The Spread of Islam and Trade

Information about The Spread of Islam and Trade

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: SamHillis



The Spread of Islam and Trade : The Spread of Islam and Trade Muslim Expansion Occurred in 3 Phases: Muslim Expansion Occurred in 3 Phases Wave of conquests by Arab armies Series of conquests by non-Arab groups that had adopted Islam Peaceful Spread of Islam by merchants and missionaries *Within 100 years after Muhammad’s death, Muslims built a vast Empire. Phase One: Early Conquests: Phase One: Early Conquests Muhammad’s Successors Four Caliphs ruled the Islamic world in the early years. Sunnis group selected Abu Bakr to be the first caliph Regained control of Arabian Peninsula and rebel tribes using force. The First Caliphs Sunni Muslims called themselves “rightly guided caliphs” Capital: city of Medina, Arabia. Umar ibn al- Khattab , the next 2 nd caliph, spread Islam to nearby lands – Mesopotamia, Palestine, Syria, Persia, and Egypt. Future caliphs spread Islam to Afghanistan, India, across North Africa, and into Spain. 4 th caliph was Muhammad’s cousin, Ali ibn Abu Talib (656) Shiites thought he should have been first because he was directly related to Muhammad. When he came to power, he had already made a lot of enemies. Assassinated in his 5 th year Compare and contrast Shiites and Sunnis ? How are they similar? Different? Phase One continued…: Phase One continued… Building an Empire and establishing caliphates Territory expanded through jihads. Muslim military camps transformed into cities. Khalid ibn al- Walid , an Arab general, captured Damascus. Caliphate : the government established in the lands they held abroad Expansion into Europe stopped with the Battle of Tours in 732. When Ali ibn Abu Talib was Assassinated, leadership went to the powerful Umayyad family. Phase One continued….: Phase One continued…. The Umayyad Dynasty Many changes: (1) Established Islam’s first dynasty . (2) Caliph no longer selected by Muslim leaders (3) Moved the capital from Medina to the Syrian city of Damascus (4) Ruled like a King more than a religious leader. Caliphate reached its greatest size under this dynasty Most territory was conquered through war, but some treaties were made. Diverse populations of Muslims and non-Muslims (Christians, Jews, Greeks, and Persians). Arabs were also influenced by other cultures. Divisions in the Caliphate Trouble started in 700s. Muslim armies lost key battles along the borders Wealth from conquests gave out Groups protested against Umayyad rule. Phase One continued…: Phase One continued… Phase One continued…: Phase One continued… The Abbasid Dynasty 750: rebel forces overthrew Umayyad. Abu al- Abbas was the first ruler; known as “blood spiller.” Invited the surviving members of the Umayyad family to dinner and beheaded all of them. Extended the empire and opened up government service to non-Arabs. Moved capital to Baghdad (present day Iraq along the Tigris River) where the population quickly grew to ½ million people. Magnificent city enclosed by three high walls . Baghdad became the center of a Golden Age of art, science, and learning Harun al-Rashid ruled during this Golden Age of Islamic civilization. Dynasty lasted until 1258 The End of Abbasid Rule Started to lose control of the empire. Spain became independent in 756 Prospered under its own Muslim rulers for hundreds of years. Fatimids (Shiites) seized control of Egypt Turkish Tribes and Mongols ultimately destroyed the Abbasid dynasty. Phase Two: Conquests by Non-Arab People: Phase Two: Conquests by Non-Arab People Groups that converted to Islam while visiting Muslim lands and took Islam back home. Most successful groups = Turks and Mongols Turks: Fierce soldiers that entered Muslim army; some gained individual power 900s: nomadic Turkish tribes (Central Asian people) began to invade Muslim lands The Seljuks (a Turkish Tribe) spread Islam into Central Asia. Gained control of Baghdad. They allowed the Abbasid caliphs to remain on the throne, but stripped them of all real power. Mongols: Fierce warriors that invaded Muslim lands in the 1200s. Spread Islam into Central Asia and western China They also invaded India and converted many Hindus to Islam. In the 1200s Mongols attacked Baghdad. Tens of thousands of people were massacred, including the last Abbasid caliph. Individual Islamic states survived after the Mongol invasion Each was governed by its own sultan . The greatest of these states became the Ottoman Empire Phase Two Continued…: Phase Two Continued… The Ottoman Empire The Ottomans created a Muslim Empire in 1400s. 1300s: Ottomans launched attacks on the Byzantine Empire. Sultan Mehmed II captured Constantinople in 1453. Ottomans carried Islam into southeastern Europe. Soon after Constantinople was captured, the Ottoman Empire spread from Eastern Europe to Egypt. Ottoman Emperor ruled this territory until the early 1900s. The Empire collapsed after WWI and shrank into what is now Turkey. Phase Three: Merchants and Missionaries: Phase Three: Merchants and Missionaries This phase was peaceful, but did not replace conquest that followed conversion. Merchants traveled to new lands for trade and took Islam with them. Missionaries often followed to spread the word of God. Two Parts of the World were mostly effected: Southeast Asia and West Africa. Traveled east from India by ship into Malaysia and Indonesia. Traveled south in camel caravans into lands beyond the Sahara. Phase Three Continued….: Phase Three Continued…. Trade during the Abbasid Dynasty Strong central government and a single language. Fueled economic expansion and urban growth across the Islamic world. Major cities included Mecca, Damascus, Baghdad (center of Islamic world), Cordoba (Spain), and Cairo (Egypt). Urban Economy Farms supplied food, wool, and other basic goods. Traders brought more exotic goods, such as fine silks Most famous goods were textiles (cotton cloth from Egypt and wool carpets from Persia) Steel swords from Damascus and leather goods from Cordoba. Discuss why it was important for cities to have a strong economic foundation. Role of Merchants Traders played key roles. Islamic world honored the trading class (unlike China). Successful merchants had great social mobility . Souk was the center of life for merchants Traders bought and sold goods from around the empire. Phase Three continued…: Phase Three continued… Islamic cities were situated along the Mediterranean and Indian Oceans. Predict how this affected trade and who they traded with? Two primary methods for traveling: land and sea Sea: traveled in small sailing ships called dhows – south to Africa and east to India Land: traveled by camel caravan – most famous was the Silk Road which linked Baghdad to China. Merchants developed banking practices to improve trade. Muslim bankers issued letters of credit that could be used anywhere in the empire. Baghdad bank could provide funds to a merchant carrying a letter of credit from a bank in Cairo. Evaluate the significance of letters of credit? Infer about what letters of credit closely resemble today? Effects of Trade Goods from three continents Asia: (China) silk, paper and dishes; (India) spices, gems, coconuts, and tropical woods Africa: Gold and salt Europe: Amber and furs Ideas and inventions spread through trade routes as well – Chinese compass and Hindu numerals . Reasons for Success…: Reasons for Success… Hypothesize 5 reasons for why the expansion of the Muslim Empire, and the Islamic religion, was successful in such a short time? 5 Reasons for the Success: 5 Reasons for the Success Decline of the Byzantine and Persian empires Skill of Arab armies – experts in the use of soldiers on horseback; they struck quickly with deadly force in harsh desert environments. Energy and religious zeal of Arab warriors – jihad. Arab tolerance for other religions – allowed people to practice their own customs and belief; Torah and the Bible were also sacred books – “People of the Book.” Did not have the same legal status and had to pay a “poll tax”, but they could practice own faith and laws. Appeal of Islam – offered followers a direct path to God and salvation. Equality of all believers regardless of race, sex, class, or wealth. No priests monitoring people’s behavior Individual duty to follow 5 pillars **How did geography play a role in it’s success?**

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