Published on December 31, 2007
Slide1: PRESENT PROGRAMS AND FUTURE PLANS SUGARCANE RESEARCH & EXTENSION BY UF/IFAS SUGARCANE AGRONOMYDr. Robert Gilbert: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Dr. Robert Gilbert Stage III CP Breeding Program Collaborators: USDA, FSCL Cultivar Maturity Trials Collaborators: SCGC, USDA Transgenic Sugarcane Evaluation Collaborators: Agron. Dept., TREC, USDA Organic Amendments for Sandland Nutrition Collaborators: FL Crystals, USDA Sugarcane Response to Flooding Collaborators: USDA Green Cane Harvest Collaborators: SCGC, SWFREC, FL Crystals, USDA, USSC SUGARCANE AGRONOMY: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY SCMV field day Mill mud strip No mill mud Somaclonal variation CP Cultivar field day SUGARCANE AGRONOMY: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Low water table Flooded cane Adventitious roots Raking residue Trash weight Burnt vs. green Slide5: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY RESULTS Stage III CP Breeding Program CP clones grown on > 80% of FL acreage Cultivar Maturity Trials Harvest schedule recommendations on EDIS Transgenic Sugarcane SCMV-resistant high-yielding clones identified Organic Amendments for Sandland Nutrition Mill mud > soybean rotation = inorganic fertilizer Flooded Cane 3-month flood reduced sucrose yield 30% in plant cane Green Cane Significant differences in soil temp., LAI and TCA on muck Slide6: SCMV-resistant VR18-54 c b c a b SUGARCANE AGRONOMYFUTURE RESEARCH PLANS: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS Continuing: Stage III Crop Modeling Sandland Nutrition Transgenic Sugarcane Green Cane New: Green Cane Management on Sand Sugarcane for Ethanol proposal Multi-disciplinary Projects: Agronomy: Gilbert, Kingston & Ezenwa Weeds: Rainbolt Insects: Nuessly & Cherry Diseases: Raid Water Quality: Daroub & Morgan Crop Nutrition: McCray & Morgan Extension: Rice & Baucum SUGARCANE AGRONOMYGreen cane production systemDrs. Kingston et al.: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Green cane production system Drs. Kingston et al. Field trials for agro-ecology and management of green cane Experiments on muck and sandy soils. Collaborators – Gilbert, Kingston, Ezenwa, Eiland, Rice, Shine, Luo, Raid, Rainbolt, Roka, Applications for more precise agriculture SUGARCANE AGRONOMYAgro-ecology of green cane system: Muck soil expt. established 2004-05 Compares burnt, trash rake & trash blanket Sandland expt. Established 2005-06 Compares burnt, trash rake, trash blanket & trash blanket with disking SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Agro-ecology of green cane system SUGARCANE AGRONOMYApplications for more precise agricultureDr. G. Kingston et al.: Assessing utility of earth conductivity for applications of precision agriculture on EAA Histosols. Collaborators – Kingston, Luo, Shine, Rice Cost benefit analysis of land levelling for sugarcane production on sandland soils. Collaborators – Ezenwa, Kingston SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Applications for more precise agriculture Dr. G. Kingston et al. SUGARCANE AGRONOMYEarth conductivity and precision agriculture: Objective Is bulk electrical cond. of muck a function of soil depth? Is soil depth related to properties that affect cane yield? eg. pH and sulfur application Commenced summer 2005 Initial results show good correlation of ECa with depth to ~3ft. Chemical data to be interpreted. SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Earth conductivity and precision agriculture SUGARCANE AGRONOMYCost benefit of land leveling: Objective Determine yield response & cost benefit of land leveling on sandland Commenced summer 2005 Ditch cleaning & cultivation causes “dished” surface profile between beds. Potential for effect on drainage & soil fertility. SUGARCANE AGRONOMY Cost benefit of land leveling SUGARCANE AGRONOMY ON MINERAL SOILSDr. Ike V. Ezenwa: SUGARCANE AGRONOMY ON MINERAL SOILS Dr. Ike V. Ezenwa N fertilization of sugarcane on organic- and non-amended mineral soil Rate and method of P application on mineral soils Current studies Main Focus of Program: Main Focus of Program Improved agronomic management practices N, P, K fertilization Soil organic matter Improvement No-till production systems Weed management Sustainable harvesting methods Green