Published on January 5, 2018
3. www.entrepreneurindia.co Introduction The large number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) greatly contributes to the economic growth and industrial progress of developing countries. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are very crucial to the development of a country’s economy. Especially India has always been in the limelight in terms SME business. The SME business opportunity in India can be seen in possibly every sector - financial services, telecom, education, automobiles, media, food, real estate and so on. This makes India a hub for best small business opportunity in various segments.
4. www.entrepreneurindia.co SME and Indian Economy Small and medium sized enterprises play a central role in the Indian economy. They are a major source of entrepreneurial skills, innovation and employment. SME businesses are the biggest contributor to the economy of any country and the same goes with Indian economy. In fact, SME is one of the most crucial sectors of Indian economy as far as the number of employments generated from this segment. As more than 65% of Indian population lives in rural and semi-rural areas, small business becomes a major source of income for many residing in these areas. After agriculture, small business in India is the second largest employer of human resources.
5. www.entrepreneurindia.co The SME business market of India is large and bubbling with newer opportunities. Increased purchasing power and consumerism is what drives the business scenario in India. Thus, there is an opportunity for competitive advantage that can benefit investors and entrepreneurs to a large extent. An investment in any best small business opportunity promises lucrative returns and success in less time.
6. www.entrepreneurindia.co Biotechnology The biotechnology sector of India is highly innovative and is on a strong growth trajectory. The sector, with its immense growth potential, will continue to play a significant role as an innovative manufacturing hub. The sector is one of the most significant sectors in enhancing India's global profile as well as contributing to the growth of the economy. The Indian biotech industry holds about 2 per cent share of the global biotech industry. The biotechnology industry in India, comprising about 800 companies, is expected to be valued at US$ 11.6 billion in 2017.
7. www.entrepreneurindia.co India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world and ranks third in the Asia Pacific. The growth is due to a range of positive trends such as growing demand for healthcare services, increase demand for food & nutrition intensive R&D activities and strong government initiatives. Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. It has helped to increase crop productivity by introducing such qualities as disease resistance and increased drought tolerance to the crops.
8. www.entrepreneurindia.co Biotechnology used in processing of wines, beers, Coffee, Tea, Cabbage and Cucumber, etc. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. The products of fermentation are many: alcohol and carbon dioxide are obtained from yeast fermentation of various sugars. Lactic acid, acetic acid and Organic acid are products of bacteria action; citric acid, D-Gluconic acid, Coffee, Tea, Cabbage & Cucumber and Yeasts are some of the products obtained from fermentation.
9. www.entrepreneurindia.co The worldwide demand for biotech products is the only indication; the speed of its advance is the only set to accelerate. Indian Biotechnology industry is considered as one of the sunrise sectors in India. The industry is divided into five major segments: Bio-Pharma, Bio-Services, Bio-Agri, Bio- Industrial and Bio-Informatics. Biotechnology industry’s growth in India is primarily driven by vaccines and recombinant therapeutics.
10. www.entrepreneurindia.co Market Size (USD Billion)
11. www.entrepreneurindia.co Biotechnology Market size was valued at over USD 330.3 billion in 2015 and will exceed USD 775.2 billion with 9.9% CAGR from 2016 to 2024.
12. www.entrepreneurindia.co U.S. Biotechnology Market Size, by Application, 2012- 2024 (USD Million)
13. www.entrepreneurindia.co Handbook on Small & Medium Scale Industries (Biotechnology Products) https://goo.gl/5mwuN2
14. www.entrepreneurindia.co About the Book: The Indian biotechnology industry is one of the fastest growing knowledge-based sectors in India and is expected to play an important role in small & medium enterprises industries. Biotechnology is not just one technology, but many. There are a wide variety of products that the biotechnology field has produced. Biotechnology as well all know, is the field of combination of various fields such as genetics, environmental biology, biochemistry, environmental, general, agriculture, fermentation, etc.
15. www.entrepreneurindia.co Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. It has helped to increase crop productivity by introducing such qualities as disease resistance and increased drought tolerance to the crops. Biotechnology used in processing of wines, beers, Coffee, Tea, Cabbage and Cucumber, etc. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. The products of fermentation are many: alcohol and carbon dioxide are obtained from yeast fermentation of various sugars. Lactic acid, acetic acid and Organic acid are products of bacteria action; citric acid, D-Gluconic acid, Coffee, Tea, Cabbage & Cucumber and Yeasts are some of the products obtained from fermentation.
