives than non-unokais of the same age Darwin: Darwin Natural Selection Variation Inheritance Selection Reproductive success- The relative production of offspring by a particular genotype. Fitness describes the capability of an individual of certain genotype to reproduce, and usually is equal to the proportion of the individual's genes in all the genes of the next generation. If differences in individual genotypes affect fitness, then the frequencies of the genotypes will change over generations; the genotypes with higher fitness become more common. This process is called natural selection. Charles Darwin and company: Charles Darwin and company William Erasmus Darwin Anne Elizabeth Darwin Mary Eleanor Darwin Henrietta Emma "Etty" Darwin George Howard Darwin Elizabeth "Bessy" Darwin Francis Darwin Leonard Darwin Horace Darwin Charles Waring Darwin + = Sports and Aggression: Sports and Aggression 2. aggression can be used to defend against an attack 3. Aggression occurs between same-sex rivals who want the same resources. 4. Aggression increases a person’s status within a social construct Law and Policy Modifying Aggression: Law and Policy Modifying Aggression Slide15: Laws are a proactive means to modify prohibited acts of aggression and unethical/ unsportsmanlike conduct. History: History In the football season of 1906 eighteen players died due to the volatile nature of the sport and several more were seriously hurt (Conrad). President Teddy Roosevelt became concerned by the violence and summoned sports officials from several colleges to encourage reform. From that the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the U.S. (National Collegiate Athletics Association) was formed (“History”). NCAA: NCAA The core purpose of the NCAA is “to govern competition in a fair, safe, equitable and sportsmanlike manner, and to integrate intercollegiate athletics into higher education so that the educational experience of the student-athlete is paramount.” NCAA: NCAA One of the measures they take to ensure the good sportsmanship is through their policies on sportsmanship and ethical conduct: National Basketball Association: National Basketball Association A technical foul shall be assessed for unsportsmanlike tactics such as: (1) Disrespectfully addressing an official (2) Physically contacting an official (3) Overt actions indicating resentment to a call (4) Use of profanity (5) A deliberately-thrown elbow or any attempted physical act with no contact involved A player shall not hold, push, charge into, impede the progress of an opponent by extending a hand, forearm, leg or knee or by bending the body into a position that is not normal. Contact that results in the rerouting of an opponent is a foul which must be called immediately. Major League Baseball: Major League Baseball “To pitch at a batter's head is unsportsmanlike and highly dangerous. It should be and is condemned by everybody.” National Football League : National Football League Unacceptable behavior: “Grasping facemask of the ball carrier or quarterback.” “Running into kicker.” “Holding, illegal use of hands, arms, or body by offense.” “A tackler using his helmet to butt, spear, or ram an opponent.” Wake Forest University: Wake Forest University When participating in intercollegiate athletics competition, you are expected to demonstrate good sportsmanship. Your coach will instruct you in positive techniques for communicating with officials and opponents. You will be informed how to react to the aggressive or unsportsmanlike actions of others. Wake Forest University: Wake Forest University The Department of Athletics enforces its guidelines related to sportsmanlike conduct. You must avoid actions that display unsportsmanlike behavior. Some of these behaviors are as follows: Physical abuse of an official, coach, athlete, opponent or spectator Directing obscene or inappropriate language or gestures to officials, opponents, team members or spectators Any action which violates generally recognized intercollegiate athletics standards or the values and standards associated with Wake Forest University, or as determined by any individual Head Coach and approved by the Director of Athletics University of Arizona : University of Arizona “The University of Arizona Department of Intercollegiate Athletics embraces the National Collegiate Athletic Association's ‘Principle of Sportsmanship and Ethical Conduct’ and believes that student-athletes, coaches and staff should adhere to such fundamental values as respect, fairness, civility, honesty and responsibility.” Effective?: Effective? Aggression in Sports: Aggression in Sports A Present-Day Application Moral Reasoning During Competition- Exception to the Rules?: Moral Reasoning During Competition- Exception to the Rules? The negative effects of competition on morals- Reduces productivity among peers and between opposing groups, reduces levels of cooperation, increases feelings of antagonism. It is not necessary to eliminate competition, but it can destroy conflict resolution when unrestrained. Sporting events are accepted as a setting in which everyday societal morals no longer apply- both from the crowd and the athletes. Fierce competition encourages a level of aggression that precludes critical reflection of moral values and behavior. But Sports Provide A Healthy