Published on December 21, 2007
The Cold War: The Cold War Mr. Thomas Sothars De Smet Jesuit HS Yalta: Yalta Feb 1945 Big Three FDR Churchill Stalin Agreement to govern Germany jointly Allied Control Council Iron Curtain Speech: Iron Curtain Speech 1946 Fulton Missouri Statement clearly describing existing situation “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent." http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvax5VUvjWQ Marshall Plan: Marshall Plan On June 5, U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall proposes a massive aid program to rebuild Europe from the ravages of World War II. Nearly $13 billion in U.S. aid was sent to Europe from 1948 to 1952. The Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe decline U.S. aid, citing "dollar enslavement." COMECON: COMECON Soviet response to Marshall plan Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Est’d 1949 Truman Doctrine: Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 Greece and Turkey in danger of falling to communist insurgents Truman requested $400 million from Congress in aid to both countries. Successful effort Containment Policy: Containment Policy George F. Kennan, Senior State Department official, posted to USSR during war. July 1947, article in Foreign Affairs journal, under author “X” War originally a Long Telegram sent back to State Department, then published in Foreign Affairs “...we are going to continue for a long time to find the Russians difficult to deal with. It does not mean that they should be considered as embarked upon a do-or-die program to overthrow our society... Communist Takeover in Czechoslovakia: Communist Takeover in Czechoslovakia Feb. 1948 Key members of Czech gov’t die mysteriously Pro-western President forced to resign, new constitution ratified Complete takeover by Czech communists Berlin Airlift: Berlin Airlift Blockade of Berlin began on June 24, ’48 From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S. and British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of supplies to the residents of West Berlin. After 200,000 flights, the Soviet Union lifts the blockade. Operation Vittles: Operation Vittles All of the necessities for the city's 2.5 million residents -- an estimated 4,500 tons of food, coal and other materials each day -- had to enter the city by air. On its biggest day, the "Easter parade" of April 16, 1949, the airlift sent 1,398 flights into Berlin -- one every minute. Before it was all over, more than 278,000 flights would carry 2.3 million tons of relief supplies. Berlin Airlift: Berlin Airlift The airlift marked a rise in tensions between the West and the Soviets, but it also helped heal divisions left by World War II. Almost immediately, The United States, Great Britain, and France shifted from Germany's conquerors to its protectors. "The airlift was the starting point for Germany's inclusion in the West and for the reconciliation with the Western powers," Berlin Mayor Eberhard Diepgen says. Allied cooperation paved way for formation of new military alliance, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO Soviets formed their own alliance called Warsaw Pact in 1955 1949 – Fall of China: 1949 – Fall of China In June, Jiang Jieshi defeated by Mao Flee to island of Taiwan Oct 1, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China (PRC) Two months later, Mao travels to Moscow, negotiates the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance. Korean War, 1950-1953: Korean War, 1950-1953 On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea. On June 27, Truman orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans The U.N. Security Council condemns the invasion and est’d a 15-nation fighting force. Chinese troops enter the conflict by year's end. Cease fire eventually brings war to close by 1953 Dien Bien Phu: Dien Bien Phu After a long siege, Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh defeat French colonial forces at Dien Bien Phu on May 7. In July, the Geneva Accords divide the country at the 17th parallel, creating a North and South Vietnam. The United States assumes the chief responsibility of providing anti-communist aid to South Vietnam. Slide15: General Vo Nguyen Giap. Massive Retaliation: Massive Retaliation On January 12, 1955 U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles first announces the doctrine of Massive Retaliation. It threatens full-scale nuclear attack on the Soviet Union in response to communist aggression anywhere in the world. John Foster Dulles and MacArthur in Korea, 1950 1956 - Khrushchev's 'secret speech': 1956 - Khrushchev's 'secret speech' In a speech, February 14, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev denounces the policies of Stalin. He rejects the Leninist idea of the inevitability of war and calls for a doctrine of "peaceful coexistence" between capitalist and communist systems. 1959 Kitchen debate Sputnik: Sputnik On October 4, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth. In 1958, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the space race is in full gear. 1959 - Castro takes power: 1959 - Castro takes power January 1, 1959 leftist forces under Fidel Castro overthrow Fulgencio Batista Castro nationalizes the sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union. The next year, Castro seizes U.S. assets on the island. 1960 - The U-2 Affair: 1960 - The U-2 Affair On May 1, an American high-altitude U-2 spy plane is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union. After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot Francis Gary Powers, the United States recants earlier assertions that the plane was on a weather research mission. The U-2 Affair: The U-2 Affair Powers was sentenced to ten years in prison, including seven years of hard labor, following an infamous show-trial. He served less than two years, however, and was released in 1962 in exchange for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel. Suffering major embarrassment, Eisenhower was forced to admit the truth behind the mission and the U-2 program, although he refused to publicly apologize to Khrushchev. This refusal caused the Paris Summit to collapse when Khrushchev stormed out of negotiations. 