Published on July 19, 2014
PowerPoint Presentation: 1 Welcome to seminar series 2013-14 : 2 Status- Micropropagation of Anticancerous medicinal plants NAVSARI AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY ASPEE COLLEGE OF HORTICUTURE AND FORESTRY NAVSARI NAME OF SPEAKER JANI JIGAR. N. MAJOR GUIDE DR. S. K. JHA CO-GUIDE MR. N. S. THAKUR PowerPoint Presentation: Introduction Review of Research Work Conclusion 3 Outline of Presentation : 4 Introduction Cancer: Cancer Cancer can be generally described as an uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. The division of normal cells is precisely controlled. New cells are only formed for growth or to replace dead ones. Cancerous cells divide repeatedly out of control even though they are not needed, they crowd out other normal cells and function abnormally. They can also destroy the correct functioning of major organs. Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is the second largest common disease spread world-wide. Traditional medicines or herbal formulations can serve as the source of potential new drugs, so that initial research focuses on the active constituent of the plants. The development of novel plant derived natural products and their analogs for anticancer activity are going day by day. Cancer is a potentially fatal disease caused mainly by environmental factors that mutate genes encoding critical cell-regulatory proteins. The resultant aberrant cell behaviour leads to expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs resulting in disseminated disease, commonly a harbinger of imminent patient death. : Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is the second largest common disease spread world-wide. Traditional medicines or herbal formulations can serve as the source of potential new drugs, so that initial research focuses on the active constituent of the plants. The development of novel plant derived natural products and their analogs for anticancer activity are going day by day. Cancer is a potentially fatal disease caused mainly by environmental factors that mutate genes encoding critical cell-regulatory proteins. The resultant aberrant cell behaviour leads to expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs resulting in disseminated disease, commonly a harbinger of imminent patient death. PowerPoint Presentation: Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is caused primarily by environmental factors. The cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) can be present in food and water, in the air, and in chemicals and sunlight that people are exposed to. In 1996 there were 10 million new cancer cases worldwide and six million deaths attributed to cancer. In 2020 there are predicted to be 20 million new cases and 12 million deaths. Part of the reason for this is that life expectancy is steadily rising and most cancers are more common in an ageing population. More significantly, a globalization of unhealthy lifestyles, particularly cigarette smoking and the adoption of many features of the modern Western diet (high fat, low fibre content) will increase cancer incidence. PowerPoint Presentation: Types of Cancers 1) Cancers of Blood and Lymphatic Systems Hodgkin's disease Leukemias Lymphomas Multiplemyeloma Waldenstrom's disease 2) Skin Cancers Malignant Melanoma 3) Cancers of Digestive Systems Esophageal cancer Stomach cancer Cancer of pancreas Liver cancer Colon and Rectal cancer Anal cancer PowerPoint Presentation: 4) Cancers of Urinary system Kidney cancer Bladder cancer Testis cancer Prostate cancer 5) Cancers in women Breast cancer Ovarian cancer Gynecological cancer 6)Miscellaneous cancers Brain cancer Bone cancer Carcinoid cancer Nasopharyngeal cancer Retroperitoneal sarcomas Soft tissue cancer Thyroid cancer PowerPoint Presentation: The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 