the superstring adventure

Information about the superstring adventure

Published on October 15, 2007

Author: Lindon

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Adventures with Superstrings:  Adventures with Superstrings Robert Myers (Einstein-Plus: July 7, 2005) Slide2:  “Superstring theory is a piece of 21st century physics that fell into the 20th century” Ed Witten (Princeton): Slide3:  Physics of the 20th century: A grand synthesis and progression of ideas! Slide4:  Einstein: Gravity: It’s all just straight lines! Special Relativity (1905): Space and time are inextricably linked Spacetime General Relativity (1915): Gravity is a manifestation of spacetime curvature. Slide5:  General Relativity: a rich source of new ideas Black holes Gravitational waves Expanding universe Slide6:  General Relativity is rigorously tested!! Deflection of Light by the Sun Gravitational Redshift Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Time Delay of Light, . . . . . Hulse and Taylor: Nobel Prize in 1993!! Slide7:  General Relativity is rigorously tested!! Global Positioning System (GPS): Accurate positioning requires accounting for affects of general relativity on clocks in orbit and on earth Slide8:  General Relativity is rigorously tested!! Deflection of Light by the Sun Gravitational Redshift Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Time Delay of Light, . . . . . Hulse and Taylor: Nobel Prize in 1993!! General Relativity is the geometric arena of physics on very large scales: planets, stars, galaxies, cosmology Slide9:  Quantum Mechanics (or Quantum Field Theory) is the probabilistic arena of physics on very small scales de Broglie wavelength: Quantum fluctuations are manifest in behavior of subatomic particles Particles can act like waves! electron beam Planck’s constant Å water jet Slide10:  Elementary Particles ( 10 m ) ─17 Fermions - spin ½ : electron, muon, tauon neutrinos (3 flavors) quarks - up, down, strange, charm, bottom, top Bosons (Force Mediators): photon (electromagnetism) gluon (strong) , Z (weak) spin Higgs particle – spinless or spin 0 Standard Model of Subatomic Physics: above particles plus interactions (and ~20 free parameters) Quantum Field Theory is the probabilistic arena of physics on very small scales Slide11:  Standard Model is rigorously tested!! Individual electrons are tiny magnets precise value of magnetic moment depends on quantum fluctuations Example: Slide12:  Standard Model is rigorously tested!! e.g., magnetic moment of the electron, , is modified by quantum fluctuations e.g., Lamb shift: shift between 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 energy levels of hydrogen atom (f = 1057 MHz) Slide13:  band structure in materials semiconductor technology Bose-Einstein condensation superfluids, superconductors quantum Hall effect, neutron diffraction, electron microscopy, lasers, magnetic resonance imaging, · · · · · · · Quantum Theory: a rich source of new ideas Nobel prizes galore!! Slide14:  Subatomic Physics Elementary Particles ( 10 m ) ─17 Fermions - spin ½ : electron, muon, tauon neutrinos (3 flavors) quarks - up, down, strange, charm, bottom, top Bosons (Force Mediators): photon (electromagnetism) gluon (strong) , Z (weak) spin Higgs particle – spinless or spin 0 a theory of strings! Strings tame the particle zoo! Slide15:  Superstrings: the theory of subatomic physics The essential idea: with sufficient resolution, all elementary particles are one-dimensional objects (strings) all particle types are the same kind of string vibrating or rotating in different ways electron photon Slide16:  Superstrings: the theory of subatomic physics The idea: with sufficient resolution, all elementary particles are one-dimensional objects (strings) all particle types are the same kind of string vibrating or rotating in different ways the spectrum and size of the string states is set by a single scale, Interactions? String Tension: Slide18:  coupling constant, g, determines probability of interaction Slide19:  Superstrings: the theory of subatomic physics with resolution, , all elementary particles are one-dimensional objects (strings) interactions are geometric joining and splitting governed by coupling constant, g with these simple rules get appropriate particle species and interactions to match Standard Model Slide20:  Subatomic Physics Elementary Particles ( 10 m ) --17 Fermions - spin ½ : electron, muon, tauon neutrinos (3 flavors) quarks - up, down, strange, charm, bottom, top Bosons (Force Mediators): photon (electromagnetism) gluon (strong) , Z (weak) spin Higgs particle – spinless or spin 0 a theory of strings! What’s missing here? Graviton (gravity!!) – spin 2 Slide21:  Superstrings: the theory of gravitational physics consistency requires the appearance of massless particle with spin 2 the graviton! at long wavelengths or low momenta, reproduces Einstein’s gravitational equations this is the only known sensible description of scattering of gravitons at very high energies! sets the string length scale: Superstrings naturally provides a unified framework for Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity Newton’s constant Slide22:  SUPERSTRING THEORY Slide23:  Superstring theory: The devil is in the “details” Predicts we live in 10 spacetime dimensions!! Experimental update: we live in 4 dimensions! Big fix: Perhaps we haven’t seen the extra dimensions yet. short wavelengths = high energies needed to resolve curled up dimensions Benefit: richness of four-dimensional physics comes from geometry of the extra dimensions Slide24:  Superstring theory: The devil is in the “details” Predicts we live in 10 spacetime dimensions!! Experimental update: we live in 4 dimensions! Predicts extra particles we haven’t seen yet! (Supersymmetry: each fermion is accompanied by a bosonic partner of the same mass) Big fix: Perhaps we should look harder. Benefit: SUSY tames the high energy (quantum) behavior of the theory Slide25:  Superstring theory: Details, details, details, …. Have five consistent superstring theories: Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB, Heterotic E8 X E8, Heterotic SO(32) Conjecture: all known string theories are different solutions of single fundamental theory M-theory one universe four too many theories?!? Slide26:  Essential ingredients for M-theory conjecture: Dualites: two mathematical descriptions describe identical physical phenomena Eg, T-duality relates large and small circle compactifications Slide27:  Essential ingredients for M-theory conjecture: Dualites: two mathematical descriptions describe identical physical phenomena D-branes: string theory contains other kinds of objects extended in 0, 1, 2, . . . dimensions particles strings membranes p-branes g extremely heavy in weak coupling extremely important in strong coupling Slide28:  Superstring theory: Unique theory of everything M-theory Conjecture: all known string theories are different solutions of single fundamental theory M-theory also includes 11-dimensional supergravity! Slide29:  M-THEORY Contact with experiment is crucial ??Physics at Planck scale?? Slide30:  Superstring theory: a theory looking for a good experiment accelerator experiments: probe 1012 eV and beyond Tevatron, Large Hadron Collider, …. Slide31:  How far away is the Planck scale really? Brane-world scenario: (Some) Extra dimensions may be very large! Advantage: Planck scale may be within reach!! Slide32:  Superstring theory: a theory looking for a good experiment accelerator experiments: probe 1012 eV and beyond Tevatron, Large Hadron Collider, …. cosmological experiments: extreme conditions of early universe may have left stringy imprints Slide33:  Cosmology: extreme conditions of early universe give a window on small scales and high energies Present Past Future String physics is manifest Stringy relics or imprints now? We need to understand the optics of our “microscope” Slide34:  Superstring theory: a theory looking for a good experiment accelerator experiments: probe 10−19 m and beyond Tevatron, Large Hadron Collider, …. cosmological experiments: extreme conditions of early universe may have left stringy imprints Slide35:  Superstrings: a mathematical model of our physical universe Studies of string theory draw upon an enormous range of modern mathematics: complex analysis, group theory, fibre bundles, gerbes, topology, differential geometry, mirror symmetry, K-theory, derived categories, noncommutative geometry We are still groping for the language of string theory! Slide36:  early 1900’s ─ Ernst Mach: “atoms are physically unverifiable entities” early 1990’s ─ individual atoms are manipulated using atomic force microscopy For superstrings, the adventure is still only beginning! Slide37:  “The Elegant Universe” Brian Greene http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elegant/ The Official String Theory Web Site: http://superstringtheory.com/ More strings on the web: “It’s the 21st century ─ time to feed your brain!” Superstrings! http://www.sukidog.com/jpierre/strings/

