Published on May 19, 2013
The Holy Land—Islam : The Holy Land—Islam Objective: Objective How do the three major monotheistic religions connect to the Holy Land and how could this lead to conflict? What makes the Holy Land “holy” to Muslims? Review: Review Why was the Holy Land “holy” for the Jewish people? Roots of Judaism Pattern of living in the land then exile Diaspora Zionism Emerging conflict with Arabs Arabs : Arabs 610 CE: While the Jews are living in exile, Palestine was still a part of the Roman Empire and nomadic tribes were in the Arabian Peninsula (Arabs) Tribes were polytheistic Tribes were warlike, but they would get together at markets Reinforced a common language (Arabic) and a common culture Muhammad : Muhammad Born around 570 CE in Mecca At the age of 40 he heard messages from God through angel Gabriel He believed there was one true God (Allah) and He chose Muhammad to spread true faith. Muhammad: Muhammad 613 Muhammad began preaching in public Muhammad preached he was the final messenger of God, superseding Jesus He gained some converts Moved from Mecca to Medina Muhammad Rises in Power : Muhammad Rises in Power While in Medina he gained followers and power As he grew in power battles were fought between Medina and Mecca with Muhammad as a military leader Muhammad won; Mecca surrendered to him. As Muhammad gained power so did Islam Mass conversion of Arabs to Islam Arabs united: Arabs united United under Islam, Arab tribes unite and overthrow existing empires out of Palestine Palestine had been under Roman control Within 120 years the Arabs conquered all of Persia, Middle East, North Africa, and Spain This encouraged the spread of Islam Dome of the Rock: Dome of the Rock 691 Dome of the Rock In Jerusalem Built on Temple Mount It was from this point Muhammad made his night journey where he went to heaven and talked with Allah Al-Aqsa Mosque also located in Jerusalem Arabs in the Holy Land: Arabs in the Holy Land Romans had controlled Holy Land for 7 Centuries Jerusalem had become most holy city to Christians Jesus was born, lived, and died in Holy Land Jerusalem full of sacred churches and shrines Now Holy Land is holy to three major religions Muslims, Jews, and Christians all coexisted there but not all treated equally Expansion: Expansion Muslim empire grows and expands Begins to break into smaller empires that fought each other for Muslim lands But Muslims ruled the area up until 1917 One interruption of Muslim rule Crusades: European Christians fought Muslims for control of the Holy Land (around 1000 CE) Muslims drove out the last crusaders in 1291 CE Crusades increased religious tensions Ottoman Empire : Ottoman Empire Ottoman Turks control from 1500’s-1900’s. Palestinians : Palestinians Palestinian ancestors lived in present day Israel and the Occupied Territories Most of the time they did not see themselves as a distinct people 19 th Century spread of nationalism Arabs began to see themselves not as a member of Ottoman Empire, but as a distinct ethnic group Arabs in Palestine (Filastin) thought of themselves as a distinct Arab community Jewish Migration: Jewish Migration Around the 20 th Century Jews began to migrate back to the Holy Land Filastin Arabs began to worry Wouldn’t sell Jews land As pressure from Europe and the Ottoman Empire increased on the Filastin Arabs, nationalism continued to grow Arabs began to stress their own culture WWI: WWI The Ottoman Empire crumbled during WWI Last Muslim Empire ended Great Britain controlled most of the Middle East by 1919 British carved Middle East into Mandates until the areas were ready for independence Palestinians: Palestinians English word for Filastin Palestine During British rule, Arabs in this area identified themselves as Palestinians Not just Arabs, but Palestinians Palestinians were unified against British influence They thought the British were taking their land and giving it to others Balfour Declaration: Balfour Declaration Great Britain promised Jews a homeland Palestinians did not accept this declaration They thought the Jews were stealing Palestine Palestinians did not really get along with Zionist or the British Palestinian frustration turns to violence Arab Higher Committee: Arab Higher Committee In a few isolated incidents, Palestinians and Jews attacked and kill one another Arab Higher Committee formed By the 1930’s Palestinians are becoming more radical Arab Revolt: Arab Revolt Only solution for Palestinians: force the British and Zionists to leave Palestine 1936 Arab Higher Committee called on all Palestinians to strike (not work) Palestinians begin attack British troops Zionist militia groups fight back Fighting went on for three years Palestinians failed to get what they wanted Revolt Impact: Revolt Impact Solidified Palestinian opposition against Jews Hurt the Palestinians economically Palestinian leaders exiled by British Britain realizes it is impossible to please both Zionists and Palestinians Israel becomes a state : Israel becomes a state After WWII, Great Britain releases its power in Palestine Great Britain turns to the UN for help UN offer Partition plan (split in two countries) Palestinians refuse to accept that half their land would be given away May 14, 1948 Israel becomes a country Objective: Objective How do the three major monotheistic religions connect to the Holy Land and how could this lead to conflict? What makes the Holy Land “holy” to Muslims?