Published on January 19, 2008
Studio Design - Safety: Studio Design - Safety My Background: My Background Simon Williamson, Freelance Broadcast Engineer www.crashrecordtv.co.uk Email : [email protected] Operations Supervisor, ITV Central News (Abingdon) Senior Engineer at BBC TV (London) BSc Electronic & Electrical Engineering (Birmingham University) Operational Engineering experience in News, Studios & Facilities Topics for today: Topics for today Importance of Safety Working with Electricity Overload and Fail-safe Protection Portable Appliance Testing Safety in the Studio Manual Handling Awareness Risk Assessment In the workplace On location Practical Exercise The Importance of Safety at Work: The Importance of Safety at Work Some facts about safety in the UK workplace 250 people lose their lives at work every year Around 156,000 non-fatal injuries are reported each year An estimated 2.3 million people suffer from ill health caused or made worse by work So what is health and safety all about? Its about preventing people from being harmed by work or becoming ill by taking the right precautions - and providing a satisfactory working environment. Because health and safety at work is so important, there are rules which require all of us not to put ourselves or others in danger. The law is also there to protect the public from workplace dangers. Health & Safety Executive (HSE): Health & Safety Executive (HSE) Health and Safety legislation applies to all businesses, however small; also to the self-employed and to employees. Who enforces health and safety law? Inspectors from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or the Local Authority. HSE deals with factories, farms and building sites, whereas Local Authorities deal with offices, shops, hotels and catering, and leisure activities. HSE Inspectors visit workplaces to check that people are sticking to the rules. They investigate some accidents and complaints but mainly they help businesses understand what they need to do. They enforce only when something is seriously wrong. Safety Issues in the Workplace: Safety Issues in the Workplace Tripping / Slipping hazards e.g. wet floors, trailing cables Hazardous substances e.g. cleaning chemicals, dust, fumes Working at heights, on ladders, scaffolding or ledges Manual Handling Working with computer (screens) Noisy environments Working with Electricity Working near or with flammable materials Working with machinery e.g. power saws, drills, etc Stressful environments I’ve named ten…can you come up with any more? Working with Electricity: Working with Electricity Electricity can kill. Each year about 1000 accidents at work involving electric shock or burns are reported to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Around 30 of these are fatal. Most of these fatalities arise from contact with overhead or underground power cables. A current as low as 30mA, at 230volts, has the potential to be fatal. Even non-fatal shocks can cause severe and permanent injury. Shocks from faulty equipment may lead to falls from ladders, scaffolds or other work platforms. Those using electricity may not be the only ones at risk: poor electrical installations and faulty electrical appliances can lead to fires which may also cause death or injury to others. Most of these accidents can be avoided by careful planning and straightforward precautions. Reducing Electrical Risks: Reducing Electrical Risks Ensure the electrical installation is safe e.g. appropriate wiring, sockets not overloaded, etc. Work with suitable equipment e.g. use hydraulic or hand-powered tools in harsh environments, have emergency switch-off at close proximity, etc. Reduce the voltage, if possible e.g. battery-operated tools, lighting run at 12/25/50 volts, etc. Use a safety device, such as an RCD Residual Current Devices can detect faulty wiring, and should be connected at the “earliest” point in the supply. Work safely i.e. make others aware of electrical hazards Carry out preventative maintenance e.g. regular visual inspection and testing of installations. Overload Protection: Overload Protection Fuses A piece of wire which melts at a specified current, thereby breaking the supply to the load. Usually designed to pass an overload for a few seconds. For example, a 10A fuse could probably pass 20A for 3-4 seconds before blowing. Certain pieces of equipment are prone to drawing large “switch-on” currents, e.g. old style TV Monitors. Using Anti-Surge fuses will let this current pass, but will rupture if it is prolonged. Overload Protection cont.: Overload Protection cont. MCBs (Miniature Circuit Breakers) These are switches which automatically open when the current exceeds some specified limit. Very common in modern domestic supplies. They can be magnetically or thermally controlled. Device Protection: Device Protection There are three basic methods of protecting users from shock when using electrical equipment. Direct Earthing (Class I devices) All exposed metalwork of the equipment is connected to earth, via the green/yellow wire in the triple core mains cable. If the line supply comes into contact with this metalwork, the current will be large enough to blow the fuse and isolate the equipment. Double Insulation (Class II devices) Two independent layers of insulation are provided between the user and the supply conductors (the mains cable can be twin core). One of these layers is often just air. Supply at Low Voltage (Class III devices) Uses a transformer to step-down the voltage to <50volts, often in a capsule built into the mains plug. Residual Current Devices (RCDs): Residual Current Devices (RCDs) A Residual Current Device (RCD) uses an electronic circuit to detect even the smallest imbalance between the live and neutral conductors and if it reaches a trigger level, disconnects the circuit. This disconnect is in the order of milliseconds and RCDs can be specified to sense fault levels as low as 5mA (typically 30mA). In modern electrical circuits many devices contain filtering circuits for EMC compliance, some of these circuits contain deliberate "Earth Leakage" leading to nuisance trips of RCDs. Portable Appliance Testing (PAT): Portable Appliance Testing (PAT) This type of testing is carried out on new equipment purchased by organisations, or on hired-in equipment and individual mains leads. Visual Inspection Identify signs of overheating. Internal inspection; cord security, polarity, connections. If non-rewirable plug; cord security, burning odours. Correct size fuse fitted. Security of plug cover Earth Continuity Test For Class I devices. Typically several amps are passed around the earth path to measure resistive continuity. Should be <0.1Ω PAT cont.: PAT cont. Insulation Test Typically 500volts passed across the line supply wire and the equipment earth system. Should measure >1MΩ for Class I and >2MΩ for Class II equipment Optional Tests Flash Test: No flashover or breakdown shall occur Operation/Load test: Compare reading with stated details on nameplate Earth leakage test: Class 1 Handheld Appliances 0.75mA Other Class 1 Appliances 3.5mA Class 2 Appliances 0.25mA Safety in the Studio: Safety in the Studio A typical TV Studio will have a number of potential risks and hazards Cable runs Electrical Supplies Camera Pedestals Robotic Camera mounts Lighting Grid Slung Equipment TV News Studio: TV News Studio Studio Wallbox: Studio Wallbox Camera Pedestal: Camera Pedestal Lighting Grid: Lighting Grid Slung Monitor: Slung Monitor Manual Handling Awareness: Manual Handling Awareness Manual Handling Awareness: Manual Handling Awareness Manual Handling is becoming an issue in a lot of organisations which have significantly reduced staff numbers; employees working alone often risk injury through lifting heavy items which are beyond their limits. And often the organisation has not invested in suitable equipment to make handling/lifting easier. Diagram illustrates “safe” weights which could be lifted by a fit male, at different body positions. Guide purposes only, every individual will be different. “Risky” Handling situations: “Risky” Handling situations Lifting from the floor. Lifting above head height. Moving items with arms away from the body. Working in cold, hot, greasy, humid environments. Repetitive lifting and carrying. Twisting and awkward body posture. Handling loads that are awkward or difficult to hold. Working on uneven surfaces. Need to assess the movements and effort needed to carry out the task, and the individual capabilities of the operative. Does the environment affect things? How much recovery period is allowed? Are the movements unavoidable? Manual Handling Controls: Manual Handling Controls Mechanical aids. e.g. hoists, lifts, etc Improving the tasks. Job rotation. Redesign of the workstation. Smaller, more manageable loads. Improved manual handling training. Risk Assessment: Risk Assessment Most Risk Assessments can be broken down into 3 Sub-headings, leading to 2 Outcomes and an overall assessment of Risk. What Hazards can be observed? Who is at risk? What Controls can be put in place? The outcomes are the Severity of the Risk and the Likelihood of it happening….this leads to an Overall Risk Factor. These outcomes are graded LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH. Risk Table: Risk Table Severity Low Med High High Med Low Likelihood Example Workplace Risk Assessment: Example Workplace Risk Assessment Example Location Risk Assessment: Example Location Risk Assessment Blank Risk Assessment Form: Blank Risk Assessment Form Covering Fires: Covering Fires As with other disasters the potential risks from major fire situations may include: Risks from the fire itself. Secondary explosions (e.g.: factory premises). Smoke or hazardous fumes. Buildings collapsing. Emergency vehicles or heavy rescue machinery. As with other disasters, advice must be taken from the emergency services regarding safe vantage points, safe distances, protective equipment required. When covering such incidents fluorescent jackets must be worn by all crew members. Thought must be given to safe filming positions in terms of the risks from emergency vehicles attending the scene. Crews must keep in regular contact with the relevant news desk and inform them of any changes in plan, latest advice from the emergency services etc. Riot/Civil Disturbance Risk Assessment Form: Riot/Civil Disturbance Risk Assessment Form Riot/Civil Disturbance cont.: Riot/Civil Disturbance cont.