16. www.entrepreneurindia.co The worldwide demand for biotech products is the only indication; the speed of its advance is the only set to accelerate. Indian Biotechnology industry is considered as one of the sunrise sectors in India. The industry is divided into five major segments: Bio-Pharma, Bio-Services, Bio-Agri, Bio- Industrial and Bio-Informatics. Biotechnology industry’s growth in India is primarily driven by vaccines and recombinant therapeutics.
17. www.entrepreneurindia.co The biotechnology sector of India is highly innovative and is on a strong growth trajectory. The sector, with its immense growth potential, will continue to play a significant role as an innovative manufacturing hub. The high demand for different biotech products has also opened up scope for the foreign companies to set up base in India. Today in India there are more than 350 Biotechnology companies in India providing employment for over 20,000 scientists.
18. www.entrepreneurindia.co The authors cover different aspects of biotechnology such as production of fermented foods, functional foods, enzymes in food processing. The Book contains production of Wines and Beers, Production of Amino Acids, Lactic Acid, Acetic Acid and Organic Acid, Processing of Coffee, Tea, Cabbage, Cucumber, Yeasts and Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details. The book provides a better understanding about biotechnology production of value-added products, improve productivity, and enhance product quality in the agro food processing sector. The book is highly recommended to new entrepreneurs, professionals, existing units who wants to start manufacturing business of biotechnology products.
19. www.entrepreneurindia.co Table of Contents WINE INTRODUCTION YEASTS AND THE ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION A. Yeasts 1. Taxonomy, ecology 2. Industrially important yeasts 3. Killer (K) Yeasts 4. Effect of yeasts on the organoleptic character of wines. B. YEAST NUTRIENTS IN GRAPE MUSTS
20. www.entrepreneurindia.co 1. Composition of grape musts 2. Nutritional requirements of yeast and their provision in musts C. GROWTH OF YEASTS AND ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION 1. Growth cycle of yeasts and kinetics of the fermentation 2. Fermentation problems and their causes 3. Stimulation of the fermentation 4. Concept of the survival factor D. BIOCHEMISTRY OF THE FERMENTATION OF GRAPE MUST 1. Primary and secondary products 2. Volatile substances contributing to the aroma of wine
21. www.entrepreneurindia.co LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND THE MALO- LACTIC FERMENTATION A. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA OF WINES 1. Taxonomy 2. Ecology 3. The role of lactic acid bacteria in vinification B. BACTERIAL GROWTH AND MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION 1. Development of lactic acid bacteria during vinification; kinetics and biochemistry of the malolactic fermentation
22. www.entrepreneurindia.co 2. Parameters affecting the development of lactic acid bacteria in wines 3. Stimulation of bacterial growth and of the malo-lactic fermentation BACTERIAL SPOILAGE OF WINES A. SPOILAGE BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA B. SPOILAGE BY ACETIC ACID BACTERIA 1. Taxonomy, ecology 2. Effect of the metabolism of acetic acid bacteria on the quality of musts and wine
23. www.entrepreneurindia.co WINE TECHNOLOGY A. GRAPES AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES FOR THE VINTAGE B. CLASSIC FERMENTATIONS 1. White wine production 2. Red wine production C. BIOLOGICAL STABILIZATION OF THE WINE; THE ROLE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SORBIC ACID special processes Sparkling Wines