cane harvesting Slide18: No compost- 0 N With Compost- 0 N No compost- 234 kg N/ha With compost- 234 kg N/ha N fertilization of sugarcane on organic- and non-amended mineral soil Slide19: N fertilization of sugarcane on organic- and non-amended mineral soil Future research plans: Future research plans Obtain and analyze data on effects of green cane harvesting Help industry determine potential impact of the practice Green cane harvesting: Positive vs. Negative effects? SUGARCANE AGRONOMY ON MINERAL SOILS SOIL and WATER SCIENCEDr. K.T. Morgan: SOIL and WATER SCIENCE Dr. K.T. Morgan Program Emphasis Improved nutrient use efficiency Contribution of crop residue to N, P, and K cycling Soil nutrient modeling Studies Demonstration of CRF use on sugarcane Documentation of N reductions using CRF N, P, and K availability from crop residues (Green Cane Harvest) SOIL and WATER SCIENCECRF DEMONSTRATION: SOIL and WATER SCIENCE CRF DEMONSTRATION SOIL and WATER SCIENCE CRF RATE STUDY: SOIL and WATER SCIENCE CRF RATE STUDY Experimental Design Randomized complete block 3 replications per treatment Repeated sampling over time Treatments Soluble fertilizer 5 X per year Complete CRF at planting Slow release N / soluble P and K at planting Soluble N, P, and K at planting/ slow release N at 60 days after planting N rates from 100% to 50% of 265 lb/ac SOIL and WATER SCIENCE GREENCANE HARVEST : SOIL and WATER SCIENCE GREENCANE HARVEST Measurements - Stalk heights and weights Leaf N concentration Soil N concentration Estimated sugar yield Crop Residue - Mineralization Burned cane - ash No-till - surface residue Till – incorporated residue Soil Transformations Nitrification rates Denitrification rates Phosphorus solubility SOIL and WATER SCIENCEFUTURE RESEARCH PLANS: SOIL and WATER SCIENCE FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS Use of soil test for phosphorus fertilization. Soil variability effects on nutrition. Water Quality and BMP ResearchSamira Daroub*, Ming Chen, Orlando Diaz, and Timothy Lang: Water Quality and BMP Research Samira Daroub*, Ming Chen, Orlando Diaz, and Timothy Lang Highlights of Research Results and Overview of New Scope of Work Slide27: Specific Conductance in EAA Canals Specific conductance research on farm canal water completed. Report issued by IFAS accepted by SFWMD and FDEP, March 2005 No BMPs needed for specific conductance in EAA Control of Particulate P: Control of Particulate P Final Report submitted to SFWMD and FDEP: Control floating aquatic weeds Limit main canal drainage velocity Regularly remove canal sediments New Scope of Work: New Scope of Work Particulate P Demonstration Farm Analysis of Existing BMP Data BMP Training Workshops BMP Consultation Program Extension Publications Slide30: BMP Demonstration Farm Objective: evaluate the impact of improved particulate P control practices compared to conventional practices on drainage water quality Overview: two similar sugarcane blocks at EREC each block isolated w/ pump and monitoring equip agronomics: sugarcane production w/ fallow, rotational crops Slide31: Improved BMP Block 200 acres sugarcane Weed boom upstream of pump Aggressive FAW control Velocity control Canal level control Control Block 150 acres sugarcane Weed boom near pump Minimal aq weed control Drainage manager controlled BMP Training Workshops: BMP Training Workshops Half-day training workshops offered at Everglades REC Topics include BMPs related to: Soil testing Fertilizer application Water table management Particulate P control Sediment control Pesticide Safety CEUs offered Analysis of Existing BMP Data: Analysis of Existing BMP Data Compile IFAS conducted BMP research into one comprehensive accessible database Determine questions of interest Conduct initial low level analyses Follow up with higher order geo-statistical and modeling analyses Produce and extend recommendations BMP Consultation Program : BMP Consultation Program Purpose: Optimize BMP implementation throughout EAA Methods: Individual consultations between IFAS and growers Utilize knowledge base of IFAS and grower community Develop recommendations for individual farms Impact measured by tracking changes in farm loads Personnel: Samira Daroub, Orlando Diaz, Tim Lang Extension Publications: Extension Publications Sediment Control Soil Testing Fertilizer