Published on December 19, 2007
The Cold War: Domino Theory and Containment: The Cold War: Domino Theory and Containment Korea, Vietnam Cuba, Central America Middle East Terms to Know: The Arms Race: Terms to Know: The Arms Race Brinkmanship: US needed to act as though we are willing to go to war. Had to go to the “brink” the verge of war without slipping into it. Arms Race in the Sky: Arms Race in the Sky ICBMs Long range rockets loaded with nuclear weapons Sputnik The rocket that carried the first satellite into space could also carry a nuclear weapon to space. Arms Race in the Sky: Arms Race in the Sky U2 – high altitude planes that flew over territory and took pictures. 15 miles in the air. U2 Incident: 1960 Russia was able to shoot down a U2 The Domino Theory: Asia: The Domino Theory: Asia 1949: Communists take over China. Most populated country in the world had gone Communist. Led by Mao Zedong Korea: Korea After WWII Korea was divided at the 38th Parallel. North – Russian controlled South – US Controlled 1948 – occupying forces withdrew. Korean War: Korean War Both sides wanted reunification – but under whose rule? 1950 – North Korea army poured across 38th Parallel to force reunification. Korean War: Korean War US thought it was all orchestrated by the Communists. Had to make a stand against the Communist North Koreans. Korean War: UN Military Action: Korean War: UN Military Action 16 nations – including the US – came to defend South Korea from North Korea. 80% of troops were American. Waging the Korean War: Waging the Korean War General Douglas MacArthur led the offense against North Korea Backed by Soviet and Chinese weapons and soldiers. MacArthur goes too far: MacArthur goes too far To push the North Koreans back behind the 38th Parallel, destroy the Communists in North Korea, or attack China? MacArthur wanted the second front in China. MacArthur goes too far: MacArthur goes too far President Truman said NO to invading China. MacArthur tried to go behind the Commander in Chief’s back (Truman) and get Congressional support. Truman FIRED MacArthur for insubordination. 1951. Korean War: Korean War Truman spent his presidency keeping the war contained to Korea. President Eisenhower used the threat of a nuclear attack to get the North Koreans to return behind the 38th Parallel. Effects of the Korean War: Effects of the Korean War 34,000 Americans dead in three years (1950 – 1953) Containment had worked But North Korea was and still is Communist. The 38th Parallel in 2005: The 38th Parallel in 2005 Most US troops are stationed there. Will Kim Jong Il force a reunification under a Communist dictatorship with a nuclear threat? Has six bombs and perfecting missile delivery. The Domino Theory: Vietnam1954 - 1975: The Domino Theory: Vietnam 1954 - 1975 2000 years Vietnam has resisted being absorbed into China. 1800s Vietnam became a colony for France. WWII: Fought for independence from Japan Ho Chi Minh: Ho Chi Minh Communist Vietnamese. Fought for independence before, during and after WII. Leader of a group called the VIETMINH. Defeated the French in 1954. 1954 Peace Treaty over Vietnam: 1954 Peace Treaty over Vietnam Divided Vietnam. North Vietnam – Communist under Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam – Supposed to be capitalist and democratic. SUPPOSED TO BE South Vietnam: South Vietnam President Diem Called himself “president” Said he was pro-USA Brutally put down any opponents. Pro-Catholic in a mostly Buddhist country. Corruption to make his family rich. Remember that the CIA used to be able to do political assassination? : Remember that the CIA used to be able to do political assassination? That’s what happened to President Diem! CIA authorized and said the US would not object to Diem’s overthrow. Gee – Diem ended up dead trying to flee. November 1963 US Players in Vietnam: US Players in Vietnam President Eisenhower Military advisors for South Vietnamese. President Kennedy Sent troops to keep North Vietnam contained. President Johnson “I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.” US Players in Vietnam: US Players in Vietnam Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense for Kennedy and Johnson Created policies that led to more US involvement. Movement away from nuclear threat to a “flexible response” Finding different ways to fight a war than nuclear threat option. Communist Advances in Vietnam: Communist Advances in Vietnam Diem’s successors were unpopular and unsuccessful. More worried about power for themselves than fighting and winning a war. The Communist Advances in Vietnam: The Communist Advances in Vietnam VietCong Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam Gained more control of territory More popular with the people. Aided by Ho Chi Minh Expanding Presidential Power to better run the Vietnam War: Expanding Presidential Power to better run the Vietnam War Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1964 President Johnson said the US Navy had been attacked by the North Vietnamese. Congress gave the president special powers to “cover everything” to fight the North Vietnamese. Gulf of Tonkin Incident: Gulf of Tonkin Incident IT NEVER HAPPENED! Johnson faked it to get more power than the Constitution gave him to fight the war. Escalation 3 million soldiers committed for the rest of the war. Johnson Commits to Containment: Johnson Commits to Containment American Advantages Superior arms and