Release of Anger: But Sports Provide A Healthy Release of Anger Robber’s Cave Experiment Group of 11 and 12 year old boys at summer camp Split into two groups and over a period of a few days, they took part in a tournament of competitive sports such as baseball, football and tug of war Winners were offered prizes, losers received nothing Tournament began with good sportsmanship, but soon degraded into a “vicious contest in which the sole aim was to win and in which the competitors became increasingly seen as a bunch of incorrigible cheats” Aggression in Collegiate Sports : Aggression in Collegiate Sports Aggression in Collegiate SportsSexual Abuse and Campus Violence: Aggression in Collegiate Sports Sexual Abuse and Campus Violence Study at a large midwestern university Though male athletes make up less than 2% of the population on campus, they represent 23% of the men accused of sexual assault. Biggest problem is the acceptance of rape myth among college students. Nearly 50% of male college athletes interviewed believed that women who report rape are lying Male athletes were also significantly more likely to agree that athletes were unfairly targeted Coons et al. (1995) examined the relationship between violations of residence hall disciplinary codes and whether a football game was recently hosted on campus Results indicated higher incidence of residence hall violations after a home game Support for the theory that exposure to aggression is related to increases in aggressive behavior. Aggression in Collegiate SportsCauses and Implications: Aggression in Collegiate Sports Causes and Implications The socializing influence of roles The phenomena of stereotyped “roles” ie. the athlete, the sorority girl, the techie geek, are especially dominate in a college setting Social Roles- the set of behaviors expected of people in certain positions. Aggression is expected from people in certain social roles – ie. Athletes People placed in one of those roles may become more aggressive as a consequence of adhering to their expected role. Special Treatment? Bestowed upon athletes at some institutions based upon their athletic status This special status enables student athletes the advantage of special admissions criteria, special academic advisement and support, separate and better living and dining facilities, and a celebrity social status It also can confer sexual privileges including more frequent sexual contacts and a greater number of consensual partners than non-athletes enjoy This sexual status becomes abusive when the athlete generalizes access to all women but then the privilege is denied by an unwilling participant Aggression in College SportsThe Spillover Theory: Aggression in College Sports The Spillover Theory When the use of violence and aggression is sanctioned in one setting of an individual’s life, their usage may carry over to other settings of that individual’s life Bloom and Smith (1996): interviewed a group of Canadian collegiate hockey players about their use and endorsement of aggression in non-hockey settings The results indicated that the players from the most competitive leagues were significantly more likely to endorse the use of aggression. These results support the theory that prolonged exposure to intense aggression in sport can cause a lapse in moral judgment that extends beyond the athlete’s game. More competitive players are also encouraged and pressured to be aggressive, which causes an increase in the appeal of strength-enhancing alternative such as steroids and other sources of supplemental hormones. A History of Violence- Aggression in Professional Sports: A History of Violence- Aggression in Professional Sports If You Give an Athlete a Contract…: If You Give an Athlete a Contract… Reward/Punishment for Behavior NBA commentators suggested that it is okay to be a good guy off the court but one must be tough and aggressive on the court Athletes described as “True gentlemen of the NBA … as long as you don’t have to play against them. You know they’re great off the court; on the court, every single guy out there should be a killer” When players were not doing well, they were described as “hesitant” and lacking aggression, emotion and desire. Players who get “cleaned out” or “wiped out” by a blocker were often shown on replays Give it up for the team Athletes who are “playing with pain,” “giving up their body for the team,” or engaging in obviously highly dangerous plays are consistently framed as heroes. NBA player Isaiah Rider lauded for having “heart” for “playing with that knee injury” Sports = war Commentators use martial metaphors and the language of war and weaponry to describe sports action. Monday Night Football broadcasts are introduced with explosive graphics and an opening song that includes the lyrics “Like a rocket burning through time and space… NFLs best will rock this place… the battle lines are drawn. Show Some Guts! Commentators depict and replay exciting incidents of athletes engaging in reckless acts of speed, showing guts in the face of danger, big hits and violent crashes When one race ended in a crash, it was repeated over and over in slow motion with the commentators describing the event as “unbelivable” and “original” Part Deux- Beyond the Players: Part Deux- Beyond the Players Aggression, Sports and the Workplace : Aggression, Sports and the Workplace Sports and the infiltration of the business sector: Sports and the infiltration of the business sector Corporate entities often emulate athletic game conduct Business people often consider themselves engaged in a competitive game Business jargon is full of athletic euphemisms and metaphors Used to describe problem solving "attack the problem," "tackle the issue," "take a stab at it," "wrestle it to the ground," "get on top of it." Used to describe argumentative colleagues we complain that they "shot down our idea," "took pot shots at us," "used us for target practice," or that "we got killed." In the face of opposition, we "back down," "retreat," or "regroup." problem-solving sessions become war zones, competing ideas are enemies, and problems are viewed as weapons to blame and defeat opposing forces. The Crazed Fan Syndrome: The Crazed Fan Syndrome Sport Fan Aggression: Sport Fan Aggression Team identification: a fan’s psychological connection to a team Highly identified fans are more likely to act aggressively They are particularly likely to attempt to influence the outcome of sporting events and they believe that their actions can be successful Experiment by Russell and Baenninger (1996) Studied the likelihood of reporting a willingness to commit anonymous violent acts as it relates to specific personalities and demographic variables (gender and irritability) Data provided strong support for the prediction that highly identified sports fans would be particularly likely to admit a willingness to injure a player or a coach of a rival team anonymously Gladiators of Corporate America Theaters of blood Much like in the time of the Romans, still exist today: we may not stive for the athletes to slaughter each other, but we often attend in hopes that they will The arena at a convenient distance We no longer use “subhuman” slaves to entertain us with their bloodspill, but the television is a means to dehumanize the players and distance ourselves from violence. The drive to play We no longer force athletes into blood sports against their will, but we make the monetary rewards so enticing that athletes become willing to risk their limbs and lives for our benefit General Steroid Information: General Steroid Information Steroid Origins: Steroid Origins Discovered inadvertently by a German scientist in 1930 First known reference to steroids was in a Strength and Health magazine in 1938 FDA approved a steroid named Dianabol in 1958 after promising trials in other countries Used as a child growth stimulant in 1960, stopped in 1980 when realized it actually has the opposite affect In 1990 several pharmaceutical companies stopped manufacturing the drug At this time counterfeit versions of the drug filled with anything from vegetable oil to toxic substances were sold using realistic labels made from computers In 1991 Anabolic Steroids were put on the Controlled Substance Act In 2005 act is revised to make it a federal offense to be in possession of the drug Reasons For Steroid Use: Reasons For Steroid Use Medicinal Purposes Increased Athletic Performance Improved Appearance How Steroids Work: How Steroids Work Steroids once in the body moves through the cell membrane Steroid binds to the cytosolic receptor Steroid-receptor complex enters nucleus Gene depression/ activation occurs Increased Protein Synthesis Change in Muscle Size, glycogen synthesis Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Legal form (Prescription Only) Man made substance Anabolic- muscle building Androgenic- masculine characteristics Steroid- refers to the type of drug Given to patients who produce low amounts of testosterone, like delayed puberty and certain types of impotence Also given to people who suffer from Aids and diseases that cause loss of muscle mass Anabolic Steroids: Anabolic Steroids Illegal Form Natural and synthetic form of the drug Promotes cell growth and cell division causing growth in several tissues like muscle and bone - Testosterone is the main component, which is the male sex hormone and considered the “original” steroid Testosterone is secreted in the male testes and the ovaries of women Average male secretes 10 mg of testosterone/ day; Females less than 1mg Average Steroid user takes 250-400 mg of testosterone per day Administration: Administration Oral Least Popular Puts Pressure on Liver Use once a day Injection Most popular Injected into shoulders, gluteus, thigh Care must be taken when selecting site of injection May be taken several times in one day Side Effects (Negative)Short Use: Side Effects (Negative) Short Use Men Reduced Sperm Count Impotence Development of Breast Shrinking of Testicles Pain while urinating Women “Masculation” process Facial hair growth Deepened voice Breast Reduction Menstrual Cycle Changes Children Can Halt growth in adolescent children, Once growth plates are closed they can not be reopened Side Effects (Negative)Strong Use: Side Effects (Negative) Strong Use Acne Bloated Appearance Rapid Weight Gain Clotting Disorders Liver Damage Premature Heart Attacks and Strokes Elevated Cholesterol Levels Weakened Tendons Side Effects (Positive): Side Effects (Positive) Increased Protein Synthesis from Amino Acids Increased Muscle Mass and Strength Increased Bone Remodeling and Growth Stimulation of Bone Marrow