80% of the world’s inhabitants rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care. The National Cancer Institute collected about 35,000 plant samples from 20 countries and has screened around 114,000 extracts for anticancer activity. From this screening two or three most important anti cancer compounds available today, namely taxol and camptothecin. CANCER : WORLD SCENARIO Developed world – 21 % (25 lakhs ) of all mortality Developing world – 9.5 % (38 lakhs ) of all mortality NATIONAL SCENARIO In India 25 – 30 lakhs estimated cancer cases at any point of time every year 8 lakhs new cases are detected in India every year 4 lakhs cancer patients die in our country incidence 100 –130 per 1 lakh of population Factors Believed to Contribute to Global Causes of Cancer: Factors Believed to Contribute to Global Causes of Cancer What are the differences in the features of normal and cancer cells?: What are the differences in the features of normal and cancer cells? What is Micropropagation?: What is Micropropagation? ‟ Micropropagation is techniques in which the plant organ grown in artificial media and aseptic condition ˮ Why is Micropropagation? : Why is Micropropagation? Clonal propagation through tissue culture offers an alternative to vegetative practices used in the past and has the potential to provide high multiplication rates of uniform genotypes. True to type individuals. Resulting in short-term gains and providing an alternative for species which are difficult to root. Factors that influences success in Micropropagation : Factors that influences success in Micropropagation Explant Proper sterilization Selection of media Selection of Growth regulator Rooting Proper hardening Table-1 Scientific evidence on herbs used in Ayurveda proven to have anticancer property: Table-1 Scientific evidence on herbs used in Ayurveda proven to have anticancer property Name Indications References Abrus precatorius Yoshida sarcoma(rats) Subbareddy and Sirsi (1969) Aloe vera Yoshida AH-130 ascite hepatoma human neuroectodermal tumors Corsi et al .(1998) , Pecere et al. (2000) Alstonia scholaries HIS human sarcoma benzo (a) pyrene induced for estomach carcinoma Dhar et al. (1968), Jagetia et al. (2003) Asparagus racemosa Human epidermal carcinoma Dhar et al. (1968) Bacopa monniera Walker carcinosarcoma 256 Bhakuni e al. (1969) Boswelia serrata Human epidermal carcinoma of the nasopharynx Leukaemia and brain tumors Dhar et al. (1968), Hostanska et al. (2002) Balachandran and Govindrajan (2005) PowerPoint Presentation: Name Indications References Curcuma longa Fibrosarcoma Sriganth and Premalatha (1999) Datura metel Human epidermal carcinoma of the nasopharynx Dhar et al. (1968) Erythrina suberosa SARCOMA 180 Dhar et al. (1968) Euphorbia hirta Freund virus leukaemia Dhar et al. (1968) Heliotropium indicum P-388 lymphocytic leukaemia Pal et al. (1968) Melia azadarach Walker carcinosarcoma 256 Bhakuni et al. (1969) Nigella sativa Colon cancer Salim and Fukushima (2003) Ocimum sanctum Skin and liver tumors Dubey et al. (1997) Picrorrhiza kurroa Hepatic cancers Dhar et al. (1968) Taxus baccata Cytotoxic against various tumors Melado et al. (1984) Continue… Table-2 Anticancer properties of Phytochemicals present in Medicinal plats of North America: Table-2 Anticancer properties of Phytochemicals present in Medicinal plats of North America Name Part used Major bioactive Compound References Achyranthes aspera Leaf Triterpenoid saponin Subbarayan et al (2012) Annona glabra Leaf and fruit Acetogenins Cochrane et al (2008) Erythronium americanum Whole plant Alpha- methylenebutyrolactone Jena et al (2012) Eupatorium cannabinum Whole plant Sesquiterpene lactone , pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and flavanoid Jena et al (2012), Woerdenbag et al (1989) Lactuca sativa Leaf Sesquiterpene lactone