Published on February 4, 2008
Technology 2002: Technology 2002 Convergence: Convergence PDAs used to be exclusively about PIMs -- Personal Information Managers, or carrying your schedule, contacts, and perhaps some important text documents around with you. But Convergence, the coming together of Computing, Communications, Content, and Consumer Electronics, has expanded the "lowly" pocket organizer in new, very multimedia directions. Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) : Bluetooth CAMEL - Customised Applications for Mobile Networks Enhanced Logic Cellular Cassette Dual Band e-Commerce - Electronic Commerce EDGE - Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution EFR - Enhanced Full Rate GPRS - General Packet Radio Service GPS - Global Positioning System. H.323 HSCSD - High Speed Circuit Switched Data HTML - Hypertext markup language http - Hypertext transfer protocol iDEN® IMT-2000 - International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 IP and VoIP - Internet Protocol and Voice over Internet Protocol IRIDIUM® Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) : Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) Java™ Java Card MeXe - Mobile Execution Environment Mobile e-Commerce SIM Toolkit - Subscriber Identity Module Application Toolkit Smart Cards Smart Phones Symbian Telematics TIPHON - Telecommunications and Internet Protocol Harmonisation over Networks Tri-Band TrueSync UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Unified Messaging UP - Unwired Planet® VoiceXML™ - (Supplied by the VoiceXML™ Forum) WAP - Wireless Application Protocol Wireless Enterprise Wireless: Wireless The ways that notebooks and PDAs were flinging their packets through the air with abandon: two-way paging networks circuit-switched cellular CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) HomeRF 802.11b's 11-megabits/second wireless LANs 128 kilobits/second Ricochet networks 384 kilobits/second of data over Ericsson's experimental EDGE cellular system Wireless: Wireless Today's typical rate is 14.4 kilobits/second 40 kilobits/second reached Portland in Aug. 2001 using AT&T Wireless GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) In about a year, AT&T plans to upgrade this system to EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) technology, which should raise the peak data rate to a respectable 388 kilobits/second The first upgrade for Sprint PCS will give customers always-on connections to the Internet or corporate networks at speeds of up to 144 kilobits per second--more than double the speed of the fastest dial-up modem. By the end of 2002, the division will complete a second upgrade that will double the network's top speed to 288 kilobits per second, with a jump to movie-capable 3-megabit speeds tentatively set for 2004. Slide24: Helios Loiters at 100,000 feet Controlled by an on-board Macintosh Will provide wireless broadband data at up to 125 megabits/second Cost $10 million, compared to a satellite's $200 million Latency: satellite - 23,000 miles high vs 19 miles high Slide26: On Wednesday May 17, 2000 the Bluetooth promoter companies announced the availability of a new figure mark to be used along with Bluetooth applications. The new figure mark is based on the Bluetooth history as it is made up of the two runic characters "H" and "B" – short for "Harald Bluetooth". Harald Bluetooth was the Danish king who unified Denmark and Norway in the 10th century Slide28: Wireless pen transmits anything written either directly to a PC or to PDAs (personal digital assistants) and cell phones Camera: Custom CMOS sensor, 100 FPS Processor: Proprietary ARM-based ASIC at 70 MHz Communication device: Bluetooth transceiver Battery: TBA Ink cartridge: Standard DIN 16654 Illumination: IR LED Resolution: 0.03 mm Weight: 45g For left and right handed use Paper quality: Standard Printing technique: Standard offset Pattern ink: Standard black Dot spacing: Nominally 0.3 mm (0.01 inch.) Total pattern size: 73 000 000 000 000 letter size pages Minimum readable pattern area: 2x2 mm (0.08x0.08 inch) Broadband Internet: Broadband Internet The Federal Communications Commission says that the number of homes and small businesses with broadband connections was up 57% during the first half of 2000, although that only totals 4.3 million connections By 2003 however, Forrester Research expects there will be 32 million broadband subscribers. And by 2005, they expect that 191 million devices (only 36% of them traditional PCs) will have broadband connections to the Internet Home Connection: Home Connection The idea that cable and DSL will fill the bill over the long term seems to me at best wishful thinking, driven by the desperate need to save the legacy investments in the world’s largest above ground copper mines. The fact that we can not quite imagine what we would need a gigabit Ethernet home connection for today is in large part a result of the fact that we don’t have one. – Charles Davis Fiber Optic: Fiber Optic