Step 4 Wine and Alcohol powerpoint

Information about Step 4 Wine and Alcohol powerpoint

Published on September 11, 2009

Author: aSGuest25732



WINE and COOKING WITH WINE : WINE and COOKING WITH WINE Red River College 1 Growing Grapes : Growing Grapes There are many types of grapes but the optimal grape class is Vitis Vinifera. It is considered optimal because it has the right balance of sugar and acid to create a good fermented wine without the addition of sugar or water. It is said that the wine is only as good as the grape; a poor winemaker can ruin good grapes, but a good winemaker isn’t going to make great wine from inferior grapes. Vines start producing grapes about 3 years after planting; a usable crop after five years. 2 Growing cont’d : Growing cont’d They reach their prime in terms of crop yield between ages 10 and 30 years. Vines can grow for 100 years, although production decreases the older the vine gets. Vines grow best in nitrogen, phosphates, potassium, iron, magnesium and calcium. Bug Phylloxera came from states in 1870’s. 3 Slide 4: 4 Slide 5: 5 Slide 6: 6 Slide 7: 7 Slide 8: 8 Slide 9: 9 Slide 10: 10 Slide 11: 11 Slide 12: 12 Slide 13: 13 Grape Harvesting : Grape Harvesting Weather is the largest factor in determining whether it is going to be a good “Vintage or Year”. There has to be enough heat during the growing season to lead to enough sugar in the grape. To produce great wine, the fruit should be ripe (but not overripe) The grape grower plays a game of chance every year- rains affecting the crop. Harvested too soon, the wine will end up with too low an alcohol content (there will not be enough sugar to convert to alcohol). “Thin wine” Harvested too late, there may be too much sugar, which leads to too low acedic content. This will affect the taste and aging of the wine. 14 Initial Processing of the Grape Juice : Initial Processing of the Grape Juice Grapes can be crushed by stomping on them in a large vat, but a more practical way is to use a machine which does the job for you. The color of the skin determines the color of the wine. After stomping the grapes, maceration, (time spent while skins and seeds are left with the juice) will go on for a few hours or a few weeks. Pressing will then occur, by using a large cylindrical container (bladder press) that contains bags that are inflated and deflated several times, each time gently squeezing the grapes until all the juice has run free, leaving behind the rest of the grapes. This juice is stored in oak barrels during the aging process. 15 Turning Grape Juice Into Alcohol : Turning Grape Juice Into Alcohol Grape juice is turned into alcohol by the process of fermentation. Grapes on the vine are covered with yeast, mold and bacteria. By putting grape juice into a container at the right temperature, yeast will turn the sugar in the juice into carbon dioxide and alcohol. The grape juice will have fermented. “Barrel Fermentation” is usually done at lower temps, around 6 weeks. The longer fermentation and use of wood contributes to the flavor ( and usually expense) of the wine. 16 Slide 17: 17 Cooking With Wine : Cooking With Wine Use appropriate wines with whatever you are cooking, dry-sweet. Tend to stay away from red wine when making cream sauces. Wines can be used in reductions, glazes, basting, marinating, and dessert items. Port, Madeira, and Sherry are all wines that have had another alcohol added for an extra distinct flavor, and to aid in aging. These wines should be added at the end of cooking, so that you do not burn off the taste. White or red wines are reduced to concentrate flavors and burn off the alcohol. 18 What is Proof? : What is Proof? The term “proof” was originated by the British, who found that if gunpowder was mixed with alcohol and water, it would burn, but only if a specific amount of alcohol was mixed with the water. The British used this test as a means of checking the alcoholic contents of spirits. If the spirit burned, they said it was “proof” that the spirit contained an adequate quantity of alcohol. The alcoholic content of spirits is measured in proof, expressed as a % of volume of water to alcohol. In North America, proof of a spirit is two times the % of alcohol by volume or weight. If a spirit contains 50% alcohol, the proof is 100. 19 Proof continued : Proof continued Wines have less alcohol (7 to 14 %) than spirits. Beer generally have the lowest alcoholic content (2.5 to 8%). Spirits range widely form 50 to 190 proof %, depending on the type of spirit and the brand. 