24. www.entrepreneurindia.co SHERRY AND PORT Brandy 2. BEER HISTORICAL A. Man’s First Alcoholic Drink B. Man’s Earliest Brewing 1. Mesopotamia and Egypt 2. Greece and Rome
25. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3. European tribes 4. Africa 5. China 6. India 7. South America C. Ancient Brewing and Nutrition D. Sanitary Considerations E. Large-Scale Brewing BEER TYPES IN THE WORLD A. Classical Beer Types
26. www.entrepreneurindia.co B. Beer-Like Beverages C. Beer Production in the world BEER CONSTITUENTS A. Water B. Alcohol C. Carbohydrates D. Nitrogen Compounds E. Inorganic Constituents F. Organic Acids G. Carbon Dioxide H. Other Compounds
27. www.entrepreneurindia.co MATERIALS USED IN BREWING A. WATER 1. Water sources 2. Water purity 3. Water minerals 4. Heavy metals B. BARLEY AND MALT 1. Barley (a) Harvest and Storage (b) Weathering 2. Malt (a) Earliest Malt
28. www.entrepreneurindia.co (b) The malting process today Steeping Germination Kilning C. BREWING ADJUNCTS D. HOPS 1. Earliest use of hops 2. The Hop Family 3. Hop Utilization 4. Hop Chemistry E. BREWER’S YEAST
29. www.entrepreneurindia.co CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION 1. Cell morphology and Physiology 2. Yeast Metabolism (a) Carbohydrate Metabolism Glycolyses The Pasteur and Crabtree Effect (b) Metabolism of Nitrogenous Compounds (c) Lipid synthesis (d) Sterol Synthesis (e) Sulfur Compounds (f) Miscellaneous Metabolic Reactions
30. www.entrepreneurindia.co THE BREWING PROCESS A. Brew house Operations 1. Milling (a) Malt Milling (b) Wet Milling (c) Adjunct Milling 2. Mashing (a) Infusion Mashing (b) Decoction Mashing (c) Malt Conversion (d) Adjunct Conversion (e) Enzyme Activity During Mashing
31. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3. Lautering (a) The Lauter Tub (b) Run Off (c) Sparging (d) Wort Filtration (e) Spent Grain Removal 4. Wort Boiling (a) Heating (b) Function of Wort Boiling (c) Hop Extraction and Conversion (a) Hot Trub 5. Wort Cooling/Trub Removal
32. www.entrepreneurindia.co 6. BREWHOUSE AND CELLAR SANITATION (a) General Practices (b) Microbiological Precautions B. WORT CONSTITUENTS 1. Carbohydrates 2. Nitrogenous Compounds 3. Inorganic Constituents 4. Vitamins 5. Polyphenols 6. Hop Compounds 7. Melanoidins and Phenolic Pigments 8. Lipids
33. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. CELLAR OPERATIONS 1. Cold Wort Aeration 2. Yeast Pitching (a) Yeast Examination (b) Yeast Population Count 3. PRIMARY FERMENTATION (a) Lager Fermentation (b) High Gravity Brewing (c) Ale Fermentation (d) Reuse of Yeast (g) CO2 Recovery
34. www.entrepreneurindia.co 4. YEAST RECOVERY AND REUSE Washing and Preparation 5. YEAST PURE CULTURE SYSTEMS (a) Culture Propagation (b) Laboratory Checks 6. AGING AND FINISHING (a) Flavor Maturation (b) Carbonation (c) Standarization (d) Chillproofing and Stabilizing (e) Clarification
35. www.entrepreneurindia.co MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN BEER A. Bacterial Contaminants 1. Gram Positive Bacteria (a) Lactobacillus (b) Pediococcus (c) Miscellaneous Cocci 2. Gram Negative Bacteria (a) Acetic Acid Bacteria (b) Zymomonas (c) Enterobacteriaceae (d) Miscellaneous Wort Organisms
36. www.entrepreneurindia.co B. WILD YEAST CONTAMINANTS 1. Beer Spoiling Yeasts 2. Yeast Spoilage Flavors 3. Killer Yeasts 4. Wild Yeast Control Measures C. BREWERY PREVENTIVE MEASURES PACKAGING OPERATIONS A. Bottling Operations 1. Filling 2. Pasteurization 3. Light Struck Beer
37. www.entrepreneurindia.co B. CANNED BEER 1. Can Filling 2. Pasteurization 3. Shelf Life of Packaged Beer (a) Oxygen (b) Temperature C. DRAFT BEER 1. Cooperage 2. Racking QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Physical and Chemical Measurements 1. Cleaning and Sanitation
