the crimean war and battle of inkerman 2

Information about the crimean war and battle of inkerman 2

Published on February 12, 2008

Author: Candelora

Source: authorstream.com

Content

THE CRIMEAN WAR & THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN:  THE CRIMEAN WAR & THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 5th November 1854 CAUSES OF THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 - 1856:  CAUSES OF THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 - 1856 1815 - 1850 - Post Napoleonic War Period: Increase in power of European States, while Ottoman Empire gets weaker. 1850: Russia views itself as protector of Slavs in the Balkans. Religious dispute results in Russia occupying Moldavia and Wallachia. 1853: Turkey forced to declare war on Russia. CAUSES OF THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 - 1856:  CAUSES OF THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 - 1856 Russia inflicts major defeats on Turkey. Britain and France fear Russia may seize all of the Ottoman empire and upset the Balance of Power. March 1854: Allied military expedition sent to prop up Turkey: 30,000 French Troops and 70 guns. 26,000 British Troops and 66 guns. CAUSES OF THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 - 1856:  Cholera and Dysentery strike the Allies. Russia withdraws from the occupied provinces. Allied Commanders decide to attack the Russians, before their force is wasted away. Aim: Attack the Russian naval base of Sevastopol and destroy the fleet located within it. CAUSES OF THE CRIMEAN WAR 1854 - 1856 SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR FORTIFICATIONS:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR FORTIFICATIONS Slide7:  THE RUSSIAN BLACK SEA FLEET IN SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR Slide8:  THE BLACK SEA MOLDOVIA WALLACHIA Slide9:  SEVASTOPOL THE CRIMEA THE BLACK SEA Slide10:  Lord RAGLAN Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces. Age 66 ADC to the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo (where he lost his arm). Often referred to the French as the enemy! Slide11:  KALAMITA BAY River Alma River Bulganak River Katcha SEVASTOPOL 19 Sept 1854 Skirmish on River Bulganak BALACLAVA (INKERMAN) 0 10 MILES N Slide12:  THE BATTLE OF ALMA Slide13:  CROSSING THE ALMA THE 2nd Bn THE RIFLE BRIGADE LEADING THE LIGHT DIVISION Slide14:  THE GUARDS CROSSING THE RIVER ALMA Slide15:  THE BATTLE OF ALMA Slide17:  THE GREAT REDOUBT (A VIEW FROM THE RIVER ALMA) THE AFTERMATH OF THE ALMA:  THE AFTERMATH OF THE ALMA 2,200 Allied casualties. 5,700 Russian dead. Allies fail to exploit success and do not pursue the fleeing Russians. Sevastopol was now in a state of panic as news arrives of the defeat. Slide19:  KALAMITA BAY River Alma River Bulganak River Katcha SEVASTOPOL 19 Sept 1854 Skirmish on River Bulganak BALACLAVA 0 10 MILES N Slide20:  KALAMITA BAY River Alma River Bulganak River Katcha SEVASTOPOL 19 Sept 1854 Skirmish on River Bulganak BALACLAVA 0 10 MILES N Slide21:  BALACLAVA HARBOUR Slide22:  SEVASTOPOL UNDER SEIGE Slide23:  KALAMITA BAY River Alma River Bulganak River Katcha SEVASTOPOL 19 Sept 1854 Skirmish on River Bulganak BALACLAVA 25 Oct 1854 The Battle of Balaclava 0 10 MILES N Slide24:  0 2000 m N Slide25:  0 2000 m N Slide27:  0 2000 m N A VIEW OF BALACLAVA FROM THE CAUSEWAY HEIGHTS:  A VIEW OF BALACLAVA FROM THE CAUSEWAY HEIGHTS Slide29:  THE THIN RED LINE THE 93rd HIGHLANDERS REPEL THE FIRST RUSSIAN CHARGE Slide30:  0 2000 m N Slide31:  THE CHARGE OF THE HEAVY BRIGADE Slide32:  Heavy Bde (Scarlet) 0 2000 m N Slide33:  0 2000 m N ‘...advance rapidly to the front - follow the enemy and try to prevent him carrying away the guns...’ Slide34:  THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE Slide35:  0 2000 m N Slide36:  THE NORTH VALLEY (A VIEW FROM No 4 REDOUBT) FUP Slide37:  THE NORTH VALLEY (A VIEW FROM THE POSITION OF THE RUSSIAN GUNS) Slide38:  THE CHARGE OF THE LIGHT BRIGADE Slide39:  Light Bde (Cardigan) 0 2000 m N THE AFTERMATH OF BALACLAVA:  THE AFTERMATH OF BALACLAVA What had begun well, ended in disaster for the British. The ‘Jewel’ of the British Army was lost: Of 673 men who charged with the Lt Bde, 113 were killed, many more were wounded and captured. The Russians had established themselves on the Balaclava Plain and planned to relieve the pressure on its forces......... ‘LITTLE INKERMAN’:  ‘LITTLE INKERMAN’ 26 Oct 1854 Slide43:  CALAMITA BAY River Alma River Bulganak River Katcha SEVASTOPOL BALACLAVA 0 10 MILES N Slide44:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE Slide45:  THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY xx xx GUARDS LT DIV xx 2 41 30 95 49 Slide46:  30 95 GUARDS LT DIV 1330 hrs: Forward Piquet's resist the attacks. 2 Slide47:  41 30 95 GUARDS LT DIV 2 1445 hrs: Russians retreat and British Infantry are unleashed. I THE AFTERMATH OF ‘LITTLE INKERMAN’:  THE AFTERMATH OF ‘LITTLE INKERMAN’ The Russians realised how exposed and vulnerable the Allied (British) right flank was. The British did little to prepare for a future attack - concentrating resources on the siege. The Russians were determined to lift the siege before the Allies received fresh troops. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RUSSIANS:  FACTORS INFLUENCING THE RUSSIANS With every day that passed, the siege became more established - pressure from the Czar to act. The Russians knew that fresh allied troops were on route from Europe. Russian reinforcements were expected to arrive between 3 - 4 Nov = 55,000 men. 4 Nov 1854 - 1st Anniversary of Dannenberg’s Defeat at Battle of OLTENITSA. THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN:  THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN THE RUSSIAN PLAN Slide51:  2 THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN:  THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN THE GROUND Slide53:  THE GROUND Slide54:  THE GROUND Slide55:  THE INKERMAN HEIGHTS (A VIEW FROM INKERMAN BRIDGE) Slide56:  ST CLEMENTS RAVINE Slide57:  ST CLEMENTS RAVINE AVIEW OF HOME RIDGE FROM SHELL HILL:  AVIEW OF HOME RIDGE FROM SHELL HILL Slide59:  THE QUARRY RAVINE (A VIEW FROM THE POSITION OF THE BARRIER THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN:  THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN 5th November 1854 ORDER OF BATTLE:  ORDER OF BATTLE RUSSIAN Soimonoff’s Div : 18,929 men 38 guns Pauloff’s Div: 15,806 men 97 guns Total: 40,210 British: (7,464 men) 1st Div - Cambridge 2nd Div - De Lacy Evans (Pennefather 4th Div - Cathcart 46th Regt 68th Regt 1st Bn Rifle Bde (RB) Lt Div - Brown 2nd Bn Rifle Bde (RB) French: (8,219 men) 3 x Divs Slide62:  2 6am: Thick fog. The opening shots. The damp weather results in misfires due to sodden charges. Nevertheless the main body is alerted. The piquet's are forced to give ground. Slide63:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE Slide64:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE Soon all fwd troops are involved in heavy fighting. Slide65:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE 2 Lt Div II 77 The Flank protection comes close to lance the rear of Home Ridge, but meet the Lt Div. Slide66:  Henry Clifford VC As ADC to Gen Buller, he led elements of the 77th Regt into a gallant headlong charge at the Russian column that was emerging out of the Wellway. Slide67:  MAJOR CLIFFORD AND THE 77th CHARGE INTO THE WELLWAY Clifford attacked with 12 men. 6 were killed and 3 wounded. Slide68:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE Post Road Aqueduct 0 500 N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY 2 Lt Div II 77 By 0730 hrs: All the main Russian attacks were repulsed. However, the British now faced 28 fresh Bns and 87 Guns. Slide69:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE Elements of the Rifle Bde deploy to the Barrier and repulse the advance. 