Published on February 27, 2008
The Employment ofMACHINE GUNS: The Employment of MACHINE GUNS INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION “IF ANY SINGLE EVENT CAN BE SAID TO HAVE TRANSFORMED THE HISTORY OF WARFARE, IT WAS THE PERFECTION OF THE TRUE AUTOMATIC MACHINE-GUN BY HIRAM MAXIM IN 1885. “OF ALL THE HIDEOUS WEAPONS OF WAR PRODUCED IN THE 20th CENTURY, NONE HAS EXTRACTED A MORE DREADFUL TOLL OF HUMAN LIFE THAN THE MACHINE GUN”. INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION In 1881 Maxim, visited the Paris Electrical Exhibition. There he met a man who told him: "If you wanted to make a lot of money, invent something that will enable these Europeans to cut each other's throats with greater facility." Over the next few years Maxim worked on producing an effective machine-gun. In 1885 he demonstrated the world's first automatic portable machine-gun to the British Army. Maxim used the energy of each bullet's recoil force to eject the spent cartridge and insert the next bullet. The Maxim Machine-Gun would therefore fire until the entire belt of bullets was used up. Trials showed that the machine-gun could fire 500 rounds per minute and therefore had the firepower of about 100 rifles. “THE MACHINE GUN WILL NEVER REPLACE THE HORSE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF WAR”.SIR DOUGLAS HAIG,COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCESDECEMBER 1915 : “THE MACHINE GUN WILL NEVER REPLACE THE HORSE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF WAR”. SIR DOUGLAS HAIG, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCES DECEMBER 1915 INTRODUCTION WORLD WAR 101 JULY 1916THE SOMMEON THE FIRST DAY OF THE ALLIED SOMME OFFENSIVE 19,000 BRITISH AND COMMONWEALTH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED, AND A FURTHER 38,000 WOUNDED BY GERMAN MACHINE GUN FIRE ALONE.: WORLD WAR 1 01 JULY 1916 THE SOMME ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE ALLIED SOMME OFFENSIVE 19,000 BRITISH AND COMMONWEALTH SOLDIERS WERE KILLED, AND A FURTHER 38,000 WOUNDED BY GERMAN MACHINE GUN FIRE ALONE. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION: THE SOMME THE BRITISH III CORPS LOST 80% OF ITS EFFECTIVE STRENGTH AS IT ADVANCED ABREAST OF THE BAPAUME ROAD, BETWEEN THE TWIN VILLAGES OF LA BOISELLE AND OVILLERS, VIRTUALLY ALL OF THEM CUT DOWN BY SUSTAINED MACHINE-GUN FIRE. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION: World War 1 THE 1914-1918 WAR KILLED AT THE VERY LEAST 9 MILLION PEOPLE, THE VAST MAJORITY OF THEM ON THE BATTLEFIELD ITSELF, AND WOUNDED A FURTHER 12.5 MILLION: A TOTAL OF 22 MILLION CASUALTIES. EVEN AT A CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATE, 25% OF THESE CASUALTIES WERE DUE TO MACHINE-GUN FIRE, GIVING A TOTAL OF 5.5 MILLION CASUALTIES. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION: Modern Day AAR from action in Somalia in 1993 verified that the 7.62mm machinegun is still the Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s most lethal weapon system The bulk of an Dismounted Infantry Platoon’s organic firepower is provided by the 7.62mm Machinegun, especially in the COE of today (MOUT, Close Combat, Mountain). INTRODUCTION GENERAL DATA: GENERAL DATA M249 SAW 5.56mm Squad Automatic Weapon Light Machinegun GENERAL DATA – M249: GENERAL DATA – M249 CALIBER: 5.56mm MAXIMUM RANGE: 3600 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: POINT TARGETS 600 m AREA TARGETS 800 m SUPPRESSION 1000 m RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED: 85 rpm RAPID: 200 rpm CYCLIC: 850 rpm GENERAL DATA: GENERAL DATA M240B 7.62mm Medium Machinegun GENERAL DATA – M240B: GENERAL DATA – M240B CALIBER: 7.62mm MAXIMUM RANGE: 3725 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE WITH TRIPOD AND T&E: 1,100m GRAZING FIRE: 600m TRACER BURN OUT: 900m RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED: 100 rpm RAPID: 200 rpm CYCLIC: 650-950 rpm Slide14: M240 7.62mm Medium Machinegun M240B U.S. Army ground (infantry) version of the M240/M240E1. Replaces the M60 series machine guns. M240B U.S. Army ground (infantry) version of the M240/M240E1. Replaces the M60 series machine guns. M240C Coaxially mounted version. The M240C is the right hand variant of the M240 currently used on the U.S. M2 and M3 Bradley fighting vehicles. The M240C is identical to the M240 except for the ammunition feed cover and feed tray.. M240E5 Aviation variant which will replace the M60D. The M240E5 will use the same receiver and barrel as the M240B but will have a spade grip trigger assembly. It will also require a unique mounting interface and pintle to properly interface with the helicopter platform. M240E1 Pintle-mounted version. M240G U.S. Marine Corps ground version of the M240/M240E1. Replaces the M60E3 machine gun. All weapons in the M240 family can be converted to right hand feed using M240C feeder components. GENERAL DATA: GENERAL DATA M60 7.62mm Medium Machinegun GENERAL DATA – M60: GENERAL DATA – M60 CALIBER: 7.62mm MAXIMUM RANGE: 3725 m MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RANGE: 1,000m GRAZING FIRE: 600m TRACER BURN OUT: 900m RATES OF FIRE: SUSTAINED: 100 rpm RAPID: 200 rpm CYCLIC: 550 rpm Machinegun Terminology: Machinegun Terminology TRAJECTORY MAXIMUM ORDINATE CONE OF FIRE BEATEN ZONE DANGER SPACE Slide18: TRAJECTORY IS THE CURVED PATH A ROUND TAKES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE TRAJECTORY OF A ROUND IS AFFECTED BY AIR RESISTANCE AND GRAVITY. Machinegun Terminology TRAJECTORY Slide19: MAXIMUM ORDINATE IS THE HIGHEST POINT ABOVE THE LINE OF SIGHT TO WHICH A PROJECTILE RISES DURING ITS FLIGHT. THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE OCCURS APPROXIMATELY 2/3 OF THE WAY ALONG THE TRAJECTORY OF THE PROJECTILE. Example: AS THE RANGE INCREASES, SO DOES THE HEIGHT OF THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE. Machinegun Terminology MAXIMUM ORDINATE Slide20: THE GROUP OF TRAJECTORIES RESULTING FROM A BURST OF FIRE IS TERMED THE CONE OF FIRE. WHEN A BURST OF FIRE STRIKES A VERTICAL TARGET, THE ROUNDS WILL FORM A PATTERN, OVAL IN SHAPE, WITH THE DENSITY OF SHOTS DECREASING TOWARDS THE EDGES. Machinegun Terminology CONE OF FIRE Slide21: THE PATTERN FORMED WHEN THE CONE OF FIRE STRIKES THE GROUND IS TERMED THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OVAL OR CIGAR SHAPED AND THE DENSITY OF ROUNDS DECREASES TOWARDS THE EDGES. BECAUSE OF DISPERSION ONLY THAT PART OF THE BEATEN ZONE IN WHICH 85% OF THE ROUNDS FALL IS CONSIDERED THE EFFECTIVE BEATEN ZONE. Machinegun Terminology BEATEN ZONE Slide22: DANGEROUS SPACE OCCURS BETWEEN THE MUZZLE OF THE MACHINE GUN AND THE POINT WHERE THE LOWEST ROUND IN THE BEATEN ZONE STRIKES THE GROUND. Machinegun Terminology DANGER SPACE Classes of Machine Gun Fire: Classes of Machine Gun Fire Respect to the Ground Respect to the Target Respect to the Machine Gun CLASSES OF MG FIRE: CLASSES OF MG FIRE Machineguns produce 2 Classes of Fire with respect to the Ground: Grazing Fire or Plunging Fire The 2 factors that effect the Class of Fire produced with respect to the Ground are Range and Terrain. TYPES OF FIRE GRAZING FIRE: GRAZING FIRE Grazing fire is obtained when firing over level or uniformly sloping terrain, where the center of the cone of fire does not rise more than 1 meter above the ground. This is approximately out to 600m. The dangerous zone, employing this type of fire, extends from the muzzle of the gun out to where the last round in the beaten zone strikes the ground. PLUNGING FIRE: PLUNGING FIRE PLUNGING FIRE IS ACHIEVED WHEN THE DANGEROUS ZONE IS PRACTICALLY CONFINED TO THE BEATEN ZONE. IT IS OBTAINED WHEN FIRING AT VERY LONG RANGES, FROM HIGH GROUND INTO LOW GROUND OR INTO ABRUPTLY RISING GROUND. