STUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID

Information about STUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID

Published on February 24, 2014

Author: drmustansar

Source: authorstream.com

Content

STUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID: STUCTURE OF NUCLEIC ACID DNA: DNA 1 o Structure - Linear array of nucleotides 2 o Structure – double helix 3 o Structure - Super-coiling, stem-loop formation 4 o Structure – Packaging into chromatin Determination of the DNA 1o Structure (DNA Sequencing): Determination of the DNA 1 o Structure (DNA Sequencing) Can determine the sequence of DNA base pairs in any DNA molecule Chain-termination method developed by Sanger Involves in vitro replication of target DNA Technology led to the sequencing of the human genome PowerPoint Presentation: DNA Replication DNA is a double-helical molecule Each strand of the helix must be copied in complementary fashion by DNA polymerase Each strand is a template for copying DNA polymerase requires template and primer PowerPoint Presentation: Primer: an oligonucleotide that pairs with the end of the template molecule to form dsDNA DNA polymerases add nucleotides in 5'-3' direction PowerPoint Presentation: Chain Termination Method Based on DNA polymerase reaction 4 separate rxns Each reaction mixture contains dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP PowerPoint Presentation: Each reaction also contains a small amount of one dideoxynucleotide (ddATP, ddGTP, ddCTP and ddTTP). Each of the 4 dideoxynucleotides are labeled with a different fluorescent dye. Dideoxynucleotides missing 3’-OH group. Once incorporated into the DNA chain, chain elongation stops) PowerPoint Presentation: Chain Termination Method Most of the time, the polymerase uses normal nucleotides and DNA molecules grow normally Occasionally, the polymerase uses a dideoxynucleotide, which adds to the chain and then prevents further growth in that molecule PowerPoint Presentation: Random insertion of dd-nucleotides leaves (optimally) at least a few chains terminated at every occurrence of a given nucleotide PowerPoint Presentation: NO CHAIN ELONGATION PowerPoint Presentation: Chain Termination Method Run each reaction mixture on electrophoresis gel Short fragments go to bottom, long fragments on top Read the "sequence" from bottom of gel to top Convert this "sequence" to the complementary sequence Now read from the other end and you have the sequence you wanted - read 5' to 3' DNA Secondary structure: DNA Secondary structure DNA is double stranded with antiparallel strands Right hand double helix Three different helical forms (A, B and Z DNA. PowerPoint Presentation: Comparison of A, B, Z DNA A: right-handed, short and broad, 2.3 A, 11 bp per turn B: right-handed, longer, thinner, 3.32 A, 10 bp per turn Z: left-handed, longest, thinnest, 3.8 A, 12 bp per turn PowerPoint Presentation: A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA PowerPoint Presentation: Z-DNA Found in G:C-rich regions of DNA G goes to syn conformation C stays anti but whole C nucleoside (base and sugar) flips 180 degrees DNA sequence Determines Melting Point: DNA sequence Determines Melting Point Double Strand DNA can be denatured by heat (get strand separation) Can determine degree of denturation by measuring absorbance at 260 nm. PowerPoint Presentation: Conjugated double bonds in bases absorb light at 260 nm. Base stacking causes less absorbance. Increased single strandedness causes increase in absorbance DNA sequence Determines Melting Point: DNA sequence Determines Melting Point Melting temperature related to G:C and A:T content. 3 H-bonds of G:C pair require higher temperatures to denture than 2 H-bonds of A:T pair. DNA 3o Structure: DNA 3 o Structure Super coiling Cruciform structures PowerPoint Presentation: Supercoils In duplex DNA, ten bp per turn of helix (relaxed form) DNA helix can be over-wound. Over winding of DNA helix can be compensated by supercoiling PowerPoint Presentation: Supercoiling prevalent in circular DNA molecules and within local regions of long linear DNA strands Enzymes called topoisomerases or gyrases can introduce or remove supercoils In vivo most DNA is negatively supercoiled. Therefore, it is easy to unwind short regions of the molecule to allow access for enzymes PowerPoint Presentation: Each super coil compensates for one + or – turn of the double helix PowerPoint Presentation: Cruciforms occur in palindromic regions of DNA Can form intrachain base pairing Negative supercoiling may promote cruciforms DNA and Nanotechnology: DNA and Nanotechnology DNA and Nanotechnology: DNA and Nanotechnology DNA 4o Structure: DNA 4 o Structure In chromosomes, DNA is tightly associated with proteins PowerPoint Presentation: Chromosome Structure Human DNA’s total length is ~2 meters! This must be packaged into a nucleus that is about 5 micrometers in diameter This represents a compression of more than 100,000! PowerPoint Presentation: It is made possible by wrapping the DNA around protein spools called nucleosomes and then packing these in helical filaments PowerPoint Presentation: Nucleosome Structure Chromatin, the nucleoprotein complex, consists of histones and nonhistone chromosomal proteins % major histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 PowerPoint Presentation: Histone octamers are major part of the “protein spools” Nonhistone proteins are regulators of gene expression PowerPoint Presentation: 4 major histone (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) proteins for octomer 200 base pair long DNA strand winds around the octomer 146 base pair DNA “spacer separates individual nucleosomes H1 protein involved in higher-order chromatin structure. W/O H1, Chromatin looks like beads on string PowerPoint Presentation: Solenoid Structure of Chromatin RNA: RNA Single stranded molecule Chemically less stable than DNA presence of 2’-OH makes RNA more susceptible to hydrolytic attack (especially form bases) Prone to degradation by Ribonucleases (Rnases) PowerPoint Presentation: Has secondary structure. Can form intrachain base pairing (i.e.cruciform structures). Multiple functions Type of RNA: Type of RNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – integral part of ribosomes (very abundant) Transfer RNA (tRNA) – carries activated amino acids to ribosomes. PowerPoint Presentation: Messenger RNA (mRNA) – endcodes sequences of amino acids in proteins. Catalytic RNA (Ribozymes) – catalzye cleavage of specific RNA species. RNA can have extensive 2o structure: RNA can have extensive 2 o structure (b) (a)

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