Published on January 11, 2008
Task B-4: Planetary Geodesy USGS Astrogeology Program Presentation toPlanetary Cartography and Geologic MappingWorking Group: Task B-4: Planetary Geodesy USGS Astrogeology Program Presentation to Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group by Brent Archinal USGS Astrogeology Team 2004 August 26 U. S. Geological Survey Flagstaff, AZ Purpose and Project Description: Purpose and Project Description Provide and improve the infrastructure for NASA planetary Geodesy needs, i.e. to support “the development and production of cartographic products of planetary data sets” (PG&G NRA), by efforts to: Modernize, document, and further develop RAND/USGS planetary geodesy software. Document, study, improve, and archive existing RAND/USGS control networks. Assist planetary geodesy community generally, e.g. via coordinating with various working groups (MGCWG, IAU/IAG). Outline: Outline Current Planetary Geodesy Needs FY04 Accomplishments FY05 Planned Course of Work Long-Range Activities Questions from PCGMWG Summary Current (NASA & USGS)Planetary Geodesy Needs: Current (NASA & USGS) Planetary Geodesy Needs RAND (and now USGS) defining networks and software need to continually be documented and maintained, as the basis of nearly all existing planetary cartographic products. “Old” images and coordinate systems will never go out of use. New data needs to be continually tied to these networks in order to be useful, from whatever data source, location, or purpose. Whether from cameras or altimeters, near or far from planetary surfaces, and for various scales of mapping or for navigation and landing this is an essential feature of all planetary missions. Coordination needed with various individuals, working groups, missions, etc. on defining these networks, coordinate systems, planetary constants, and standards, particularly with the NASA MGCWG and (internationally) the IAU/IAG. FY04 AccomplishmentsA) Consolidation and Improvement of RAND/USGSData Handling and Adjustment Software: FY04 Accomplishments A) Consolidation and Improvement of RAND/USGS Data Handling and Adjustment Software Soon (next release) will have executables provided as package with ISIS, replacing ISIS “jigsaw” function. Running under Solaris, Linux, Mac. ISIS, preprocessing, and “randlsq” adjustment programs interfaced using 3 Perl scripts. “build-meas.pl” – Creates mm measurement file from pixel measurement file(s). “build-ppp.pl” – Collects a priori information. “run-randlsq.pl” – Performs photogrammetric solution. Currently supporting: Moon (LO, Clementine), Mars (Mariner 9, Viking), and Saturnian moons (Voyager, Cassini); Soon: Mariner 10, Galileo. FY04 Accomplishments, continuedA) Consolidation and Improvement of RAND/USGSData Handling and Adjustment Software, continued: FY04 Accomplishments, continued A) Consolidation and Improvement of RAND/USGS Data Handling and Adjustment Software, continued Cassini ISS processing added (using Cassini funding). Consolidation of multiple version RAND programs nearly complete. (15+2 new) Line/sample to x/y in mm programs merged into 1 or 2. A few RAND programs converted for Linux use. Main “randlsq” adjustment program being changed to use sparse matrix and vector routines, in order to conserve memory and to allow output of solution variance-covariance information. Existing RAND Planetary Control Networks: Existing RAND Planetary Control Networks FY04 Accomplishments, cont. B) Maintenance and Archiving of Current Planetary Control Networks: FY04 Accomplishments, cont. B) Maintenance and Archiving of Current Planetary Control Networks RAND data files and solutions exist for 23 planetary bodies (previous slide), and in most of these cases the RAND solutions define the coordinate system for these objects. Making USGS and RAND solutions available on the web. Will be complete for most bodies at end of this FY. See http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/ControlNetworks/ for Moon and Mars and soon Saturnian moons, and Schenk solutions. Continuing to archive copies of control network data files (and software) off-site. Working on a (delayed) Mars control network publication. Will be based on ISPRS paper already published. FY04 Accomplishments, cont. C) Planetary Geodesy Community Assistance – E.g. IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: FY04 Accomplishments, cont. C) Planetary Geodesy Community Assistance – E.g. IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements This working group sets the defining constants for planetary bodies, e.g. size, shape, rotation, and reference frame Archinal now Vice-Chair. 