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target: Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target CLASSES OF FIRE RESPECT TO TARGET: CLASSES OF FIRE RESPECT TO TARGET FRONTAL FIRE Occurs when the long axis of the beaten zone is perpendicular to the front of the target. FRONTAL FIRE: FRONTAL FIRE Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target: Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target FLANKING FIRE: Fire that is delivered directly against the flank of the target. FLANKING FIRE: FLANKING FIRE Slide32: OBLIQUE FIRE: When the long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle other than a right angle to the front of the target. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target OBLIQUE FIRE: OBLIQUE FIRE Slide34: ENFILADE FIRE: When the long axis of the beaten zone coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the target. This type of fire is either frontal or flanking. It is the most desirable type of fire with respect to a target because it makes maximum use of the beaten zone. Classes of Fire with Respect to the Target Slide35: ENFILADE FIRE FRONTAL FLANKING Slide36: PLACEHOLDER: USE EXAMPLES OF FIRE WITH RESPECT TO GUN: CAN BLOWUP PICTURE ON PAGE 7-4 of FM or make slide Classes of Fire With Respect to the Gun Slide37: THE RANGE ON THE BEATEN ZONE AS RANGE INCREASES………………………………….. M240B (IT Vol 4, Pam 7, M60, 1980, Australia & RAInf Corps Trg. Notes Vol 2 Pam 6, DFSW Pl. 1995, Australia) THE GROUND ONTHE BEATEN ZONE: THE GROUND ON THE BEATEN ZONE DEAD SPACE: DEAD SPACE ANY FOLD OR DEPRESSION IN THE GROUND THAT PREVENTS A TARGET FROM BEING ENGAGED FROM A FIXED POSITION IS TERMED DEAD SPACE. FACTORS EFFECTING THE BURST OF FIRE: FACTORS EFFECTING THE BURST OF FIRE The Gun & the Ammunition The Firer The Clarity of the Target Air Disturbances & Weather OBJECTIVES OF MG MARKSMANSHIP: OBJECTIVES OF MG MARKSMANSHIP Obtain an accurate initial burst Traverse and search the Machinegun effectively Observe and adjust fire Operate with speed Reference page 9-2 FM 23-67 TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS: TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS Crew drills varied conditions Cross train machinegun skills, to include crew drills and range cards Stabilize your crews, don’t make the “new guy” the gunner. You the leader and crew must know FM 23-67. Train your MG crews and weapon squads to occupy Support By Fire positions both in and out of contact. Don’t just train for best case (deliberate occupation out of contact). TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS: Remember that the M249 is also a machinegun, and team leaders/squad leaders should be trained on their control and employment. TRAINING TTP FOR LEADERS CREW DRILLS: CREW DRILLS Can be conducted in field, on ranges, or in garrison Conduct under progressively harder conditions (time, day/night, rotate positions, etc.) PRECISION IS NEVER SACRIFICED FOR SPEED, SPEED IS ACQUIRED AFTER PRECISION HAS BEEN OBTAINED AIDS FOR OBSERVING THE FALL OF SHOT: AIDS FOR OBSERVING THE FALL OF SHOT GROUND: Rounds falling on dry, sandy, or rocky ground will give a good indication of strike. TRACER: Tracer can be observed at ranges up to 1100m in normal circumstances. CLIMATIC CONDITIONS: When the sun is low, it is easier to observe strike than when it is high. BATTLEFIELD CONDITIONS: The actions of the “enemy will often indicate whether the fire is effective”. NOTES ON ZEROING: NOTES ON ZEROING IF THE WEAPON IS NOT CORRECTLY ZEROED, IT IS INEFFECTIVE. BOTH THE GUNNER AND THE ASSISTANT GUNNER MUST ZERO THE WEAPON. THE SPARE BARREL MUST BE ZEROED, NOT JUST THE MAIN BARREL. THE WEAPON MUST BE ZEROED BEFORE ANY OPERATION, AFTER REPAIRS,WHEN GUNNERS CHANGE AND WHEN EVER THE ZERO IS IN DOUBT Slide47: QUESTIONS?