Published on February 16, 2011
System & Information System: System & Information System By: Aishath Eaman What is a system?: What is a system? A system is an organized, purposeful structure regarded as a 'whole' consisting of interrelated and interdependent elements. These elements continually influence one another to maintain their activity and the existence of the system, in order to achieve the common purpose of the system. Slide 3: Every system is a part of a larger system. It is composed of sub-systems, and shares common properties with other systems that help in transferring and understanding the solutions from one system to another. Although different types of systems look so very different on the surface, they have remarkable similarities Example of a system can be “An organization may be viewed also as a system via all the employees interact with each other and also with the employer to make the organization a functional unit. The organization also interacts with their customer to make a complete business system.” Characteristics of a system: Characteristics of a system Systems also exhibit certain features and characteristics, some of which are: Objectives Every system has a predefined goal or objective towards which it works. A system cannot exist without a defined objective. For example an organization would have an objective of earning maximum possible revenues, for which each department and each individual has to work in coordination. Slide 5: 2. Standards It is the acceptable level of performance for any system. Systems should be designed to meet standards. Standards can be business specific or organization specific. For example take a sorting problem. There are various sorting algorithms. But each has its own complexity. So such algorithm should be used that gives most optimum efficiency. So there should be a standard or rule to use a particular algorithm. It should be seen whether that algorithm is implemented in the system. Slide 6: 3. Environment Every system whether it is natural or man-made co-exists with an environment. It is very important for a system to adapt itself to its environment. Also, for a system to exist it should change according to the changing environment. For example, we humans live in a particular environment. As we move to other places, there are changes in the surroundings but our body gradually adapts to the new environment. If it were not the case, then it would have been very difficult for human to survive for so many thousand years. Slide 7: 4. Feed Back The output of a system needs to be observed and feedback from the output taken so as to improve the system and make it achieve the laid standards. A system takes input. It then transforms it into output. Also some feedback can come from customer (regarding quality) or it can be some intermediate data (the output of one process and input for the other) that is required to produce final output. Slide 8: 4. Boundaries and Interfaces Every system has defined boundaries within which it operates. Beyond these limits the system has to interact with the other systems. For instance, Personnel system in an organization has its work domain with defined procedures. If the financial details of an employee are required, the system has to interact with the Accounting system to get the required details. Slide 9: Interfaces are another important element through which the system interacts with the outside world. System interacts with other systems through its interfaces. Users of the systems also interact with it through interfaces. Therefore, these should be customized to the user needs. These should be as user friendly as possible. What is an information System?: What is an information System? Information system is an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, processing, and communicating information. Business firms, other organizations, and individuals in contemporary society rely on information systems to manage their operations, compete in the marketplace, supply services, and augment personal lives. Slide 11: Information system enables companies to react, respond, cater, store, retrieve, disseminate, and control their new valuable asset that is information. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Types of Information System : Types of Information System Information systems differ in their business needs. Also depending upon different levels in organization information systems differ. Three major information systems are: Transaction processing systems Management information systems Decision support systems Slide 13: Management Information System Decision Support System Transaction Support System Slide 14: Strategic information is the information needed by top most management for decision making. For example the trends in revenues earned by the organization are required by the top management for setting the policies of the organization. 2 . The second category of information required by the middle management is known as managerial information. The information required at this level is used for making short term decisions and plans for the organization. Information like sales analysis for the past quarter or yearly production details etc. Slide 15: 3. The third category of information is relating to the daily or short term information needs of the organization such as attendance records of the employees. This kind of information is required at the operational level for carrying out the day-to-day operational activities. Some examples of information provided by such systems are processing of orders, posting of entries in bank, evaluating overdue purchaser orders etc. THANK YOU! : THANK YOU!