20 Alcohol: How Is It Made? : Alcohol: How Is It Made? Alcohol is a liquid whose chemical name is ethyl hydrate. It is derived form the reaction of double decomposition of glucose (sugar) by yeast. This process is termed fermentation. There are other types of alcohol that can be chemically made, but ethyl alcohol is the only one that is produced in any quantity that is reasonably safe to drink. Alcohol is made by fermenting naturally sweet fruit juices (musts) such as grapes, apples, oranges or grains such as corn, rye and barley, in which the natural process of converting starch to sugar has begun. The distillation of these musts into a purer or more concentrated form produces a high proof beverage. 21 Alcohol continued : Alcohol continued The strength of alcohol produce by natural fermentation normally cannot exceed 14%. Above this strength the alcohol renders the yeast impotent. Wine or any other beverage requiring greater strength than this, must have alcohol added. This is called fortifying. Wines of less than approximately 14% alcohol content tend to have shorter storage life than those of higher proof. Fortified wines such as port, Madeira, with proofs ranging upward of 23%, have a life of over 100 years. 22 Alcohols : Alcohols Irish Cream, Kahluha, or other “Velvety” liquors are nice in desserts- eg mousses. Pernod or other licorice flavored , are good in seafood and lamb dishes. Also good for flambéing. Orange flavored liquors such as triple sec, orange brandy, Curacao, and Grand Marnier are good for sabayon, flambéing dessert items, or marinating fresh fruits. 23 Distillation : Distillation In simple terms, distilled liquors or spirits are alcoholic beverages that are not wines, liqueurs, or beers. Distilled spirits include rum, scotch whiskey, gin and vodka. Spirits generally have a higher alcoholic content than wines, beers and liqueurs. Liqueurs unlike wine have no dependence on climate, regional or cultural limits. They can be produced wherever the distiller sets up their still. The 4 types of stills are the pot, coffey, continuous and column. The pot and continuous stills are the two most common. The pot still offers a higher quality product, but the column still greatly boosts volume while saving production time. 24 Distillation continued : Distillation continued The process of distillation is made possible by the fact that the boiling point of alcohol is about 173*F or almost 40*F lower than the boiling point of water. This means that if a mixture of water and alcohol is heated to a boil, more of the alcohol than the water will end up in the initial vapor. The vapor can then be cooled and condensed into a liquid (the word distill is Latin for “to drip”). The condensation of vapor on a cool surface will have a higher alcoholic content than the original liquid. 25 Slide 26: 26 Brandy : Brandy The word brandy means distilled wine. Brandies are made by taking a wine base, from grapes and putting it through the distillation process. Although brandies are made in countries around the world, the best known are: Cognac: which is a brandy distilled from wine made of grapes grown within the legal limits of the Charente and Charente-Maritime departments of France. Armagnac: is a brandy distilled from wine made of grapes grown in the the heart of Southwest France. 27 Cognac : Cognac Cognac- distilled twice in pure copper pot stills. It takes 10 barrels of wine to make 1 barrel of cognac. The new colorless cognac is stored in oak barrels which have been charred on the inside. It is this continual oxidization that gives cognac it’s superb and distinct flavor. It is not the vintage as with wine that matters but the years spent in wood with cognac. Two years in wood is the legal minimum for any cognac, but the most good cognacs spend 3-4 years in wood. 28 Armagnac : Armagnac Armagnac: like Cognac, Armagnac is made from wine made of white grapes. It is then stored in oak casks made from Limousin or Monlezun black oak woods. Armagnac has a stronger flavor than Cognac. Armagnac is distilled only once by a combination of pot and continual stills. Brandy connoisseurs seem to prefer Armagnac. This is because Armagnac is usually aged longer than cognac. 29 The X’s and O’s of Cognac : The X’s and O’s of Cognac Law lists them in three categories: VS (very special)aged usually from four to seven years. VSOP (very special old pale)aged usually from twelve to fourteen years . XO (extra old) aged up to forty years. The four big distillers of cognac are: Hennessey Remy Martin Courvoisier Martell 30 Flambé Terminology : Flambé Terminology Rechaud: is a small stove like appliance designed to cook, flame or keep food warm. The heat sources that are used for this small stove is generally propane gas. Gueridon: is a rolling cart used for tableside service. It is used for preparations such as portioning, cooking, plating, flaming desserts and meats, making salads (Caesar) and international coffees. The Rechaud is normally placed on the left side of the gueridon, all spirits and liqueurs should be at the opposite end of the cart, away from the flame! 31 Slide 32: 32

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