Han et al (2010) Lantana camara Whole plant Alkaloids, phenols, flavanoids , tannins, saponins , and phytosterols Kalita et al (2011), Patel (2011) Rasooli (2005) PowerPoint Presentation: Name Part used Major Bioactive compound References Plantago lanceolata Aerial parts Phenolics and flavanoids Beara et al (2012) Podophyllum peltatum Rhizome Podophyllotoxins Giri and Narasu (2000) Pyrus malus Bark and fruit Flavanoid , coumaric and gallic acid Madhuri and Pandey (2009) Polygonatum multiflorum Whole plant Saponin and flavanoid and vitamin A Madhuri and Pandey (2009) Taxus brevifolia Bark Taxol ( diterpene ) Altmann and Gertsch (2007) Thuja occidentalis Whole plant Flavanoid , tannin, and volatile oil Biswas et al (2011) Xanthium strumarium Fruit Sesquiterpene lactones (Xanthin and Xanthinosin ) Ramirez- Erosa et al (2007) Continu … Table-3 Plants with potential anticancer activity: Table-3 Plants with potential anticancer activity Name Compounds Annona chrimola Annonaceous acetogenins Annona squamosa Lactones Polyalthia barnesii Clerodane diterpines Xylopia aromatica Annonaceous acetogenins Anthriscus sylvestris Lignans Plumeria rubra Alkaloids( iridoids ) Dendropanax arboreus Oxylipins ( linoleic acid derivatives Panax ginseng Saponins Calotropis procera Glycosides Kigelia pinnata Dichloromethane extracts Caesalpinia sappan Ethyl acetate extracts Polanisia dodecandra Flavonols Kintzios (2006) PowerPoint Presentation: Name Compounds Bucida buceras Flavanons Terminalia arjuna tannins Eupatorium cannabinum Lactones Azadirachta indica Limonoids (triterpenes) Xanthium Strumarium Alkaloids Phyllanthus acuminata Glycosides Paepalanthus latipes Napthoquinones Emblica officinalis Jatrophane diterpenoids Jatropha curcas Jatrophane diterpenoids Cinnanomum camphora Cinnamaldehydes Tamarindus indica Triterpenoids Contin … Table – 4 The review of table gives information on the active anticancer components of the plants: Table – 4 The review of table gives information on the active anticancer components of the plants Name Compounds References Acanthopanax gracilistylus Lymphocytes Shan et al (1999) Allium sativa Allicin Ejaz et al (2003) Glycyrrhiza glabra Glycyrrhetic acid Rathi et al (2009) Cannabis sativa Cannabinoid Casanova (2003) Catharanthus roseus Vinblastine , Vincristine El- sayed and Cordell (1981) Taxus baccata Taxol Shoeb (2006) Berberis amurensis Berbemine Xie et al (2009) Salvia prionitis Salvicine Deng et al (2011) Kainsa et al (2012) MMU,Mullana Table- 5 Dietary sources as anticancer agent.: Table- 5 Dietary sources as anticancer agent. Name Source Compounds References Carica papaya Berries β- Cryptoxanthin Hoyoku et al (2009) Glycyrrhiza glabra Licorice root Glycyrrhizin Wan et al (2009) Cannabis sativa Hemp Cannabinol Caihua et al (2009) Prunus armeniaca Apricots Carotenoids Ruiz et al (2005) Zingiber officinale Tuber Gingerol Kim et al (2004) Piper nigrum Black pepper Purpurogallin Sunila and Kuttan (2004) Piper longum Black pepper Piperine Sunila and Kuttan (2004) Ocimum sanctum Basil Ursolic acid Shishodia et al (2003) Capsaicum annum Red chilli Capsaicinoids , Capsaicin Han et al (2001) Azadirachata indica Neem Polyphenolics Gogate (1991) Bhanot et al (2011) PowerPoint Presentation: Hormone Concentration (mg/ l) Hormone Concentration (mg/l) Response (%) Number of Shoot/ explant ( mean±SD ) Shoot length ( in cm) ( mean±SD ) BAP Kin 1.0 - 98 7.12±0.45 1.80±0.28 2.0 - 92 5.40±0.81 2.54±0.65 3.0 - 86 3.40±0.24 1.36±0.74 4.0 - 72 2.30 ±0.31 1.19±0.21 5.0 - 70 1.73±0.87 1.00±0.15 - 1.0 97 6.67±1.22 2.70±1.50 - 2.0 80 5.80±0.24 2.50±0.94 - 3.0 96 3.87±0.39 3.36±0.29 - 4.0 76 4.50±0.20 2.23±0.11 - 5.0 72 3.31±0.30 1.27±0.85 Table-1 Effect of C ytokinin on shoot proliferation from nodal shoot explant of Catharanthus roseus Mehta et al., (2013) Kota(Rajasthan) PowerPoint Presentation: Table 2: Interactive effect of cytokinin on shoot multiplication by sub culture of shoot Clumps of Catharanthus roseus Hormone Conc.