Spill Prevention Fertilizer Application Control ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Landowners’ support of this project thru EAA-EPD funding is greatly appreciated: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Landowners’ support of this project thru EAA-EPD funding is greatly appreciated Sugarcane NutritionDr. Mabry McCray: Sugarcane Nutrition Dr. Mabry McCray Current Studies DRIS Fertilizer Supplement Study Cooperators: Florida Crystals, Stitt Ranch, Lykes Bros. 25 paired comparisons in plant cane fields in 2004/05, 29 comparisons in plant and 1st stubble fields in 2005/06 Tests the effect of a fertilizer supplement based on DRIS leaf nutrient indices in April/May Develop guidelines for economic use of DRIS-based supplements and for incorporation of leaf analysis into an overall program Sugarcane Nutrition: Sugarcane Nutrition DRIS Study Harvest Data – All Fields (2004/05) TCA TSA % Yld Control 47.84 5.69 11.89 DRIS 47.82 5.55 11.60 # Comparisons 19 16 16 p > t .9945 .7812 .4830 Sugarcane Nutrition: Sugarcane Nutrition Current Studies Leaf and Soil Survey Cooperators: Florida Crystals, Duda, King Ranch, R. C. Hatton, Hilliard Bros., Lykes Bros., Alico, Stitt Ranch 162 plant cane fields sampled in 2004, 63 additional fields in 2005 Look for trends in deficiencies or imbalances Examine nutrition in relation to production First year results indicated that Si, Mg, and Mn were the nutrients most limiting production in fields surveyed Sugarcane Nutrition: Sugarcane Nutrition Current Studies Phosphorus Rate Study 2 locations planted in fall 2004 (Okeelanta and EREC), 6 P rates, band and broadcast Ike Ezenwa planted a similar test on a mineral soil in 2004/05 IFAS/SCGC rate tests are ongoing All available data will be used to update IFAS recommendations Sugarcane Nutrition: Sugarcane Nutrition Current Studies Silicon/Magnesium Study 2 locations planted in fall 2004, Sugar Farms Cooperative (muck) and Hilliard Bros (sand) Designed to compare sources, rates, and placement of silica and magnesium amendment materials Found significant increases in tons sugar/acre with Ca silicate application in first year (05/06) at each location Application of magnesium increased percent sugar yield but did not significantly increase tons sugar/acre (05/06) Sugarcane Nutrition: Sugarcane Nutrition New Research Nutritional Impact of Green Harvest – EREC location started in 2004/05, Hilliard location started fall 2005 Comparison of sugarcane on organic soil with and without added N fertilizer (EREC) – fall 2005 Furrow application of mill mud and compost on a mineral soil (Hilliard Bros) – fall 2005 Silicon rate study (EREC) – fall 2005 Economic Thresholds for Wireworm Control in Plant Cane on Sand and Muck: Economic Thresholds for Wireworm Control in Plant Cane on Sand and Muck Dr. Phil Stansly Southwest Florida Research and Education Center Dr. Ron Cherry Everglades Research and Education Center Objective: Objective To determine when it is really necessary to use soil insecticides for wireworm control when planting sugarcane Methods: Methods Determine if wireworms can be sampled at planting to decide if soil insecticides are required. Determine if soil type affects wireworm populations. Determine if season affects wireworm populations Benefits: Benefits Economic savings Reduced handling toxic substances = safety issue Reduce environmental contamination Good public relations Reduce possibility of insecticide resistance Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements Thanks to Florida Sugar Cane League for substantial funding Thanks to Paul Grose and King Ranch for cooperation and land use Sugarcane Insect Pest Management: Sugarcane Insect Pest Management Yellow Sugarcane Aphid Lesser Cornstalk Borer Wireworms Dr. Gregg Nuessly Slide58: Early season YSA feeding reduces internode width/length and leaf length with season long effect of reduced sugar at harvest Yellow Sugarcane Aphid Leaves with <50% green color at time of treatment for aphids: 50% of leaves = 12% yield loss 90% of leaves = 19% yield loss Sugarcane Insect Pest Management Slide59: Yellow Sugarcane Aphid Sugarcane Insect Pest Management Susceptible CP98-1569 Resistant CP98-1497 Evaluated all CP98 and CP99 Stage IV clones for susceptibility to YSA Evaluated biology and efficacy of natural enemies