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Lindon

Databases
16. 10. 2007
0 views

Databases

wolbring1
08. 05. 2008
0 views

wolbring1

Occupational Noise
08. 05. 2008
0 views

Occupational Noise

Paper22
07. 05. 2008
0 views

Paper22

malignant hyperthermia
02. 05. 2008
0 views

malignant hyperthermia

mastitis
02. 05. 2008
0 views

mastitis

Chapter 3 lecture
02. 05. 2008
0 views

Chapter 3 lecture

habil final
02. 05. 2008
0 views

habil final

BIOSEC PDR
02. 05. 2008
0 views

BIOSEC PDR

Steps to PDR
02. 05. 2008
0 views

Steps to PDR

ancient china
10. 10. 2007
0 views

ancient china

Latin America 07
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Latin America 07

Super3 ApplytheBig6toK 2
11. 10. 2007
0 views

Super3 ApplytheBig6toK 2

tutorial coco
12. 10. 2007
0 views

tutorial coco

c115c905
13. 10. 2007
0 views

c115c905

Marina PartIII
16. 10. 2007
0 views

Marina PartIII

Harrison EgyptianWebQuest
21. 10. 2007
0 views

Harrison EgyptianWebQuest

20040616 blair
02. 10. 2007
0 views

20040616 blair

Consumer Health Compl
06. 12. 2007
0 views

Consumer Health Compl

599 Introduction
10. 10. 2007
0 views

599 Introduction

orizon2010
23. 10. 2007
0 views

orizon2010

Saul Hahn
25. 10. 2007
0 views

Saul Hahn

Guide to the Match 2007 FINAL
30. 10. 2007
0 views

Guide to the Match 2007 FINAL

U Fix It Workshop
07. 11. 2007
0 views

U Fix It Workshop

015 parker
19. 10. 2007
0 views

015 parker

yun MPLS
30. 10. 2007
0 views

yun MPLS

11029 2003
20. 11. 2007
0 views

11029 2003

Great Grains
21. 11. 2007
0 views

Great Grains

II homology
10. 10. 2007
0 views

II homology

basel
15. 10. 2007
0 views

basel

miele
03. 10. 2007
0 views

miele

pres4 7
31. 12. 2007
0 views

pres4 7

piero messina
04. 01. 2008
0 views

piero messina

ASBESTOS AWARENESS
04. 01. 2008
0 views

ASBESTOS AWARENESS

osmoregulation2
10. 10. 2007
0 views

osmoregulation2

Clim Application Water
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Clim Application Water

Accountability Foster
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Accountability Foster

145 9 new
07. 01. 2008
0 views

145 9 new

Fundraising AWNY2007
28. 09. 2007
0 views

Fundraising AWNY2007

VanBorm
12. 10. 2007
0 views

VanBorm

608uetic
24. 10. 2007
0 views

608uetic

SwissBCH
18. 10. 2007
0 views

SwissBCH

winton
23. 10. 2007
0 views

winton

El Mozote
26. 02. 2008
0 views

El Mozote

don cote flh env conf
20. 03. 2008
0 views

don cote flh env conf

Shyama Bijapurkar
26. 03. 2008
0 views

Shyama Bijapurkar

Session 8 Meteorological Hazards
03. 10. 2007
0 views

Session 8 Meteorological Hazards

RiseofBigBusiness
27. 02. 2008
0 views

RiseofBigBusiness

4550ch16
11. 04. 2008
0 views

4550ch16

bbhh107 presentation
26. 11. 2007
0 views

bbhh107 presentation

Arbitragepresentation
16. 04. 2008
0 views

Arbitragepresentation

holiday 2007
17. 04. 2008
0 views

holiday 2007

class8n4
22. 04. 2008
0 views

class8n4

mindful habits
11. 03. 2008
0 views

mindful habits

PraesentationAchtonl ine
07. 10. 2007
0 views

PraesentationAchtonl ine

12 Project02 05
04. 10. 2007
0 views

12 Project02 05

Balschmiter
05. 10. 2007
0 views

Balschmiter

DARPA NoD
08. 10. 2007
0 views

DARPA NoD

308
02. 05. 2008
0 views

308

200606INRIADREIen
13. 03. 2008
0 views

200606INRIADREIen

Organigrama actualizado 01
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Organigrama actualizado 01

Japan Outlook
25. 03. 2008
0 views

Japan Outlook

Inferring Main Ideas New
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Inferring Main Ideas New

Nutrients
07. 03. 2008
0 views

Nutrients

secession
17. 10. 2007
0 views

secession

L5PresentationFive
19. 10. 2007
0 views

L5PresentationFive

JIGSAW
23. 11. 2007
0 views

JIGSAW

fall
02. 11. 2007
0 views

fall

holland poodles
16. 11. 2007
0 views

holland poodles

niimoto
09. 10. 2007
0 views

niimoto

comment to Itai
07. 04. 2008
0 views

comment to Itai

L24 Sartorius
04. 01. 2008
0 views

L24 Sartorius

Power Point Final
02. 11. 2007
0 views

Power Point Final

Prof Thomas Meyer
17. 10. 2007
0 views

Prof Thomas Meyer

Bauer
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Bauer

PBritton
10. 04. 2008
0 views

PBritton

AST5220 2 print
15. 10. 2007
0 views

AST5220 2 print

PRESENTATIONISAAC
01. 11. 2007
0 views

PRESENTATIONISAAC

Willits FIA Program News 2007
08. 10. 2007
0 views

Willits FIA Program News 2007

15 Tauchi
09. 10. 2007
0 views

15 Tauchi

hedberg
19. 10. 2007
0 views

hedberg

Analyst briefing condenced
19. 10. 2007
0 views

Analyst briefing condenced

funcProg2
19. 10. 2007
0 views

funcProg2

28 C4 avispachaquetaamar
24. 10. 2007
0 views

28 C4 avispachaquetaamar