Published on January 4, 2008
Applying Global Optimization in Structural Engineering: Applying Global Optimization in Structural Engineering Dr. George F. Corliss Electrical and Computer Engineering Marquette University, Milwaukee WI [email protected] with Chris Folley, Marquette Civil Engineering Rafi Muhanna, Georgia Tech Outline: Buckling beam Building structure failures Simple steel structure Truss Dynamic loading Challenges Objectives: Buildings & Bridges: Objectives: Buildings & Bridges Fundamental tenet of good engineering design: Balance performance and cost Minimize weight and construction costs While Supporting gravity and lateral loading Without excessive connection rotations Preventing plastic hinge formation at service load levels Preventing excessive plastic hinge rotations at ultimate load levels Preventing excessive lateral sway at service load levels Preventing excessive vertical beam deflections at service load levels Ensuring sufficient rotational capacity to prevent formation of failure mechanisms Ensuring that frameworks are economical through telescoping column weights and dimensions as one rises through the framework From Foley’s NSF proposal One Structural Element: Buckling Beam: One Structural Element: Buckling Beam Buckling (failure) modes include Distortional modes (e.g., segments of the wall columns bulging in or outward) Torsional modes (e.g., several stories twisting as a rigid body about the vertical building axis above a weak story) Flexural modes (e.g., the building toppling over sideways). Controlling mode of buckling flagged by solution to eigenvalue problem (K + Kg) d = 0 K - Stiffness matrix Kg - Geometric stiffness - e.g., effect of axial load d - displacement response “Bifurcation points” in the loading response are key Figure from: Schafer (2001). "Thin-Walled Column Design Considering Local, Distortional and Euler Buckling." Structural Stability Research Council Annual Technical Session and Meeting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, May 9-12, pp. 419-438. One Structural Element: Buckling Beam: One Structural Element: Buckling Beam Simple Steel Structure: Simple Steel Structure H wDL wLL RLcon Eb Ib RLcon ELcol ILcol ALcol ERcol IRcol ARcol Simple Steel Structure: Uncertainty: Simple Steel Structure: Uncertainty Linear analysis: K d = F Stiffness K = fK(E, I, R) Force F = fF(H, w) E - Material properties (low uncertainty) I, A - Cross-sectional properties (low uncertainty) wDL - Self weight of the structure (low uncertainty) R - Stiffness of the beams’ connections (modest uncertainty) wLL - Live loading (significant uncertainty) H - Lateral loading (wind or earthquake) (high uncertainty) Approaches: Monte Carlo, probability distributions Interval finite elements: Muhanna and Mullen (2001) “Uncertainty in Mechanics Problems – Interval Based Approach” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 127, No. 6, pp. 557-566. Simple Steel Structure: Nonlinear: Simple Steel Structure: Nonlinear K(d) d = F Stiffness K(d) depends on response deformations Properties E(d), I(d), & R(d) depend on response deformations Possibly add geometric stiffness Kg Guarantee bounds to strength or response of the structure? Extend to inelastic deformations? Next: More complicated component: Truss Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty: Two-bay truss Three-bay truss E = 200 GPa Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty Muhanna & Mullen: Element-by-Element: Muhanna & Mullen: Element-by-Element Reduce finite element interval over-estimation due to coupling Each element has its own set of nodes Set of elements is kept disassembled Constraints force “same” nodes to have same values Interval finite elements: Muhanna and Mullen (2001), “Uncertainty in Mechanics Problems – Interval Based Approach” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 127, No. 6, pp. 557-566. = = = Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty 1%: Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty 1% Three-bay truss Three bay truss (16 elements) with 1% uncertainty in Modulus of Elasticity, E = [199, 201] GPa Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty 5%: Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty 5% Three-bay truss Three bay truss (16 elements) with 5% uncertainty in Modulus of Elasticity, E = [195, 205] GPa Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty 10%: Examples – Stiffness Uncertainty 10% Three-bay truss Three bay truss (16 elements) with 10% uncertainty in Modulus of Elasticity, E = [190, 210] GPa 3D: Uncertain, Nonlinear, Complex: 3D: Uncertain, Nonlinear, Complex Complex? Nbays and Nstories 3D linear elastic analysis of structural square plan: 6 * (Nbays)2 * Nstories equations Solution complexity is O(N6bays * N3stories) Feasible for current desktop workstations for all but largest buildings But consider That’s analysis: Given a design, find responses Optimal design? Dynamic Loading: Dynamic Loading Performance vs. varying loads, windstorm, or earthquake? Force F(x, t)? Wind distributions? Tacoma Narrows Bridge Milwaukee stadium crane Computational fluid dynamics Ground motion time histories? Drift-sensitive and acceleration-sensitive Simulate ground motion Resonances? Marching armies break time Not with earthquakes. Frequencies vary rapidly Image: Smith, Doug, "A Case Study and Analysis of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge Failure", http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/Exhibits/Tacoma_Narrows/DSmith/photos.html Challenges: Challenges Life-critical - Safety vs. economy Multi-objective optimization Highly uncertain parameters Discrete design variables e.g., 71 column shapes 149 AISC beam shapes Extremely sensitive vs. extremely stable Solutions: Multiple isolated, continua, broad & flat Need for powerful tools for practitioners Image: Hawke's Bay, New Zealand earthquake, Feb. 3, 1931. Earthquake Engineering Lab, Berkeley. http://nisee.berkeley.edu/images/servlet/EqiisDetail?slide=S1193 References: References Foley, C.M. and Schinler, D. "Automated Design Steel Frames Using Advanced Analysis and Object-Oriented Evolutionary Computation", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, (May 2003) Foley, C.M. and Schinler, D. (2002) "Object-Oriented Evolutionary Algorithm for Steel Frame Optimization", Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE Muhanna, R.L. and Mullen, R.L. (2001) “Uncertainty in Mechanics Problems – Interval Based Approach” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 127, No. 6, pp. 557-566. Muhanna, Mullen, & Zhang, “Penalty-Based Solution for the Interval Finite Element Methods,” DTU Copenhagen, Aug. 2003. William Weaver and James M. Gere. Matrix Analysis of Framed Structures, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980. Structural analysis with a good discussion on programming-friendly applications of structural analysis. References: References R. C. Hibbeler, Structural Analysis, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002. William McGuire, Richard H. Gallagher, Ronald D. Ziemian. Matrix Structural Analysis, 2nd Edition, Wiley 2000. Structural analysis text containing a discussion related to buckling and collapse analysis of structures. It is rather difficult to learn from, but gives the analysis basis for most of the interval ideas. Alexander Chajes, Principles of Structural Stability Theory, Prentice Hall, 1974. Nice worked out example of eigenvalue analysis as it pertains to buckling of structures.