1961 - Bay of Pigs : 1961 - Bay of Pigs U.S.-organized invasion force of 1,400 Cuban exiles is defeated by Castro's government forces on Cuba's south coast at the Bay of Pigs. Launched from Guatemala in ships and planes provided by the United States, the invaders surrender on April 20 after three days of fighting. Kennedy takes full responsibility for the disaster. Captured Cubans 1961 - Berlin Wall: 1961 - Berlin Wall On August 15, communist authorities begin construction on the Berlin Wall to prevent East Germans from fleeing to West Berlin. JFK in Berlin: JFK in Berlin http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5359589 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis: 1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis After Bay of Pigs invasion, the Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba. After U-2 flights Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba on October 22 until the Soviet Union removed its missiles. On October 28, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, defusing one of the most dangerous confrontations of the Cold War. Slide26: Copyright 2007 unimaps.com, used with permission 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on the USS Mattox in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2. On August 7, the U.S. Congress approves the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, granting President Johnson authority to send U.S. troops to South Vietnam. 1968 - Tet Offensive: 1968 - Tet Offensive Viet Cong guerrillas and North Vietnamese Army troops launched attacks across South Vietnam on January 30, the start of the lunar new year Tet. In Saigon, guerrillas battle Marines at the U.S. Embassy. In March, Johnson orders a halt to the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam and offers peace talks. 1968 - Prague Spring: 1968 - Prague Spring On January 5, reformer Alexander Dubcek came to power as general secretary of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia, pledging reforms and democratization The Prague Spring movement swept across the country. Soviet and Warsaw Pact leaders sent 650,000 troops in August. Dubcek arrested and hard-liners restored to power. 1969 - Vietnamization: 1969 - Vietnamization 1968, Richard Nixon elected President, defeating Hubert Humphrey On June 8, 1969 U.S. President Nixon announced his "Vietnamization" plan, designed to withdraw U.S ground forces from Vietnam and turn control of the war over to South Vietnamese forces. 1969 -- SALT: 1969 -- SALT On November 17, the 1st phase of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in Helsinki, Finland. The finished agreement, signed in Moscow on May 26, 1972, placed limits on both submarine-launched and intercontinental nuclear missiles. 1972 – Nixon visits China: 1972 – Nixon visits China Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to visit China, meeting with Mao Tse-tung on February 21. The two countries issue a communique recognizing their "essential differences" while making it clear that "normalization of relations" was in all nations' best interests. The rapprochement changes the balance of power with the Soviets. 1973 - Vietnam War agreement (Paris Accords): 1973 - Vietnam War agreement (Paris Accords) January 27, 1973, the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong sign the Paris Peace Treaty, establishing a cease-fire. The United States is allowed to continue providing aid to South Vietnam. Saigon falls in April 1975. 1975 - Cambodia: 1975 - Cambodia Communist Khmer Rouge take power in Cambodia, April 16 1975. Cambodia's educated and urban population forced into the countryside as part of a state experiment in agrarian communism. Under the regime of Pol Pot, as many as 3 million Cambodians died from 1975 to 1979. “The Killing Fields” 1979 - Afghanistan: 1979 - Afghanistan December 25, 100,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak Karmal seized control of the government. U.S.-backed Muslim guerrilla fighters waged a costly war against the Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops withdraw in 1988. Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam” 1980 - Solidarity: 1980 - Solidarity On August 14, Lech Walesa led massive strikes at the Lenin shipyards in Gdansk, Poland. The strikes soon spread to other cities and formed the nucleus of the Solidarity movement. The communist government conceded to worker demands on August 31, and recognized their right to form unions and strike. 1983 - Star Wars: 1983 - Star Wars March 23, Reagan outlinrd his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a space-based defensive shield that would use lasers and other advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far above the Earth's surface. Soviets accuse the U.S of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty. Soviets forced to spend heavily to match the program causing near economic collapse. 1985 - Gorbachev comes to power: 1985 - Gorbachev comes to power On March 11, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev ushered in an era of reform. perestroika Economic reform- restructuring glasnost means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies 1987 - INF: 1987 - INF On December 8, 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty It mandated the removal of more than 2,600 medium-range nuclear missiles from Europe, & eliminated the entire class of Soviet SS-20 and U.S. Cruise and Pershing II missiles. 1989 - Berlin Wall falls: 1989 - Berlin Wall falls Gorbachev renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, which pledged to use Soviet force to protect its interests in Eastern Europe. On September 10, Hungary opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West. After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9. Fall of Berlin Wall: Fall of Berlin Wall 1990 – German unification: 1990 – German unification At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied occupation rights in Germany. On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.