38. www.entrepreneurindia.co 2. Raw Materials Acceptability 3. Biological Survey of Beer “in process” 4. Analysis of the Finished Beer B. Flavor Measurements Tasting beer C. Tastable Beer Defects 1. Diacetyl 2. Metallic Tastes 3. High Air Beer 4. Light Struck Beer 5. Old, Oxidized Beer 6. Medicinal Odors 7. Grainy, Harsh, Astringent, Bitter 8. Flavor Depression
39. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3. AMINO ACID INTRODUCTION MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF AMINO ACIDS A. Production of Amino Acids by Wild Strains B. Production of Amino Acids by Auxotrophic Mutants C. Production of Amino Acids by Regulatory Mutants D. Production of Amino Acids from Biosynthetic Precursors
40. www.entrepreneurindia.co ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS A. Hydrolytic Enzymes 1. L- a -Amino-e-caprolactam hydrolase 2. 2-Amino-D2-thiazoline-4-carboxylate hydrolase 3. Hydantoinase B. Ammonia Lyases 1. Aspartase 2. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase C. Arginine Deiminase D. Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Enzymes 1. Asparate b-decarboxylase 2. b-Tyrosinase
41. www.entrepreneurindia.co 3. Tryptophanase 4. Cysteine Desulfhydrase 5. Tryptophan Synthase 6. b-Chloro-D-alanine hydrogenchloride lyase 7. L-Methionine g-lyase 8. Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 9. L-Threonine Aldolase E. Other Enzymes 1. Amino Acid Dehydrogenases 2. Glutamine Synthetase Enzymatic Resolution of Racemic Amino Acids Introduction
42. www.entrepreneurindia.co B. ENZYMATIC METHODS 1. RESOLUTION BY ENZYMATIC ASYMMERTIC DERIVATIZATION 2. RESOLUTION BY ASYMMETRIC HYDROLYSIS (a) Esterase Method (b) Amidase Method (c) Aminoacylase Method USE OF AMINO ACIDS Use for Food PRODUCTION FIGURES AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS
43. www.entrepreneurindia.co 4. COFFEE PROCESSING INTRODUCTION THE COFFEE PLANT PROCESSING AND FERMENTATION OF THE COFFEE FRUIT MICROORGANISMS INVOLVED IN COFFEE FERMENTATION A. LITERATURE DATA B. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS FROM ZAIRE COFFEE
44. www.entrepreneurindia.co THE SUBSTRATE FOR FERMENTATION: COFFEE MESOCARP MESOCARP DEGRADATION DURING FERMENTATION A. General B. Are Plant Enzymes Involved in Coffee Fermentation? C. Are Microbial Enzymes Involved in Coffee Fermentation? CONCLUSIONS 5. TEA PROCESSING A. ORIGINS OF TEA B. TYPES OF TEA C. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEA LEAVES
45. www.entrepreneurindia.co BLACK TEA MANUFACTURE A. Harvest of Tea Shoot Tips B. Withering C. Tissue Maceration (Rolling) D. Fermentation E. Firing F. Grading and Storage GREEN TEA MANUFACTURE OOLONG AND POUCHONG TEA MANUFACTURE FLAVORED TEAS
46. www.entrepreneurindia.co INSTANT TEA CONCLUSION 6. CABBAGE & CUCUMBER PROCESSING GENERAL INTRODUCTION CABBAGE A. INTRODUCTION B. CABBAGE VARIETALS 1. Crop Distribution 2. New Hydbrids
47. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. MECHANICAL OPERATIONS 1. Mechanical Harvester 2. Grading 3. Core Removal 4. Trim 5. Shredding 6. Salting 7. Conveyance 8. Fermentation Tanks Tank Closure D. FERMENTATION E. PRODUCT DEFECTS 1. “Off” Flavor 2. Color Defects 3. Processing Defects
48. www.entrepreneurindia.co F. PROCESSING 1. Bulk Sauerkraut 2. “Hot Fill” Method 3. Chemical Preservatives CUCUMBERS A. PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION B. VARIETALS AND HARVESTING C. GRADING D. FERMENTATION
49. www.entrepreneurindia.co 1. SALT STOCK (a) Development of Flora (b) Defects (c) Controlled Fermentation 2. Dill Pickles 3. Spoilage 4. Preservation 7. LACTIC ACID xv BIOSYNTHESIS
