Published on January 1, 2008
Slide1: William R. Hall, Education Specialist Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service WATER WATER EVERYWHERE BUT...: WATER WATER EVERYWHERE BUT... WATER WATER EVERYWHERE BUT...: WATER WATER EVERYWHERE BUT... Slide4: 2025 JUST A FEW DROPS TO DRINK!!: JUST A FEW DROPS TO DRINK!! THE GOOD NEWS: THE GOOD NEWS Water is a renewable resource that recycles through the hydrological cycle We currently use only1/2 the available world supply Bad News: Bad News Water demand has tripled since 1950. Slide9: DID YOU KNOW…..?? Slide11: Estimate is that by 2030 we will exceed the available fresh water supply. All of the ground water east of the Mississippi is polluted to one degree or another. Everything west of the Mississippi is thought to be the same. Most polluted rivers: #1 Mississippi, 700 million gal.; #8 Delaware; #28 Susquehanna DID YOU ALSO KNOW…..?? Slide12: Irrigation causes salinization of soils - 22,000 acres a year. Major threats to groundwater: Nitrates Pesticides Chlorinated solvents Arsenic and heavy metals Petrochemicals Slide13: Silicon Valley stored all their waste chemicals in underground tanks -- 85% of those inspected leaked. This Valley has more superfund sites than any other area based on size. Closer to home, NCR in Millsboro, DE closed for the same reason. FACTS OF LIFE Weather or Not: Weather or Not (Shown in millimeters per year) Muddy Waters: Muddy Waters Humans need 25 L. a day to maintain the body; 50 L. a day to stay healthy (drinking, cooking, washing, and sanitation) ONE BILLION lack adequate water today-- mostly the Middle East, Africa, China and India Amoebic Dysentery Slide16: 80% of disease in undeveloped countries can be traced to water: Malaria; Typhoid; Parasitic infections; Yellow fever; Cholera Half of the world’s hospital beds are filled with water related diseases In the United States, there have been a number of recent protozoan diseases, found in water like: Giardia; Hepatitis A; Amoebic Dysentery 1 gm of feces can hold 10 million viruses; 1 million bacteria; 1 thousand parasitic cysts; and 100 eggs Where does the H20 come from?: Where does the H20 come from? It was trapped in the materials that formed the earth Salt in water from- weathering and erosion of rocks and ocean bed rock So “Juvenile” water – from ocean vents - old Norse folk tale What is Salt Water?: What is Salt Water? Salt Water - 33-38 parts per thousand or over 3% salt Brackish water - more than 1000 parts per million Fresh Water - less than 1000 parts per million No water, except distilled water, lacks salts Human kidneys cannot process salt water so you can’t drink it!!! MINING WATER: One quarter of U.S. groundwater withdrawal is overdraft. Typically, you can only take 25% of your rainfall. MINING WATER Slide20: In Tucson, drilling at 2500 feet. Each year there is at least a 1 meter drop in ground water. In Dallas-Fort Worth, ground water has dropped 125 meters in 25 years. Two-fifths of the Ogalla (west Texas to Nebraska) is already gone. Sinking: Houston, 3 meters; Mexico City, 11 meters, San Jaoquin Valley, 9 meters MINING WATER Slide21: WHAT HAPPENED HERE?? WATER COSTS: WATER COSTS Typically, water is free; you are paying for the pumping and plumbing. In the U.S., the cheapest water is to be found in the west, where the smallest reserves are located and costs are approximately $6-8 acre/foot. Household costs per cubic meter: Germans $1.78 Brits $1.23 French $1.08 U.S. $ .54 CHANGING THE WORLD: CHANGING THE WORLD 95% of California’s wetlands are gone. Arizona has lost 90% of it’s surface water since 1900. Central Valley, CA, the farmers pay $2.84 acre foot of water. ($24.84 actual cost) Slide24: Rivers that no longer reach the sea: Ganges, the Yellow, the Colorado. Half the cities in China (300) are currently short of water. 