TGchapter8 Concepts

Information about TGchapter8 Concepts

Published on March 11, 2008

Author: Marian

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Chapter 8 – Transport and the Environment CONCEPTS Copyright © 1999-2007, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA. [email protected] You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or redistribution permitted. For more information: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans Concept 1:  Concept 1 The Emerging Issue of Transport and the Environment The Paradox of Mobility and its Costs:  The Paradox of Mobility and its Costs Mobility Costs Paradox The Environmental System:  The Environmental System Ecosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere The Environmental Impacts of Transportation:  4. ECOSPHERE 4.1 AQUATIC ECOSPHERE Alteration of ecosystems in unforeseeable ways. Disappearance of vulnerable species and proliferation of tolerant ones. Reduction of bacterial treatment of organic matter by nitrification. Reduction of available nutrients to aquatic species. Reproductive impediments. 4.2 LAND ECOSPHERE Damages over the vegetation modifying: hydric cycles. the level of underground water resources. soil erosion. air purification capacity of the ecosphere. food sources (agriculture). entertainment and tourism. Reduction of the vital space. Reduction of the genetic potential of species. Reduction of the food supply and alteration of the food chain. Consumption of resources. 4.3 HUMAN ECOSPHERE Odors. Noise. Cardiovascular and respiratory problems. Susceptibility to infection. Drops in life expectancy. Injuries, incapacity, hospitalization, death. Damage to structures: loss of useful life. (amortization) loss of property values. corrosion of metal structures (bronze, steel, etc.). destruction of historical and cultural monuments. 1. ATMOSPHERE Large scale diffusion of pollutants. High growth on a short term basis of the concentration of pollutants because of local conditions (e.g. smog). Photochemical reactions caused by ultraviolet rays, notably over ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Climatic changes (global warming). Acid rain. Synergetic effects when pollutants are combined (e.g. smog and greenhouse gases). 2. HYDROSPHERE Diffusion of pollutants in a dissolved or colloidal state. Acidification and loss of neutralizing potential of ground and underground water. Drops of pH following snow melting (aquatic organism are particularly vulnerable). Growth in the solubility of several metals because of acidification. Additions of organic compounds, aluminum, manganese, calcium, magnesium and potassium by runoffs. Contamination of ground and underground water by nitrates. 3. LITHOSPHERE Acid depositions. Liberation of toxic metallic ions (aluminum, cadmium, etc.) through acidification. Loss of nutrients, notably calcium and magnesium. Inhibition of the miniralization of nitrogen. Modifications in the compositions and the depth of decomposition gradient. Inhibition of decomposition. Loss of the soil flora and fauna. Fixation by plants of heavy metals (e.g. lead) and contamination. Removal and consumption of land. Extraction of raw materials like mineral products and energy. The Environmental Impacts of Transportation Estimated Automobile Costs, 2005:  Estimated Automobile Costs, 2005 Environmental Dimensions of Transportation:  Environmental Dimensions of Transportation Causes Activities Outputs End Results Transportation Activities Affecting the Environment:  Transportation Activities Affecting the Environment Transportation Systems and the Environment:  Transportation Systems and the Environment Localized emissions Energy efficient Diffused network Centralized network Diffused emissions High energy use Traffic Level of emissions Level of energy consumption Mode Car Bus Walking Rail Nature of emissions Nature of energy consumption Network Traffic Mode Spatial and Durational Environmental Effects:  Spatial and Durational Environmental Effects Space Duration Noise Lead Particulates NOX CO2 Local Regional Global The Carbon Cycle:  Fossil fuels Atmosphere Limestone Animal activities Decomposition Human activities Respiration and assimilation Respiration and assimilation Respiration Respiration Emission Lithosphere Ecosphere Hydrosphere Transportation The Carbon Cycle Vegetation The Concept of Externalities:  Level of intervention Optimal cost Intervention costs Total costs Externalities The Concept of Externalities L L(O) 0 L1 C(L1) C(O) C(E) E(L1) ΔE(L1) ΔC(L1) Concept 2:  Concept 2 Transportation and Energy Sources of Energy:  Sources of Energy Energy Chemical Energy Content of some Fuels (in MJ/kg):  Chemical Energy Content of some Fuels (in MJ/kg) Power Generated by Steam Machines, Europe, 1840-1888:  Power Generated by Steam Machines, Europe, 1840-1888 Evolution of Energy Sources:  Evolution of Energy Sources World Energy Production (in Terawatts), 2006:  World Energy Production (in Terawatts), 2006 Global Energy Systems Transition, (% of market):  Global Energy Systems Transition, (% of market) 2000 1850 2150 2050 2100 1950 1900 100 80 60 40 20 0 Solids Liquids Gases Wood Coal Oil Natural Gas Hydrogen World Energy Consumption, 1965-2006 (Million tons oil equivalent):  World Energy Consumption, 1965-2006 (Million tons oil equivalent) World Marketed Energy Consumption by Region, 1980-2030:  World Marketed Energy Consumption by Region, 1980-2030 Energy Efficiency by Transportation Mode:  .1 1 10 .01 .002 10 30 100 300 1000 Speed (m/sec) Tanker Oil Pipeline Truck Cargo plane Bicycle Bus Train Car Helicopter Propeller plane Jet plane Supersonic plane Train Freight Passengers Worst performance Best performance Energy costs Container ship Gas pipeline Energy Efficiency by Transportation Mode Energy Used by the Transportation System:  Energy Used by the Transportation System Factors of Fuel Use by Transportation:  Factors of Fuel Use by Transportation Typical Energy Use for a Car:  Typical Energy Use for a Car World Oil Energy Consumption by Sector, 1973-2004:  World Oil Energy Consumption by Sector, 1973-2004 Demand for Refined Petroleum Products by Sector in the United States, 1960-2005 (in Quadrillion BTUs):  Demand for Refined Petroleum Products by Sector in the United States, 1960-2005 (in Quadrillion BTUs) Energy Consumption by Transportation Mode in the United States, 1960-2004 (in Trillion BTUs):  Energy Consumption by Transportation Mode in the United States, 1960-2004 (in Trillion BTUs) Energy Consumption by Road Transportation in the United States, 1970-2004 (in Trillion BTUs):  Energy Consumption by Road Transportation in the United States, 1970-2004 (in Trillion BTUs) Energy Intensities of Passenger Modes, 1980-2000:  Energy Intensities of Passenger Modes, 1980-2000 Fuel Consumption and Travel by Certificated Air Carriers in the United States, 1960-2000:  Fuel Consumption and Travel by Certificated Air Carriers in the United States, 1960-2000 Average Miles per Gallon Traveled by Road Vehicle in the United States, 1980-2000:  Average Miles per Gallon Traveled by Road Vehicle in the United States, 1980-2000 Average Gasoline Consumption for New Vehicles, United States, 1972-2006 (in miles per gallon):  Average Gasoline Consumption for New Vehicles, United States, 1972-2006 (in miles per gallon) Light-Duty Vehicles Sales in the United States, 1975-2006 (in 1,000s):  Light-Duty Vehicles Sales in the United States, 1975-2006 (in 1,000s) Change in Average Vehicle Characteristics, 1981-2003 (in %):  Change in Average Vehicle Characteristics, 1981-2003 (in %) Total Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Travel in the United States, 1960-2005:  Total Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Travel in the United States, 1960-2005 Components of Retail Costs of Gasoline, United States, 1999-2005:  Components of Retail Costs of Gasoline, United States, 1999-2005 Automobile Emission Factors:  Automobile Emission Factors Gasoline Prices, 1978-2002 Selected Countries (current dollars per gallon):  Gasoline Prices, 1978-2002 Selected Countries (current dollars per gallon) Retail Motor Gasoline Prices in Selected Countries, 1990-2006:  Retail Motor Gasoline Prices in Selected Countries, 1990-2006 Gasoline Price and Use, Western Industrial Countries, 1994:  Gasoline Price and Use, Western Industrial Countries, 1994 Gas Consumption Tax in the United States, 1999 (in $ per mile per gallon per vehicle):  Gas Consumption Tax in the United States, 1999 (in $ per mile per gallon per vehicle) Potential Impacts of High Oil Prices on Transportation:  Potential Impacts of High Oil Prices on Transportation Costs of Shipping a 40 foot Container to New York:  Costs of Shipping a 40 foot Container to New York Concept 3:  Concept 3 Transportation Pollutants and Environmental Externalities Emissions from Freight Modes (gram / ton-km):  Emissions from Freight Modes (gram / ton-km) Estimated Air Pollutants Emitted by Transportation in the United States, 1970-2002:  Estimated Air Pollutants Emitted by Transportation in the United States, 1970-2002 Distance Driven and Carbon Emissions, U.S. Automobile Fleet, 1970-2000:  Distance Driven and Carbon Emissions, U.S. Automobile Fleet, 1970-2000 Noise Levels (in decibels):  120 100 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 110 Desert 10 Broadcasting studio Quiet room Busy street through closed windows Busy street through open windows Noise level near a motorway Busy crossroads Lorry, motorcycle, underground train Pneumatic drill at 1 meter Aircraft at take off dB (A) Noise Levels (in decibels) Hazmat Accidents in the United States, 1975-2005:  Hazmat Accidents in the United States, 1975-2005 Concept 4:  Concept 4 Transportation, Land Use and the Environment Land Area Consumed by the Car in Selected Countries:  Land Area Consumed by the Car in Selected Countries Current and Potential Car Fleet in India and China:  Current and Potential Car Fleet in India and China Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction and the Environmental Impacts of Transportation:  Form Pattern Interactions Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction and the Environmental Impacts of Transportation Transportation Energy Use per Capita in Selected Cities, 1990 (in MJ):  Transportation Energy Use per Capita in Selected Cities, 1990 (in MJ) Transport Energy Consumption and Density in Major Metropolitan Areas, 1990:  80 40 20 60 20 60 300 40 80 100 Los Angeles Sydney London Singapore United States Australia and Canada Europe Asia Hong Kong Chicago Houston Phoenix Detroit Denver Adelaide Melbourne Toronto New York Vienna Paris Berlin Tokyo Energy consumption per capita (1,000 millions of joules) Population density (people per hectare) Transport Energy Consumption and Density in Major Metropolitan Areas, 1990 Population Density, Selected Cities, 1960-1990:  Population Density, Selected Cities, 1960-1990

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