50. www.entrepreneurindia.co MICROORGANISMS TECHNICAL PRODUCTION A. Fermentation B. Isolation C. Economic Aspects SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS OF LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION 8. ACETIC ACID INTRODUCTION
51. www.entrepreneurindia.co A. General B. Bases of Acetic Acid Fermentation C. Raw Materials D. Water for Processing E. Nutrients MICROORGANISMS AND TAXONOMY A. Summary and Basic Problems of Classification B. Industrially Used Strains BIOCHEMISTRY A. Ethanol B. Sugar
52. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. Acetate D. Carbon Dioxide E. Nitrogen F. Growth Factors PHYSIOLOGY A. Oxygen Demand and Total Concentration B. Lack of Ethanol C. Specific Growth Rate D. Specific Product Formation E. Changes in Concentration F. Overoxidation
53. www.entrepreneurindia.co INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES A. SUBMERGED VINEGAR FERMENTATION The Frings Acetator 1. Other Processes 2. Abandoned processes B. SURFACE AND TRICKLING PROCESSES 1. History and Surface Process 2. Older Trickling Processes 3. The Frings Generator C. PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED ACETIC ACID
54. www.entrepreneurindia.co 9. ORGANIC ACID OF MINOR IMPORTANCE INTRODUCTION Itaconic Acid EPOXYSUCCINIC ACID Malic Acid OXOGLUCONIC ACIDS A. 2-Oxogluconic Acid B. 5-Oxogluconic Acid C. 2,5-Dioxogluconic Acid D. 2-Oxogulonic Acid
55. www.entrepreneurindia.co PROPIONIC AND BUTYRIC ACIDS TARTARIC ACID 2-OXOGLUTARIC ACID FUMARIC ACID FUTHER ORGANIC ACIDS A. Succinic Acid B. Pyruvic Acid C. 2-Oxogalactonic Acid D. Kojic Acid
56. www.entrepreneurindia.co 10. D-GLUCONIC ACID INTRODUCTION BIOLOGICAL FUNDAMENTALS FERMENTATION PROCESSES INVOLVING Calcium Gluconate Fermentation Sodium Gluconate Fermentation PRODUCT RECOVERY AND PROCESSING BACTERIAL GLUCONIC ACID FERMENTATIONS CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION FIGURES
57. www.entrepreneurindia.co 11. CITRIC ACID BIOLOGICAL FUNDAMENTALS A. Strains B. Fermentation Medium C. Other Factors D. Biochemistry and Enzyme Regulation PRODUCTION PROCEDURES A. Production Strains B. Spore Propagation for Inoculation C. Raw Materials D. The Koji Process E. Surface Process F. Submerged Process
58. www.entrepreneurindia.co PRODUCT RECOVERY CITRIC ACID FROM OTHER SUBSTRATES AND ORGANISMS COMPARISON OF PROCESS KINETICS PROCESS ECOLOGY UTILIZATION OF CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION FIGURES
59. www.entrepreneurindia.co 12. YEAST FORMATION OF BIOMASS FROM CARBOHYDRATES A. Introduction B. Reactions from Glucose to Cell Material Some Early Observations EVALUATION OF THE REACTIONS FROM GLUCOSE TO CELL MATERIAL Yeast Saccharides Yeast Protein Nucleic Acids Neutral Fat
60. www.entrepreneurindia.co Phospholipids Sterols Equation for Yeast Growth on Glucose Flux of the Substrate During Yeast Growth BIOMASS FROM MOLASSES A. COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES MOLASSES B. COMPRESSED YEAST FROM MOLASSES 1. The Evolution of Baker’s Yeast Production 2. Aspects of the Biochemistry of Baker’s Yeast 3. Requirements for Baker’s Yeast Production 4. Outline of the Manufacturing Process 5. Analysis and Quality Control of Baker’s Yeast
61. www.entrepreneurindia.co C. ACTIVE DRY YEAST D. WINE YEAST CULTURED ON MOLASSES E. FEED YEAST FROM MOLASSES BIOMASS FROM SPENT SULFITE LIQUOR A. SPENT SULFITE LIQUOR B. BIOMASS FROM SPENT SULFITE LIQUOR 1. Candida Yeasts 2. Baker’s Yeast from Spent Sulfite Liquor 3. Pekilo Process
62. www.entrepreneurindia.co BIOMASS FROM WHEY BIOMASS FROM STARCH 13. PHOTOGRAPHS OF PLANT & MACHINERY WITH SUPPLIER’S CONTACT DETAILS
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