34 countries are presently classified as water stressed. FLOW OF COLORADO RIVER BELOW ALL MAJOR DAMS AND DIVERSIONS, 1905-1992: FLOW OF COLORADO RIVER BELOW ALL MAJOR DAMS AND DIVERSIONS, 1905-1992 64% of the Colorado River is drawn out and 32% evaporates. Where does the other 4% go?? Slide26: Water Law in New Mexico is based on the prior appropriation system, where he who is the first to divert and use the water for beneficial use is entitled to the right of that water. FAILED CULTURES: FAILED CULTURES Mesopotamia Anazazi - Grand Canyon Indians Mayan Indians of Central America Mayan canals LOOKING AT THE FUTURE: LOOKING AT THE FUTURE By the year 2029, the population will be 10 billion. In 2029, half the world’s countries will outgrow their water supply. Pollution may make 1/4 of the supply unusable. Slide29: 2100 chemicals have been identified in water in the U.S. Worldwide, sewage is the #1 pollutant. Drugs: caffeine, birth control, antibiotics. Causes reproductive problems in aquatic species – boys are girls and girls are boys – fish & amphibians. In 2025, 40% of the population may live in water-stressed or chronic shortage areas. CHOICES: CHOICES Industry or agriculture? Food Production- 1,000 tons of water equals one ton of grain. Industrial usage is 70% more profitable. Virtual Water - Israelis Growing Scarcity of Fresh Water is now a major impediment - Who gets the water? MORE CHOICES: MORE CHOICES People or aquatic ecosystem? Historically, as population doubles, water demands triple. One car 100,000 gal. Ream of paper 100 gal. Will more rivers face extinction? SOCIAL STABILITY: SOCIAL STABILITY PEACE AMONG NATIONS Africa -- much of the tribal feuding is over water. The Middle East -- The Israelis control the water and have had over 30 armed fights. 1% of the water and 7% of the world population The Palestinians pay 7.5 times more for the same water as the Israelis. The North American Indians in the West own 70% of the water rights to southern California. Slide33: Country Dependence on Water Resources: Inflow from Neighboring Countries The amount of dependence a country has on another country for their water supply. Some countries are totally dependent upon themselves, for example, Australia. Slide34: Number of water conflicts over the last 50 years: 1, 831 Slide35: Water Stress in Regions Around Megacities Water stress is the measure of the amount of pressure put on water resources and aquatic resources DRY RIVER BEDS AND EXTINCT WATERSHEDS: DRY RIVER BEDS AND EXTINCT WATERSHEDS What will result? -- Species extinction. Species Extinct and At Risk in North America: Species Extinct and At Risk in North America Distribution of Fish Species by Realm: Distribution of Fish Species by Realm FISHES, RIVERS AND DAMS: FISHES, RIVERS AND DAMS The Colorado River 49 species: 40 are extinct or endangered, 72 introduced. The Missouri River: 83% drop in commercial species. The Rhine River: 44 species; 8 extinct, 25 rare Lake Victoria: 200 fish species extinct, 100 endangered (The Nile perch). California: 63% of its fishes are extinct or endangered. 80% of China’s rivers no longer support fish. Dams typically knock out 50%-90% of fish species. IMPACTS ON RECREATION: IMPACTS ON RECREATION Boating Legislation dictates where and what type. Fishing Many salmon fisheries are closed on the west coast. Swimming It is not uncommon for a beach to be closed because of coliform counts. WHAT PRICE PROGRESS?manmade changes are costly: WHAT PRICE PROGRESS?man made changes are costly The Mississippi - channelization and flooding. Mangrove swamps - Malaysia $300,000 per kilometer in storm protection. Florida - 225,000 hectare swamp valued at $25 million. Flood control and aquifer recharge. Dams are Environmentally Costly: Dams are Environmentally Costly 77% of river systems in the Northern Hemisphere are moderately or strongly altered causing extinction of plants and animals. Examples would be the Colorado River and the Mississippi River (27 locks and dams) -- 1 out of 3 fishes is threatened. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS: POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Drip Irrigation Desalinization of seawater -1200 in U.S; 13,600 in world. Tampa is 25 million gal./day $2./1000 gal. Towing of icebergs Towing of water bags -Europe Desalinization plant in the Canary Islands The Future: The Future Colorado River Problems states rights, Indian rights, environmental considerations US Costs $150 billion to 1 trillion dollars over next 20 years to guarantee water quality World population One third will have severe water shortages in 25 years. Water scarcity the single greatest threat to human health, the environment, food supply, and war. SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT: SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT Mark Twain, in his evaluation of the west, concluded, “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s worth fighting about”.