Internet traffic doubling every 100 days 23 million miles of fiber-optic cable had been laid by the end of 1998, and [Renaissance Worldwide] predicts a 500-fold increase by 2002 45 Mbps: $60K/mo in 1995, $15K/mo now data over fiber is doubling every 9 months Internet Exceeds 2 Billion Pages: Internet Exceeds 2 Billion Pages July 10, 2000: 2.1 billion unique, publicly available pages exist more than 7 million pages added each day double in size by early 2001 highest rate of growth is still to come Slide37: Although the most prominent feature of this tiny device is the 340 megabyte IBM microdrive, this "Matchbox PC" is a complete, fully-functional 66 MHz 486-SX-based PC from TIQIT that will run Windows 95/98 or NT, or Linux! (It will run at 100 MHz if you add a heat sink.) Add its port expander module, and you get all the standard PC ports, including built-in Ethernet. According to its manufacturer, the MPC is available now for $1,495. Slide38: 20.0 Gigabytes Lightweight, only 62 grams Low Power Consumption 15ms Average Seek Time 100MB/s Ultra DMA Transfer Rate 300,000 MTTF Hours Toshiba introduces a 1.8-inch embedded HDD, the MK2003GAH. MEMS: MEMS The MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) community has developed some truly intriguing products from digital projectors that contain millions of electrically driven micromirrors to microscale motion sensors that sit in cars ready to deploy airbags. MEMS represent the marriage of semiconductor processing to mechanical engineering at a very small scale. And it is a field that has grown enormously during the past decade. Numerous companies from the semiconductor giants to fledgling start-ups are all now scrambling for a piece of the action at the microscale. Yet very little has been done with MEMS at sizes below one micrometre. This stands in striking contrast to the recent developments in mainstream microelectronics where chips are now mass-produced with features as small as 0.18 microns. The time is ripe for a concerted exploration of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) Fiona Harvey: Fiona Harvey "Most man-made materials come from heating, grinding and crushing. But scientists can instill them with remarkable properties by building them atom-by-atom." "Nanomaterials have many advantages. Where conventionally produced materials tend to be gross and irregular in composition, with many flaws, nanomaterials approach an elegant perfection. By defining the structure of a substance on such a small scale, scientists can create satisfyingly regular and even flawless shapes." The Space Elevator: The Space Elevator The Space Elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geo-stationary Earth orbit (GEO). Its center of mass is at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth’s rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. The idea of the space elevator was first raised in 1960 by Russian engineer Yuri Artsutanov, and rehashed several times in the years that followed. But the idea went largely unnoticed until 1979, when Arthur C. Clarke used it as the centerpiece for his novel The Fountains of Paradise. Nano-technology has led to the development of a carbon nanotube material that exhibits strengths 100 times stronger than steel. This material is a prime candidate for the space-segment of the space elevator structure. Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare GB 50GB: entire library floor of books Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare GB 50GB: entire library floor of books TB 10TB: entire Library of Congress Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare GB 50GB: entire library floor of books TB 10TB: entire Library of Congress PB 2PB: all academic research libraries Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare GB 50GB: entire library floor of books TB 10TB: entire Library of Congress PB 2PB: all academic research libraries EB 5EB: all words ever spoken by humans Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare GB 50GB: entire library floor of books TB 10TB: entire Library of Congress PB 2PB: all academic research libraries EB 5EB: all words ever spoken by humans ZB 4x1020: molecules in cubic inch of air Units of Measure: Units of Measure KB MB 5MB: entire works of Shakespeare GB 50GB: entire library floor of books TB 10TB: entire Library of Congress PB 2PB: all academic research libraries EB 5EB: all words ever spoken by humans ZB 4x1020: molecules in cubic inch of air YB 6x1023: atoms per mole (Avogadro’s #) Today: Today 2GHz Intel PC 180GB Disk Drive 1Gb Ethernet (10Gb just demonstrated) 10Mb GSM May, 2005: May, 2005 2GHz Intel PC 180GB Disk Drive 1Gb Ethernet 10Mb GSM 8Ghz Intel PC 1TB Disk Drive 100Gb Ethernet 10Gb GSM Supercomputers: Supercomputers Decimal point arithmetic is called floating point 3.45 * 5.67 = 19.5616 Performance is expressed in floating point operations per second (flops) Kflops Mflops Gflops New Machine: New Machine What would you pay for 6.2 Gflop (peak) machine?