to control YSA Graduate student Fall 2006 Slide60: Lesser Cornstalk Borer Early season damage to sugarcane, corn & beans Shot holes Dead shoots Worse in warm, dry Spring following similar Winter Graduate student begins January 2006 Slide61: Evaluating seed treatment insecticides for wireworm control in vegetables Then examine technology transfer to sugarcane Wireworms FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS: FUTURE RESEARCH PLANS 1. Continue to evaluate effects of green harvest sugarcane production systems on insect populations and sugarcane damage Sugarcane Insect Pest Management 2. Examine the biology and control of lesser cornstalk borer in sugarcane 3. Examine the ecology of yellow and white sugarcane aphids SUGARCANE WEED SCIENCEDr. C.R. Rainbolt: SUGARCANE WEED SCIENCE Dr. C.R. Rainbolt K4 herbicide evaluation for plant cane and sandland cane Collaborators: DuPont, ALICO, USSC, Duda, Paige Farms, Les Baucum, Ike Ezenwa Palisade ripener and seedcane evaluation Collaborators: Syngenta, King Ranch, USSC, SCGC, FL Crystals Experimental herbicide evaluation Collaborators: Syngenta, FMC, ISK Biosciences, Bayer Crop Science SUGARCANE WEED CONTROL: SUGARCANE WEED CONTROL Sandea for nutsedge control Palisade seed piece trial K4 on sandland cane Experimental herbicides WEED SCIENCE: WEED SCIENCE Palisade ripener and seedcane evaluation Increased number of nodes per linear foot of stalk and increased stand counts in field trial Experimental herbicide evaluation Initial trials are encouraging with some herbicides K4 herbicide evaluation for plant cane and sandland cane Establishing rate guidelines for weed control efficacy and crop safety SUGARCANE WEED CONTROL: SUGARCANE WEED CONTROL Envoke + Asulox applied to 4-5 inch tall crabgrass and fall panicum applied 13 days later applied 20 days later WEED SCIENCEFUTURE RESEARCH: WEED SCIENCE FUTURE RESEARCH Nutsedge interference with sugarcane Biology of sorghum almum Green cane residue weed suppression Examining the potential of Barn Owls as rodent controllers : Examining the potential of Barn Owls as rodent controllers Dr. Richard Raid Jason Martin Graduate Student UF Barn Owl ProjectAreas of Activity : UF Barn Owl Project Areas of Activity Barn owl behavior and population studies Rodent population dynamics Examining the effectiveness of barn owls as rodent controllers Public education and agricultural outreach Barn Owl Population Studies : Barn Owl Population Studies 282 barn owls banded since June 2004 (89 adults and 193 nestlings) Spring 2005: nests in 52% of 233 nest boxes in Palm Beach County Fall 2005: nests in 71% of 233 boxes, but most destroyed by hurricane Wilma Spring 2006: nests in 78% of 85 boxes Rodent Population Studies : Rodent Population Studies Trapping surveys conducted Jan. 2005 – Dec. 2006 Surveys conducted 3 times during growing season (post-harvest, mid-way, pre-harvest) along 16 field ditches in EAA Collecting data on community structure and abundance Preliminary results indicate very low populations after harvest, but gradual increases through growing season Results will be useful in regards to optimizing rodent control strategies Owl/Rodent Relationships: Owl/Rodent Relationships 6 sites selected to examine the impact of owl predation on rodent abundance (3 experimental, 3 control) 25 nest boxes placed in each experimental site to establish high predator density, while very low owl density maintained in controls At least 60% nesting occupancy in experimental sites in spring 2006 Rodent populations and sugarcane damage are being periodically monitored Education and Outreach: Education and Outreach Educational booths and displays during special events Distribution of owl pellets to schools and community groups Nest box construction with Boy Scouts, Audubon, schools, and other groups Conducting field trips and owl prowls Creation of barn owl website with live nest cameras Slide74: CONCLUSIONS UF/IFAS sugarcane research now encompasses many disciplines. Agronomy Crop Nutrition Soil Science Weed Science Entomology Water Quality New faculty at SWFREC: Ike Ezenwa & Kelly Morgan New extension agents: Ron Rice & Les Baucum Thanks to sugarcane industry for their financial support. Thanks to collaborators for their effort in the field. Look forward to grower input on future research projects.