which increases Red Blood Cells Anabolics do not improve agility, cardiovascular ability, flexibility or skill level Pictures: Pictures Winny- 22 Primo- 22 Deca- 25 Anadrol Commonly Used Steroid Compounds: Commonly Used Steroid Compounds Testosterone Methandrostenolone Nandrolone Beldenone Stanozolol Oxymethalone Oxandrolone Fluxymesterone Trenbolone Methenolone Enanthate -None of these compounds are made legally in the U.S. or Canada Growth of Steroid Use: Growth of Steroid Use Penn University study in 1999 showed that 175,000 high school girls have used steroids at least once 6.6% of males 17 or younger use steroids, up from 2.8% in 1999 2.5 % of women 17 or younger use steroids 1/3 of current steroid users began before age of 15 Currently 22.4% of steroid use is for increased athletic performance- most popular reason Information: Information The average user has gone from using steroids once a day, to using a more water soluble version used four plus times a day There is no scientific evidence of any deaths ever caused by steroid use The average steroid user will spend $4,000 annually in steroids, medical supervision, medical supplies Steroids and Aggression: Steroids and Aggression “Aggression in Sports” Anabolic-androgenic Steroids (AASs): Anabolic-androgenic Steroids (AASs) AASs are analogues of testosterone These synthetic derivatives attempt to maximize the bodybuilding traits of testosterone while minimizing its “masculinizing” effects (Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse on Anabolic Steroids) Reasons why anabolic steroids are taken: Reasons why anabolic steroids are taken Increased nitrogen retention Stimulation of RNA-polymerase increased protein synthesis Competes for glucocorticoides receptors (blocks protein synthesis inhibition) Aggressive behavior and euphoric feeling AASs are generally composed of a core 17-carbon steroid chemical structure: AASs are generally composed of a core 17-carbon steroid chemical structure Testosterone and anabolic steroid derivatives banned in international sport. Each derivative has been slightly modified either by addition of a substituent or through alteration of the ring structure (addition or removal of double bonds, cleavage of bonds or addition of ring structures) : Testosterone and anabolic steroid derivatives banned in international sport. Each derivative has been slightly modified either by addition of a substituent or through alteration of the ring structure (addition or removal of double bonds, cleavage of bonds or addition of ring structures) Well over 60 AASs have been designed and synthesized (Source: Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Forebrain GABAergic Transmission): Well over 60 AASs have been designed and synthesized (Source: Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Forebrain GABAergic Transmission) However, none have been proven to be completely safe and without adverse side effects. (Often, well-controlled longitudinal studies have not been carried out). Human Growth Hormone (not an anabolic steroid): Human Growth Hormone (not an anabolic steroid) Gained popularity and fame due to the fact that athletes are either not tested for it or it is undetectable by many tests. Can help prevent breakdown of muscle after the discontinuance of steroid use. Thought to strengthen tendons and ligaments. Background on Aggression: Background on Aggression The actual chemistry behind aggression itself is not completely understood. It stems from the hypothalamus section of the brain. Connecting Aggression to Steroids: Connecting Aggression to Steroids High levels of testosterone have been measured in both athletes and violent criminals. (Source: American Fitness Professionals and Associates). Documenting the connection between steroids and aggression: Documenting the connection between steroids and aggression Journals “Aggression in Male Rats Receiving Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Effects of Social and Environmental Provocation” and “Physical Provocation Potentiates Aggression in Male Rats Receiving Anabolic Androgenic Steroids” by McGinnis, Lumia, Breuer, and Possidente. Steroids increased the rats’ aggression in defending their space, seemingly without affecting their ability to think. Steroids lowered the threshold for aggression and peaked their sensitivity to stimuli, while not inducing unprovoked aggression. Linking Steroids to Aggression in Humans: Linking Steroids to Aggression in Humans Numerous tests have been conducted in attempts to observe this correlation. However, most of these tests were conducted using only the medical dosage of one single steroid (unlike the high dosages and “stacking” that occur in real-life situations). Still, a few quality studies have been conducted. “High Dose Anabolic Steroids in Strength Athletes: Effects upon Hostility and Anger” : “High Dose Anabolic Steroids in Strength Athletes: Effects upon Hostility and Anger” Journal by Choi, Parrott, and Cowan Compared the aggression of athletes on steroids to comparable counterparts who were not. Concluded that there was a direct correlation between steroid use and increased aggression. Results were not completely decisive due to the small sample size. Information regarding the subjects in the study: Information regarding the subjects in the study Slide68: Results from various aggression tests in the study “Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Forebrain GABAergic Transmission”: “Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Forebrain GABAergic Transmission” Journal by Henderson, Penatti, Jones, Yang, and Clark. Studies and documents the changes in the function and expression of the GABA receptor due to anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Due to this receptor’s location and steroid sensitivity, the researchers suggest that the GABAergic systems can be considered a candidate as to how and where steroids alter human aggression. An Additional Problem: Steroids and Teenagers: An Additional Problem: Steroids and Teenagers 6.6% of 12th grade males and 1-2.5% of females have either used or are using anabolic steroids (Source: United States General Accounting Office) Questions and potential problems brought about by teenage steroid use: Questions and potential problems brought about by teenage steroid use The brain of a teenager is not fully developed and can interact differently and more extremely to certain substances. Studies in adolescent rats have seen prolonged mental effects that extended beyond the time period of steroid use (possibly permanent brain changes). Aggression and Steroid Use Treatments: Aggression and Steroid Use Treatments Steroid Withdrawal Symptoms: Steroid Withdrawal Symptoms Divided into Phases Phase I (during 1st week of withdrawal) - Flu-like symptoms - Joint-pain - Runny nose - Diarrhea - Elevated Temperature - Loss of Appetite Phase II (during 2nd week and lasting several months) - Depression - Craving for Steroids - Insomnia - Low-self esteem - Mood Swings - Reduced Sex Drive - Thoughts of suicide Coping with Withdrawal: Coping with Withdrawal Physically - Fitness trainer - Nutritionist - Becoming Physically Active w/ Various Activities (volunteer) Psychologically Seeking help from: - Family & Friends - Personal Coach or Athletic Mentor - Professional Psychiatrist (intervention) Addiction: Addiction Once the steroid treatment has started, tendency to form a habit Psychological Justification - More impressive muscles or toned body to attract opposite sex - Path to college scholarship or professional career - “Level the playing field” with other users - Simply to “WIN” Drug-based Treatments vs. Topical Treatments: Drug-based Treatments vs. Topical Treatments Drug Based Side Effects (Moderate to Severe) -Effects on: *Liver Function *Kidney Function *Headache/Migraine *Digestive Problems (i.e. Constipation, bowel movement etc.) Topical Based Side Effects (Light to Moderate) -Effects include: *Placebo Effect or No Effect *Allergic Reaction *Dependence on therapy w/ no results *Greater craving for Steroid drugs Drug-based Treatments vs. Topical Treatments: Drug-based Treatments vs. Topical Treatments Drug-Based Effectiveness - Able to treat withdrawal symptoms with over 75% success rate (National Institute on Drug Abuse) - May lead to severe side-effects which deter addicts to employ therapy Topical-Based Effectiveness - Able to treat withdrawal symptoms with over 45% success rate (National Institute on Drug Abuse) - Less severe side effects but dependence upon therapy (placebo effect) Seroquel (Drug-based therapy): Seroquel (Drug-based therapy) Mainly used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Found to be effective in treating patients with aggression and Steroid withdrawal In one 389 patient study, 321 patients stated that they felt drug was helping them to “think clearer” and were less adept to aggressive behavior or steroid use (De Nayer et. al) Significant reduction in future aggressive behavior Seroquel (How it Works): Seroquel (How it Works) Tendency for aggressive behavior may be due to “certain chemicals in the brain being out of balance” (www.seroquel.com) The imbalances lead to side effects and feeling of addiction “Doctors and scientists are not sure what causes these imbalances to occur. Although the exact way that SEROQUEL works is not known, it is thought to work by regulating the balance of chemicals in the brain. Although SEROQUEL is not able to cure your condition, treatment may help manage various symptoms and help you feel better. For this reason, it is very important to take your dose(s) of SEROQUEL every day or as your health care professional recommends, even once your symptoms go away and as you're feeling better.” (www.seroquel.com) Seroquel (Side-effects): Seroquel (Side-effects) Side-Effects: “The most common side effects experienced in the clinical trials were dizziness, dry mouth, stomach upset, and light-headedness. Serious side effects can occur with any antipsychotic medication. A rare, but potentially fatal, condition referred to as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) has been reported. Another condition associated with antipsychotic medications is tardive dyskinesia, which can cause potentially irreversible, involuntary movements. There have been reports of disorders of elevated blood sugar, including diabetes mellitus, associated with SEROQUEL and other drugs in its class. Development of cataracts has been observed in dogs in association with SEROQUEL treatment. An eye examination is recommended every six months as a precaution.” (www.seroquel.com) Best Treatment: Education: Best Treatment: Education Family, Friends, Doctors & Mentors - Reinforce positive ideas and educate about repercussions of sports aggression and steroid use - Highly effective w/ no side effects National Association of School Psychologists/ National Institute on Drug Abuse - Have various programs to help abusers and offer aide to those who seek it - Advocate and prevent steroid use and sports aggression in various youth groups Ethical Considerations: Ethical Considerations Ethical Principles: Ethical Principles Beneficence - Acting with charity and kindness - Do only good Nonmaleficence - First do no harm - Avoid risks, unless the results justify them Ethical Principles: Ethical Principles Respect for Autonomy - Act toward others in a way to allow them to self-govern (Paternalism conflict) - Do your duty/Keeping your word Justice - Fairness; persons should get what they are due - Benefits and burdens are equally distributed Fiduciary Duty - Confidence and trust placed on one side of party that results in: *Superiority of one party over the other *Strong influence on other party Ethics of Competition/Winning: Ethics of Competition/Winning Ethical Duties of Competition: Ethical Duties of Competition The duty to play to win (1) - Early Greek Festivals of Olympia *776 BC-first recorded athletic organization held for mass city-state competition (what is now known as the Olympics) - Used as tools to build character and national loyalty * A means to represent ones culture, nation, and identification (modern sports teams) Ethical Duties of Competition: Ethical Duties of Competition The duty to follow the rules for the protection of all contestants (2) - Outline of specific goals and means to achieve them (rules of the game) - Agreement by players to equally follow set guidelines *Justice Ethical Duties of Competition: Ethical Duties of Competition The duty to respect the integrity of the game (3) - Preservation of arena * Maintain respect for opposing team - Ending the game or ceasing to violate the rules * Enforcing rules and punishing those who violate them Cheating: Loss of Olympic Spirit: Cheating: Loss of Olympic Spirit Olympics spirit defined by embodiment of athletic spirit and pride in nationality Purpose of games is to set aside differences and unify the world in a healthy competitive environment Cheating in these events violate the above principles: - 1904 Thomas Hicks (given strychnine and brandy even during games) - 1968 Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall tested positive for doping - 1988 Seoul Olympic games Canadian athlete Ben Johnson tested positive for stanzolol Even in the 2006 Olympic Games, several athletes from several nations failed drug tests Cheating: Loss of Athletic Idols: Cheating: Loss of Athletic Idols MLB idols such as Mark McGuire, Sammy Sosa, and Barry Bonds have been accused of cheating (either by taking steroids or other means) Young adults looking onto such athlete as role models are left disappointed and confused (with the wrong message in mind) Ethics of Steroid/Aggression Treatment (Scenarios from Doctor’s Perspective): Ethics of Steroid/Aggression Treatment (Scenarios from Doctor’s Perspective) If someone who has been taking steroids or presenting dangerous aggressive behavior goes to a doctor for help…the doctor may…: If someone who has been taking steroids or presenting dangerous aggressive behavior goes to a doctor for help…the doctor may… Option 1: Option 1 Doctor may call authorities and Submit the patient for Psychiatric help - Respect for patient’s autonomy? Betrayal? - Nonmaleficence (of patient) vs. Beneficence (of Doctor) Option 2: Option 2 Demand stopping the use of steroids or presenting such aggressive behavior but seek help elsewhere - Nonmaleficence-(Did the doctor harm him?) - Fiduciary Duty of Doctor towards patient Option 3: Option 3 Work with patient in explaining the legal and medical problems associated with dangerous aggressive behavior and steroid use (no prescribed anti-drugs) - Beneficence (Is the doctor doing good?) - Fiduciary Duty of Doctor towards patient Option 4: Option 4 Plead Ignorance, “I don’t want to get Involved” - Justice (steroid patient vs. other patients) - Nonmaleficence (Does the doctor harm him from not doing anything about the situation?) Option 5: Option 5 Prescribe a plethora of drugs to combat the symptoms of withdrawal - Beneficence of drugs on patient opposed to side-effects? - Nonmaleficence- are the drugs doing more harm than good? Discussion Questions: Discussion Questions Is it ethically justified to use drugs to combat the withdrawal symptoms of steroid use and aggression being well-aware of the dangerous side-effects? Is it ethical for a doctor to turn down treatment of one patient (steroid taking or presenting dangerous aggressive behavior) over another? What do you think the penalty of steroid use in a competitive sport (MLB, NFL, Olympic sport, etc.) should be, if any? Discussion Topic: Discussion Topic Ken Caminiti, who admittedly used steroids and died at the age of 41, posed this question regarding steroid use. "Look at all the money in the game. You have a chance to set your family up, to get your daughter into a better school, so I can't say don't do it, not when the guy next to you is as big as a house, and he's going to take your job and make the money."