2 Lt Div Slide70:  THE DEFENCE OF THE BARRIER Slide71:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE 4 The Guards Bde recapture the Battery. It changes hands four times in half and hour. 4 2 Slide72:  FIGHTING FOR THE SANDBAG BATTERY Slide73:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE 4 4 2 Slide74:  CATHCART’S CHARGE .....a ‘false victory’. Had it not been for the French, the British right flank would have been turned. Slide75:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE 4 0900 hrs: Despite few gains, the Russians were still confident of success. They still had 16 Bns in reserve and 100 guns available on Shell Hill 2 Slide76:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE HOME RIDGE Aqueduct THE BARRIER 4 2 Russians halted Slide77:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE HOME RIDGE Aqueduct THE BARRIER 4 2 Of the 7,000 British troops deployed against the 40,210 Russians, over a third were now casualties. No single formed body remained. Despite being outnumbered 5:1 the day was won, at a heavy price. Slide78:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE Slide79:  ‘THE ROLL CALL’ THE GUARDS AFTER THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN CASUALTIES OF WAR:  CASUALTIES OF WAR Russian: (40,210) 10,729 men 256 officers 6 x generals 6 x Regt Commanders British: (7,464) 2,357 men 597 killed 39 officers killed 130 officers wounded 10 out of 10 Generals killed or wounded 5 of their successors killed or wounded 17 out of 18 COs or OCs were struck down THE AFTERMATH OF INKERMAN:  THE AFTERMATH OF INKERMAN The Russians failed to win an almost certain victory. British morale was raised by the heroic deeds of the Infantry. Inkerman was named ‘the Soldiers Battle’. Slide82:  SEVASTOPOL HARBOUR SHELL HILL HOME RIDGE INKERMAN BRIDGE QUARRY RAVINE Post Road Post Road River TCHERNAYA Aqueduct Aqueduct CAREENAGE RAVINE VICTORIA RIDGE KARABEL RAVINE INKERMAN RIDGE To Sevastopol 0 500 Approx Metres N THE BARRIER THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TUSK ST CLEMENTS RAVINE WHY THE RUSSIANS LOST:  WHY THE RUSSIANS LOST Outnumbered the Allies 5:1 Ground suited the defender. Russian columns restricted their fire power. vulnerable to artillery and the rifle! Fog helped them initially, then hampered their artillery and obscured the defenders. The British Soldier was a volunteer and as hard as nails! Slide84:  A RIFLEMAN DURING THE WINTER OF 1854 -55 THE END TO THE WAR:  THE END TO THE WAR The siege continued through the winter. Casualties increased due to illness. 6 months after landing, 10,000 of the 26,000 that landed were dead through disease. 1855 - Three large assaults against the Port eventually results in the Russians abandoning the Southern part of the Base. Spring 1856 - 90,000 British troops now in the Crimea. Armistice is signed in March. THE LEGACY:  THE LEGACY The Victoria Cross was established: 8 awarded to the Rifle Brigade (more than any other Regiment). Slide87:  THE LEGACY The Victoria Cross was established: 8 awarded to the Rifle Brigade (more than any other Regiment. Improvement in Logistic and Support Services. Slide88:  THE LEGACY The Victoria Cross was established: 8 awarded to the Rifle Brigade (more than any other Regiment. Improvement in Logistic and Support Services. The Cardigan. Slide89:  THE LEGACY The Victoria Cross was established: 8 awarded to the Rifle Brigade (more than any other Regiment. Improvement in Logistic and Support Services. The Cardigan. The Balaclava. Slide90:  HUMAN REMAINS AT THE SITE OF THE SANDBAG BATTERY INKERMAN TODAY THE CRIMEAN WAR:  THE CRIMEAN WAR QUESTIONS?

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