2003 report submitted for publication last week. Important to stay involved so that USGS, NASA standards are adopted internationally, or in conjunction with others (ESA, DLR, Japan, etc.) Other groups: Provided info on standards to ESRI and to ISO group – for incorporation into GIS software. Also liaison to NASA MGCWG. IAU/IAG Working Group, cont.: IAU/IAG Working Group, cont. 2003 IAU/IAG report includes: Specific MOLA reference surface defined for Mars – based on NASA MGCWG work. Adopted system for asteroids and comets: planetocentric (east) longitude and right handed (positive and negative pole). Allowed for alternate use (all bodies) of Cartesian coordinates. Addition of several asteroids and first comet (19P/Borrelly). FY05 Planned Course of WorkA) Consolidation and Improvement of RAND/USGSData Handling and Adjustment Software: FY05 Planned Course of Work A) Consolidation and Improvement of RAND/USGS Data Handling and Adjustment Software Carried over (with funding) from FY04: New routine to add image statistics to data in order to check correlations with solution residuals. New routine to interpolate radii from a digital radius model. Add Mariner 9 preprocessing program for Mariner 9 data (for those wishing to update pointing for use of such images). Further improvements regarding ISIS integration, e.g. in Perl scripts and preprocessing programs, based on user input. Search for and testing of faster sparse matrix inversions routines. FY05 Planned Course of Work, cont.B) Maintenance and Archiving of Current Planetary Control Networks: FY05 Planned Course of Work, cont. B) Maintenance and Archiving of Current Planetary Control Networks Continue making planetary control network information available on the web. Any New USGS solutions (Moon, Saturnian moons). Solutions from others (Schenk and DLR – Saturnian Moons; Duxbury – Deimos and Phobos; others?). Continue to investigate and verify the measurements and control networks for Saturnian moons. Examine, compare USGS, Schenk networks for Rhea and Enceladus; Decide on best or combine. Iapetus and Mimas in FY06. Tethys, Hyperion(?), Dione, in FY07 or 08. FY05 Planned Course of Work, cont.C) Participation in IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellite: FY05 Planned Course of Work, cont. C) Participation in IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellite Archinal will: Continue as WG member. Post preprint version of 2003 report to the web. Provide web site for WG. Also add other related information (best “other” or new constants). Collect possible changes for 2006 report. Saturnian moons, more asteroids, Wild 2. Long-Range Plans (FY06 and beyond): Long-Range Plans (FY06 and beyond) Investigate improved (statistical) methods of looking for problem measurements, i.e. automatic editing of data. Finish investigation and improvement of control networks for Saturnian moons. Proceed (FY08 or later) to examining other networks. Cross reference control and nomenclature databases? Continue to participate in MGCWG, IAU/WG on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements. Under separate funding, continue model and software development allowing for new types of sensors, data, and constraints, e.g. integration of orbiter, descent, lander, and rover images. Similarly, allow for further types of data, e.g. Cassini radar at Titan. Develop models and software for mission simulation for planning data collection before a mission is undertaken. Other software improvements… Questions from PCGMWG – 1: Questions from PCGMWG – 1 “At the PCGMWG meeting, a presentation of the 4 proposed general software improvements would be helpful. Such a discussion would be beneficial for supporting the future direction of this task... Bringing the radargrammetric software up to speed as well is a good idea for future work”. 1. Convert control network information to NAIF SPICE Control Net Kernel. Drafted by NAIF in 1999. Apparently no data in this format yet. Use/extend some other existing format? Work with NAIF, others, to draft new format and use? 2. Extract “postage stamps” of control points. Would help (with appropriate software) to let others identify and use points. (Part of NAIF draft above.) Possibly could be used automatically, i.e. for automatic tie pointing or even autonomous navigation. Questions from PCGMWG – 1, continued: Questions from PCGMWG – 1, continued 3. Bring the general radargrammetric solution program (now called “radar”) up to date. For Magellan only, not a high priority, but we want to check Venus control at some point. More likely would want to adapt for Cassini RADAR use (but should leverage with other funding). Other option is to extend and merge with photogrammetric solutions, e.g. for Titan or Moon. 4. Software to display differences between solutions Currently labor intensive, using home-grown, Excel, and ArcMap. Write custom software. Possibly not too ideal, but might provide most desired results. Write scripts and use commercial software, e.g. ArcWorkstation. Questions from PCGMWG - 2: Questions from PCGMWG - 2 “Rigorous development of control net solutions is timely for the outer satellites. Much is said about algorithmic improvement, but insufficient details have been published, even in abstract form, so it is hard to assess the scientific impact of the ‘better mousetrap’.” Not clear if about the “algorithmic” development of the software or about the improvements being made to the control networks. Which? For either publications are proceeding… As to scientific impact, certainly one of our goals is to assist in providing products that will assist with scientific investigations and particularly geologic mapping. But we hope it’s clear that this task (if not much of the USGS effort) is largely the support of NASA planetary mapping and navigation “infrastructure”. Summary: Summary Continue work begun at RAND to maintain and improve planetary control networks on which most planetary cartographic products are based. Begin to allow for combination of new types of data from whatever data source, location or purpose. Continue cooperation regarding defining constants, networks, etc.