supplies VietCong Advantages Familiar with the terrain of jungles and swamps Found protection across the border in Laos and Cambodia Local population support Conditions of Viet Nam: Conditions of Viet Nam Many South Vietnamese did not welcome US help. Keeping an unpopular government in place. US troops couldn’t tell who was the enemy. The Ground War in Vietnam: The Ground War in Vietnam VietCong used guerrilla war tactics. The Tunnel System used by the VietCong Booby traps, land mines, grenades, trip wires The Air War in Vietnam: The Air War in Vietnam B-52s used SATURATION BOMBING on roads, bridges, civilians. Fragmentation Bombs The Air War in Vietnam: The Air War in Vietnam Agent Orange Herbicide meant to deforest the jungle and show VietCong hiding spots. Killed crops, livestock and health effects for humans The Air War in Vietnam: The Air War in Vietnam Napalm Jellylike substance that splattered and burned uncontrollably. Hawks v. Doves: Hawks v. Doves Hawks: Those who supported the war Doves: those who opposed the war. Turning Points in Vietnam: Turning Points in Vietnam The Tet Offensive Communist brutality My Lai Massacre The Tet Offensive: The Tet Offensive 536,000 US troops in 1968 Tet: The Vietnamese New Year January 30, 1968 Surprise attacks on major cities and US troops. Fighting went for several weeks. Communist Brutality in the Tet Offensive: Communist Brutality in the Tet Offensive Communists were brutal – killing anyone labeled an enemy. Teachers Doctors Minor officials 3000 – 5000 killed Massacre at My Lai: Massacre at My Lai America atrocity in Vietnam Rumors that the VietCong were being hidden in the village of My Lai US troops killed 400 Vietnamese People at Massacre of My Lai: People at Massacre of My Lai Lieutenant William L. Calley Jr. Gave command for the Massacre. Helicopter pilot Hugh Thompson Political Divisions in Vietnam: Student Led Protests: Political Divisions in Vietnam: Student Led Protests SDS: Students for a Democratic Society Free Speech Movement The Teach-In Movement Draft Resistence Draft Resistance or Draft Dodger: Draft Resistance or Draft Dodger Draft for those from 18 – 26. CO: Conscientious Objector Other methods to be found “unsuitable” for military service Deferment: College Election of 1968: Election of 1968 SURPRISE! Johnson said he would not run for reelection! “I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term.” Lyndon Johnson Election of 1968: Election of 1968 Republicans – Richard M. Nixon American Independents – George Wallace Democrats - ????? The Democratic Convention: The Democratic Convention Robert Kennedy assassinated Eugene McCarthy Thought too far left Vice President Hubert Humphrey Defended Johnson’s policies Humphrey won The election of 1968: The election of 1968 Nixon’s Vietnam Policy: Nixon’s Vietnam Policy Promised a “secret” plan to end the war if elected. Pulled back on bombing of North Vietnam and peace talks in Paris. 1972 – only 24,000 troops remained in South Vietnam Nixon’s Vietnam Policy: Nixon’s Vietnam Policy War spreads to Cambodia Secret bombing to get bargaining advantage in Paris. Flush the VietCong out of hiding places in Cambodia Created war in Cambodia Nixon’s “Silent Majority”: Nixon’s “Silent Majority” Called for law and order and less protests by students. “My Country Right or Wrong” “Love it or Leave it” Kent State and Jackson State: Kent State and Jackson State Kent State, Ohio 1970 Anti-War Protestors vandalized buildings and burned down an ROTC building Governor ordered National Guard out to restore order Kent State : Kent State Someone (National Guard?) fired on the protestors. 4 dead Jackson State, Mississippi left 2 dead and 11 injured. Deep Divisions: Deep Divisions Attacks horrified Americans. But some favored the president. 100,000 construction workers marched in NYC in support of President Nixon 1973 Paris Peace Agreement ending US involvement in Vietnam: 1973 Paris Peace Agreement ending US involvement in Vietnam 1. US would withdraw all forces from South Vietnam in 60 days All prisoners of war would be released N. Vietnam and US would end end activities in Laos and Cambodia 17th Parallel would continue to divide Vietnam in two. Aftermath of the War: Aftermath of the War War continued for two more years after US withdrawal. April 29, 1975 US evacuates last remaining Americans. 1,000 Americans 6,000 Vietnamese April 30 – Communists take over. Communist Domino Effect: Communist Domino Effect Vietnam fell to the Communists Laos fell Cambodia fell Atrocities were committed by the Communists Legacy of Vietnam: War Powers Act of 1973: Legacy of Vietnam: War Powers Act of 1973 Limits president’s war-making powers. If no declaration of war by Congress it requires the President to Notify Congress within 48 hours of committing troops End combat within 60 days unless Congress authorized Congress has power to end combat at any time. Legacy of Vietnam:: Legacy of Vietnam: 58,000 Americans dead 300,000 wounded 2,500 POWS (Prisoners of War) and MIAs (Missing in Action) No “welcome home” parades or treatment as heroes. Legacy of Vietnam: Costs of the War: Legacy of Vietnam: Costs of the War $150 billion dollars Inflation / deficit Vietnamese diplomatic exchange in 1995 Landscape of Vietnam still troubled by war. Landmines Agent Orange after effects on health The Vietnam Veterans Memorial: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial 1982: Created by Maya Lin.