(mg/ l) Number of Shoots/explants Shoot length (in cm) Shooting Response (%) 0.5 BAP + 0.5 NAA 6.50±0.27 3.87±0.39 98 0.5 BAP + 1.0 NAA 7.30±0.64 5.97±0.17 99 0.5 BAP + 2.0 NAA 5.02±0.76 3.06±0.22 97 0.5 BAP + 2.5 NAA 4.98±0.74 2.31±0.48 82 0.5BAP + 3.0 NAA 3.78 ±0.57 2.17±0.47 78 Contin … Table-1 Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro axillary shoot induction in Bacopa monnieri : Table-1 Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro axillary shoot induction i n Bacopa monnieri Sr.No MS + PGR (mg/l) Observations after 4 weeks BAP Kn IAA NAA Mean shoot number Mean shoot length (cm) Control 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.00±0.31 4.29 ± 0.06 2 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.00±0.27 3.53 ± 0.09 3 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.00±0.22 3.58 ± 0.14 4 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 3.00±0.16 3.36 ± 0.12 5 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 4.00±0.37 3.31 ± 0.11 6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 3.00±0.16 3.33 ± 0.08 Kaur et al., (2013) Department of Biotechnology, Dehradun Table-4 Effect of auxins on in vitro rooting in Bacopa monnieri : Table-4 Effect of auxins on in vitro rooting in Bacopa monnieri Sr. No MS (half strength)+PGR(mg/l) Observations after 4 weeks IBA NAA IAA Mean root number Mean root length Control 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00±0.00 0.00±0.00 1 0.5 0.0 0.0 7.00 ±0.24 9.22 ±0.26 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 10.00±0.24 11.32 ±0.31 3 0.0 0.5 0.0 7.00±0.54 9.45 ±0.41 4 0.0 1.0 0.0 8.00 ±0.37 9.32 ±0.34 5 0.0 0.0 0.5 7.00±0.37 9.36 ±0.47 6 0.0 0.0 1.0 7.00 ±0.44 10.0 ±0.33 Contin … Table- 1 Response of different explants to various growth regulators on shoot formation : Table- 1 Response of different explants to various growth regulators on shoot formation Growth regulators (mg/l) Type of explants % explants producing shoots No. of Explants producing shoot (mean ± SE) 1 NAA H 70% 13.3± 0.25 2.5 NAA L 38% 6.6± 0.35 H 68% 12.6± 0.30 5 NAA H 70% 12.66± 0.22 0.1 (2,4-D) L 22% 3.6± 0.35 H 70% 14± 0.16 0.5 (2,4-D) H 14% 2.6± 0.36 5 BAP L 64% 11.6± 0.30 10 BAP L 84% 16.3± 0.22 H 94% 18± 1.12 5BAP+10NAA L 38% 6.66± 0.16 5BAP+1NAA L 74% 14± 0.17 H 90% 17± 0.38 10BAP+1NAA L 64% 12± 0.32 H 70% 13.33± 0.22 10BAP+2.5NAA H 92% 17.66± 0.30 0.1 2,4-D+5BAP H 82% 15.66± 0.30 Tiwari (2013) Department of Botany, Nagpur Table-4 Effect of Growth Regulators on nodal explants culture of T. cordifolia : Table-4 Effect of Growth Regulators on nodal explants culture of T. cordifolia PGRs (mg/l) Shoot initiation (in days) No . of shoots/node No . of leaves/node BAP Kn TDZ 2.0 4.0 0.05 8.00 1.0 11.43 2.0 4.0 0.10 7.86 1.29 27.57 2.0 4.0 0.20 6.71 2.29 38.71 2.0 4.0 0.30 10.57 3.14 14.57 2.0 4.0 0.40 10.29 3.71 0.57 Sultana and Handique (2013) Department of Biotechnology, Guwahati PowerPoint Presentation: Fig. 1: In Vitro Propagation of Tinospora cordifolia Table 2: Effect of growth regulators on rooting medium after 30 days.: Table 2: Effect of growth regulators on rooting medium after 30 days. Plant growth regulators (mg/L) Mean of root length ± S.D. Culture Establishment (%) BA(0.2) + IAA(1.5) BA(0.3) + IAA(1.0) BA(0.5) + IAA(1.5) BA(1.0) + IAA(0.5) BA(1.0) + IAA(0.2) BA(1.5) + IAA(0.5) BA(1.5) + IAA(1.0) BA(1.5) + IAA(1.5) 4.21 ± 0.59 5.61 ± 0.75 3.56 ± 0.91 7.21 ± 0.54 9.69 ± 0.86 9.20 ± 0.23 6.76 ± 0.69 7.50 ± 0.66 67.5 59.4 76.7 69.3 100 77.9 88.3 67.4 Table-1 Effect of cytokinins and auxin and their interaction on shoot proliferation from Nodal explants of Tinospora cordifolia. : Table-1 Effect of cytokinins and auxin and their interaction on shoot proliferation from Nodal explants of Tinospora cordifolia.